Abstract

A model for the population dynamics of Er3+ in tellurite glasses with high erbium concentrations is proposed. Luminescence decay curves from transitions of  4I13/24I15/2 and  4S3/24I15/2 were measured experimentally. Upconversion coefficients were obtained by numerically solving the rate equations of the model to fit the population dynamics of the  4I13/2 and  4S3/2 levels. The upconversion coefficient for  4I13/2+4I13/24I9/2+4I15/2 is found to be 2.74×10-18 cm3/s and for  4I11/2+4I11/24I15/2+2F7/2 is 1.09×10-18 cm3/s. The model provides a good basis for explaining the experiment data because it shows a high sensitivity to the input fitting parameters. This model can be used to analyze transition properties of Er3+ ions in glass hosts, where various energy levels of Er3+ and the transitions between them cannot be neglected. A discussion of upconversion coefficients in tellurite glass in comparison with those in silica, silicate, and phosphate glasses is presented with an explanation of the origin of the differences from the perspective of different glass structures.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2000

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, Y. Himei, T. Ito, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Mater. 15, 123–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, K. Kobayashi, K. Hoshino, and M. Shimizu, “Gain flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier for WDM signals in the 1581–1616 nm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 36, 621–622 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 833–839 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorge, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Le Neindre, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, J. Watson, and N. Peyghambarian, “Effect of relative alkali content on absorption linewidth in erbium-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 255, 97–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er-Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi, D. S. Lim, K. H. Kim, D. H. Cho, and H. K. Lee, “Enhanced 4I11/24I13/2 transition rate in Er 3+/Ce3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1765–1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. Jiang, M. J. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 143–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

1995

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. Van den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Hendriksen, M. B. J. Diemeer, and F. Priolo, “Cooperative upconversion in erbium-implanted soda-lime silicate glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468–1474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Telluride glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. A. Thompson, “Upconversion and 980-nm excited state absorption in erbium doped glass,” Proc. SPIE 1789, 50–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. A. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. Bixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1982

T. Izumitani, H. Toratani, and H. Kuroda, “Radiative and nonradiative properties of neodymium doped silicate and phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 87–99 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1973

E. Snitzer, “Lasers and glass technology,” Ceram. Bull. 52, 516–525 (1973).

1967

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and non-radiative decay of Er3+ in LaF2,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134A, 299–206 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1962

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Bixt, P.

P. Bixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorge, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, G. N. A. J.

Burlot-Loison, R.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorge, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carlnas, T.

P. Bixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cho, D. H.

Y. G. Choi, D. S. Lim, K. H. Kim, D. H. Cho, and H. K. Lee, “Enhanced 4I11/24I13/2 transition rate in Er 3+/Ce3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1765–1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Choi, Y. G.

Y. G. Choi, D. S. Lim, K. H. Kim, D. H. Cho, and H. K. Lee, “Enhanced 4I11/24I13/2 transition rate in Er 3+/Ce3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1765–1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cockroft, N. J.

de Waal, H.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M. B. J.

Ding, Y.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, Y. Himei, T. Ito, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Mater. 15, 123–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J.-L.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorge, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Faber, A. J.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, H. G.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorge, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gapontsev, V. P.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Gosnell, T. R.

Han, T. P. J.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorge, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

Hendriksen, B.

Himei, Y.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, Y. Himei, T. Ito, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Mater. 15, 123–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoshino, K.

A. Mori, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, K. Kobayashi, K. Hoshino, and M. Shimizu, “Gain flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier for WDM signals in the 1581–1616 nm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 36, 621–622 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B.

Hwang, B. C.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, Y. Himei, T. Ito, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Mater. 15, 123–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Le Neindre, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, J. Watson, and N. Peyghambarian, “Effect of relative alkali content on absorption linewidth in erbium-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 255, 97–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Isineev, A. A.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ito, T.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, Y. Himei, T. Ito, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Mater. 15, 123–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Izumitani, T.

T. Izumitani, H. Toratani, and H. Kuroda, “Radiative and nonradiative properties of neodymium doped silicate and phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 87–99 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Jaskorzynska, B.

P. Bixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

B. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 833–839 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, Y. Himei, T. Ito, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Mater. 15, 123–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Le Neindre, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, J. Watson, and N. Peyghambarian, “Effect of relative alkali content on absorption linewidth in erbium-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 255, 97–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, M. J. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 143–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

Y. G. Choi, D. S. Lim, K. H. Kim, D. H. Cho, and H. K. Lee, “Enhanced 4I11/24I13/2 transition rate in Er 3+/Ce3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1765–1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, K.

A. Mori, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, K. Kobayashi, K. Hoshino, and M. Shimizu, “Gain flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier for WDM signals in the 1581–1616 nm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 36, 621–622 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kravchenko, V. B.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kuroda, H.

T. Izumitani, H. Toratani, and H. Kuroda, “Radiative and nonradiative properties of neodymium doped silicate and phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 87–99 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er-Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Le Boulanger, P.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorge, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Le Neindre, L.

L. Le Neindre, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, J. Watson, and N. Peyghambarian, “Effect of relative alkali content on absorption linewidth in erbium-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 255, 97–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. K.

Y. G. Choi, D. S. Lim, K. H. Kim, D. H. Cho, and H. K. Lee, “Enhanced 4I11/24I13/2 transition rate in Er 3+/Ce3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1765–1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lim, D. S.

Y. G. Choi, D. S. Lim, K. H. Kim, D. H. Cho, and H. K. Lee, “Enhanced 4I11/24I13/2 transition rate in Er 3+/Ce3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1765–1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Longhi, S.

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er-Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, Y. Himei, T. Ito, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Mater. 15, 123–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 833–839 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Le Neindre, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, J. Watson, and N. Peyghambarian, “Effect of relative alkali content on absorption linewidth in erbium-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 255, 97–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Matitsin, S. M.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

McCumber, D. E.

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134A, 299–206 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. A. Thompson, “Upconversion and 980-nm excited state absorption in erbium doped glass,” Proc. SPIE 1789, 50–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. A. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, Y.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, Y. Himei, T. Ito, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Mater. 15, 123–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moncorge, R.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorge, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

A. Mori, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, K. Kobayashi, K. Hoshino, and M. Shimizu, “Gain flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier for WDM signals in the 1581–1616 nm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 36, 621–622 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fiber laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Myers, M. J.

S. Jiang, M. J. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 143–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

P. Bixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nishida, Y.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fiber laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuki, T.

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Oikawa, K.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, Y. Himei, T. Ito, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Mater. 15, 123–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

B. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 833–839 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Le Neindre, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, J. Watson, and N. Peyghambarian, “Effect of relative alkali content on absorption linewidth in erbium-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 255, 97–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, M. J. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 143–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. Van den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Hendriksen, M. B. J. Diemeer, and F. Priolo, “Cooperative upconversion in erbium-implanted soda-lime silicate glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468–1474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. A. Thompson, “Upconversion and 980-nm excited state absorption in erbium doped glass,” Proc. SPIE 1789, 50–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. A. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. J. Miniscalco and R. S. Quimby, “General procedure for the analysis of Er3+ cross sections,” Opt. Lett. 16, 258–260 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakamoto, T.

A. Mori, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, K. Kobayashi, K. Hoshino, and M. Shimizu, “Gain flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier for WDM signals in the 1581–1616 nm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 36, 621–622 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shikano, K.

A. Mori, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, K. Kobayashi, K. Hoshino, and M. Shimizu, “Gain flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier for WDM signals in the 1581–1616 nm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 36, 621–622 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, M.

A. Mori, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, K. Kobayashi, K. Hoshino, and M. Shimizu, “Gain flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier for WDM signals in the 1581–1616 nm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 36, 621–622 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shmulovich, J.

Snitzer, E.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Telluride glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. Snitzer, “Lasers and glass technology,” Ceram. Bull. 52, 516–525 (1973).

Snoeks, E.

Sorbello, G.

B. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 833–839 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er-Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, S.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fiber laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er-Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B. A.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. A. Thompson, “Upconversion and 980-nm excited state absorption in erbium doped glass,” Proc. SPIE 1789, 50–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. A. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Toratani, H.

T. Izumitani, H. Toratani, and H. Kuroda, “Radiative and nonradiative properties of neodymium doped silicate and phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 87–99 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Van den Hoven, G. N.

Vogel, E. M.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Telluride glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. S.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Telluride glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J.

B. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, G. Sorbello, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion and energy transfer of new high Er3+- and Yb3+-Er3+-doped phosphate glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 833–839 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Le Neindre, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, J. Watson, and N. Peyghambarian, “Effect of relative alkali content on absorption linewidth in erbium-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 255, 97–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and non-radiative decay of Er3+ in LaF2,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, and K. Oikawa, “Gain characteristics of tellurite-based erbium-doped fiber amplifiers for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Lett. 23, 274–276 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. C.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ceram. Bull.

E. Snitzer, “Lasers and glass technology,” Ceram. Bull. 52, 516–525 (1973).

Electron. Lett.

A. Mori, T. Sakamoto, K. Shikano, K. Kobayashi, K. Hoshino, and M. Shimizu, “Gain flattened Er3+-doped tellurite fibre amplifier for WDM signals in the 1581–1616 nm wavelength region,” Electron. Lett. 36, 621–622 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, and S. Sudo, “Erbium-doped tellurite glass fiber laser and amplifier,” Electron. Lett. 33, 863–864 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. G. Choi, D. S. Lim, K. H. Kim, D. H. Cho, and H. K. Lee, “Enhanced 4I11/24I13/2 transition rate in Er 3+/Ce3+-codoped tellurite glasses,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1765–1767 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. Yamada, A. Mori, K. Kobayashi, H. Ono, T. Kanamori, K. Oikawa, Y. Nishida, and Y. Ohishi, “Gain-flattened tellurite-based EDFA with a flat amplification bandwidth of 76 nm,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 10, 1244–1246 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Bixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: Experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorge, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3612 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids

T. Izumitani, H. Toratani, and H. Kuroda, “Radiative and nonradiative properties of neodymium doped silicate and phosphate glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 47, 87–99 (1982).
[CrossRef]

L. Le Neindre, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, J. Watson, and N. Peyghambarian, “Effect of relative alkali content on absorption linewidth in erbium-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 255, 97–102 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, M. J. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+-doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 143–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Laser Technol.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater.

J. S. Wang, E. M. Vogel, and E. Snitzer, “Telluride glass: A new candidate for fiber devices,” Opt. Mater. 3, 187–203 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ding, S. Jiang, B. C. Hwang, T. Luo, N. Peyghambarian, Y. Himei, T. Ito, and Y. Miura, “Spectral properties of erbium-doped lead halotellurite glasses for 1.5 μm broadband amplification,” Opt. Mater. 15, 123–130 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron.

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er-Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Weber, “Probabilities for radiative and non-radiative decay of Er3+ in LaF2,” Phys. Rev. 157, 262–272 (1967).
[CrossRef]

D. E. McCumber, “Theory of phonon-terminated optical masers,” Phys. Rev. 134A, 299–206 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. A. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. A. Thompson, “Upconversion and 980-nm excited state absorption in erbium doped glass,” Proc. SPIE 1789, 50–57 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. R. Armitage, C. G. Atkins, R. Wyatt, B. J. Ainslie, and S. P. Craig, “Studies of excited state absorption at 1.5 μm in Er3+-doped silica fibers,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics in Vol. 11 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), pp. 180–181.

R. C. Stoneman, J. G. Lynn, and L. Esterowitz, “Resonant pumping schemes for the Er3+ 3-μm laser,” in Vol. 15 of Proceedings of OSA Annual Meeting (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1990), pp. 176–179.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, M. Yamada, H. Ono, Y. Nishida, K. Oikawa, and S. Sudo, “1.5 μm broadband amplification by tellurite-based EDFA’s,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, Vol. 6 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 371–374.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of energy levels and transitions of Er3+ in tellurite glass. R31, R13, and R36 are for the 980-nm pump only. Correspondingly, R12 and R21 are for the 1480-nm pump only.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption and emission cross-section spectra of Er3+ for the 1.5-µm band.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption cross-section spectra of Er3+ for the 980-nm band.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized fluorescence decay curves of transition  4I13/24I15/2 under 1488-nm excitation with different upconversion coefficient C22 values. (a) C22=5.48×10-18 cm3/s; (b) C22=2.74×10-18 cm3/s; (c) C22=1.37×10-18 cm3/s. The inset shows the setup. C, computer: DO, digital oscilloscope; SD, spectrometer and detector; LD, laser diode; S, sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized fluorescence decay curves of transition  4S3/24I15/2 under 980-nm excitation with different upconversion coefficient C33 and excited-state absorption cross-section σ36 values. (a) C33=0.0 cm3/s, σ36=6.8×10-21 cm2; (b) C33=5.45×10-19 cm3/s, σ36=6.8×10-21 cm2; (c) C33=1.09×10-18 cm3/s, σ36=6.8×10-21 cm2; (d) C33=2.18×10-18 cm3/s, σ36=6.8×10-21 cm2; (e) C33=1.09×10-19 cm3/s, σ36=0.0 cm2.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Parameters Used in This Model

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of Upconversion Coefficients (C22) in Tellurite, Phosphate, Silicate, and Silica Glasses

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dN1dt=-R12N1+R21N2+A21N2+A31N3+A41N4+A51N5+C22N22+C33N32,
dN2dt=R12N1-R21N2-A21N2+A32N3+A42N4+A52N5-2C22N22,
dN3dt=-A31N3-A32N3+A43N4+A53N5-2C33N32,
dN4dt=-A41N4-A42N4-A43N4+A54N5+C22N22,
dN5dt=-A51N5-A52N5-A53N5-A54N5+A65N6,
dN6dt=-A65N6+C33N32,
N1+N2+N3+N4+N5+N6=N0.
dNdt=-R13N1+R31N3+A21N2+A31N3+A41N4+A51N5+C22N22+C33N32,
dN2dt=-A21N2+A32N3+A42N4+A52N5-2C22N22,
dN3dt=R13N1-R31N3-R36N3-A31N3-A32N3+A43N4+A53N5-2C33N32,
dN4dt=-A41N4-A42N4-A43N4+A54N5+C22N22,
dN5dt=-A51N5-A52N5-A53N5-A54N5+A65N6,
dN6dt=R36N3-A65N6+C33N32,
N1+N2+N3+N4+N5+N6=n0.

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