V. G. Bordo, J. Loerke, and H. G. Rubahn, “Two-photon evanescent-volume wave spectroscopy: a new account of gas–solid dynamics in the boundary layer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1490–1493 (2001).

M. S. Albert, G. D. Cates, B. Driehuys, W. Happer, B. Saam, C. S. Springer, Jr., and A. Wishnia, “Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized ^{129}Xe,” Nature 370, 199–201 (1994).

D. R. Benton, G. D. Cates, M. Gatzky, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, “Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591–2594 (1990).

Z. Wu, W. Happer, and J. Daniels, “Coherent nuclear-spin interactions of adsorbed ^{131}Xe gas with surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1480–1483 (1987).

T. E. Chupp, M. E. Wagshul, K. P. Coulter, A. B. McDonald, and W. Happer, “Polarized, high density, gaseous ^{3}He targets,” Phys. Rev. C 36, 2244–2251 (1987).

P. Simoneau, S. Le Boiteaux, C. B. De Araujo, D. Bloch, J. R. Rios Leite, and M. Ducloy, “Doppler-free evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 59, 103–106 (1986).

Z. Wu, M. Kitano, W. Happer, M. Hou, and J. Daniels, “Optical determination of alkali metal vapor number density using Faraday rotation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4483–4492 (1986).

X. Zeng, Z. Wu, T. Call, E. Miron, D. Schreiber, and W. Happer, “Experimental determination of the rate constants for spin exchange between optically pumped K, Rb and Cs atoms and ^{129}Xe nuclei in alkali-metal–noble-gas van der Waals molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 260–278 (1985).

N. Gershenfeld, “The measurement of optically thick atomic vapor densities by the nonlinear least-squares fitting of absorption or fluorescence spectra,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 224, 570–572 (1984).

P. Boissel and F. Kerherve, “Absorption de lumiere par des atomes dans une onde evanescente,” Opt. Commun. 37, 397–402 (1981).

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, “Experimental determination of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atom,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).

K. Niemax and G. Pichler, “New aspects in the self-broadening of alkali resonance lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 179–184 (1975).

J. Carlsten, “Laser selective excitation of a three-level atom: barium,” J. Phys. B 7, 1620–1632 (1974).

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Brossel, “Relaxation of optically pumped Rb atoms on paraffin-coated walls,” Phys. Rev. A 147, 41–54 (1965).

S. Y. Chen, “Pressure effect of homogeneous Rb vapor on its resonance line,” Phys. Rev. 58, 884–887 (1940).

T. Killian, “Thermionic phenomena caused by vapors of rubidium and potassium,” Phys. Rev. 27, 578–587 (1926).

M. S. Albert, G. D. Cates, B. Driehuys, W. Happer, B. Saam, C. S. Springer, Jr., and A. Wishnia, “Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized ^{129}Xe,” Nature 370, 199–201 (1994).

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, “Experimental determination of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atom,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).

D. R. Benton, G. D. Cates, M. Gatzky, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, “Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591–2594 (1990).

P. Simoneau, S. Le Boiteaux, C. B. De Araujo, D. Bloch, J. R. Rios Leite, and M. Ducloy, “Doppler-free evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 59, 103–106 (1986).

P. Boissel and F. Kerherve, “Absorption de lumiere par des atomes dans une onde evanescente,” Opt. Commun. 37, 397–402 (1981).

V. G. Bordo, J. Loerke, and H. G. Rubahn, “Two-photon evanescent-volume wave spectroscopy: a new account of gas–solid dynamics in the boundary layer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1490–1493 (2001).

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Brossel, “Relaxation of optically pumped Rb atoms on paraffin-coated walls,” Phys. Rev. A 147, 41–54 (1965).

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Brossel, “Relaxation of optically pumped Rb atoms on paraffin-coated walls,” Phys. Rev. A 147, 41–54 (1965).

X. Zeng, Z. Wu, T. Call, E. Miron, D. Schreiber, and W. Happer, “Experimental determination of the rate constants for spin exchange between optically pumped K, Rb and Cs atoms and ^{129}Xe nuclei in alkali-metal–noble-gas van der Waals molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 260–278 (1985).

J. Carlsten, “Laser selective excitation of a three-level atom: barium,” J. Phys. B 7, 1620–1632 (1974).

M. S. Albert, G. D. Cates, B. Driehuys, W. Happer, B. Saam, C. S. Springer, Jr., and A. Wishnia, “Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized ^{129}Xe,” Nature 370, 199–201 (1994).

D. R. Benton, G. D. Cates, M. Gatzky, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, “Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591–2594 (1990).

S. Y. Chen, “Pressure effect of homogeneous Rb vapor on its resonance line,” Phys. Rev. 58, 884–887 (1940).

T. E. Chupp, M. E. Wagshul, K. P. Coulter, A. B. McDonald, and W. Happer, “Polarized, high density, gaseous ^{3}He targets,” Phys. Rev. C 36, 2244–2251 (1987).

T. E. Chupp, M. E. Wagshul, K. P. Coulter, A. B. McDonald, and W. Happer, “Polarized, high density, gaseous ^{3}He targets,” Phys. Rev. C 36, 2244–2251 (1987).

Z. Wu, W. Happer, and J. Daniels, “Coherent nuclear-spin interactions of adsorbed ^{131}Xe gas with surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1480–1483 (1987).

Z. Wu, M. Kitano, W. Happer, M. Hou, and J. Daniels, “Optical determination of alkali metal vapor number density using Faraday rotation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4483–4492 (1986).

P. Simoneau, S. Le Boiteaux, C. B. De Araujo, D. Bloch, J. R. Rios Leite, and M. Ducloy, “Doppler-free evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 59, 103–106 (1986).

M. S. Albert, G. D. Cates, B. Driehuys, W. Happer, B. Saam, C. S. Springer, Jr., and A. Wishnia, “Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized ^{129}Xe,” Nature 370, 199–201 (1994).

P. Simoneau, S. Le Boiteaux, C. B. De Araujo, D. Bloch, J. R. Rios Leite, and M. Ducloy, “Doppler-free evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 59, 103–106 (1986).

D. R. Benton, G. D. Cates, M. Gatzky, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, “Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591–2594 (1990).

N. Gershenfeld, “The measurement of optically thick atomic vapor densities by the nonlinear least-squares fitting of absorption or fluorescence spectra,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 224, 570–572 (1984).

M. S. Albert, G. D. Cates, B. Driehuys, W. Happer, B. Saam, C. S. Springer, Jr., and A. Wishnia, “Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized ^{129}Xe,” Nature 370, 199–201 (1994).

D. R. Benton, G. D. Cates, M. Gatzky, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, “Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591–2594 (1990).

Z. Wu, W. Happer, and J. Daniels, “Coherent nuclear-spin interactions of adsorbed ^{131}Xe gas with surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1480–1483 (1987).

T. E. Chupp, M. E. Wagshul, K. P. Coulter, A. B. McDonald, and W. Happer, “Polarized, high density, gaseous ^{3}He targets,” Phys. Rev. C 36, 2244–2251 (1987).

Z. Wu, M. Kitano, W. Happer, M. Hou, and J. Daniels, “Optical determination of alkali metal vapor number density using Faraday rotation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4483–4492 (1986).

X. Zeng, Z. Wu, T. Call, E. Miron, D. Schreiber, and W. Happer, “Experimental determination of the rate constants for spin exchange between optically pumped K, Rb and Cs atoms and ^{129}Xe nuclei in alkali-metal–noble-gas van der Waals molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 260–278 (1985).

D. R. Benton, G. D. Cates, M. Gatzky, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, “Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591–2594 (1990).

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, “Experimental determination of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atom,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).

P. Boissel and F. Kerherve, “Absorption de lumiere par des atomes dans une onde evanescente,” Opt. Commun. 37, 397–402 (1981).

T. Killian, “Thermionic phenomena caused by vapors of rubidium and potassium,” Phys. Rev. 27, 578–587 (1926).

P. Simoneau, S. Le Boiteaux, C. B. De Araujo, D. Bloch, J. R. Rios Leite, and M. Ducloy, “Doppler-free evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 59, 103–106 (1986).

P. Simoneau, S. Le Boiteaux, C. B. De Araujo, D. Bloch, J. R. Rios Leite, and M. Ducloy, “Doppler-free evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 59, 103–106 (1986).

V. G. Bordo, J. Loerke, and H. G. Rubahn, “Two-photon evanescent-volume wave spectroscopy: a new account of gas–solid dynamics in the boundary layer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1490–1493 (2001).

T. E. Chupp, M. E. Wagshul, K. P. Coulter, A. B. McDonald, and W. Happer, “Polarized, high density, gaseous ^{3}He targets,” Phys. Rev. C 36, 2244–2251 (1987).

X. Zeng, Z. Wu, T. Call, E. Miron, D. Schreiber, and W. Happer, “Experimental determination of the rate constants for spin exchange between optically pumped K, Rb and Cs atoms and ^{129}Xe nuclei in alkali-metal–noble-gas van der Waals molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 260–278 (1985).

D. R. Benton, G. D. Cates, M. Gatzky, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, “Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591–2594 (1990).

K. Niemax and G. Pichler, “New aspects in the self-broadening of alkali resonance lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 179–184 (1975).

K. Niemax and G. Pichler, “New aspects in the self-broadening of alkali resonance lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 179–184 (1975).

V. G. Bordo, J. Loerke, and H. G. Rubahn, “Two-photon evanescent-volume wave spectroscopy: a new account of gas–solid dynamics in the boundary layer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1490–1493 (2001).

M. S. Albert, G. D. Cates, B. Driehuys, W. Happer, B. Saam, C. S. Springer, Jr., and A. Wishnia, “Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized ^{129}Xe,” Nature 370, 199–201 (1994).

X. Zeng, Z. Wu, T. Call, E. Miron, D. Schreiber, and W. Happer, “Experimental determination of the rate constants for spin exchange between optically pumped K, Rb and Cs atoms and ^{129}Xe nuclei in alkali-metal–noble-gas van der Waals molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 260–278 (1985).

P. Simoneau, S. Le Boiteaux, C. B. De Araujo, D. Bloch, J. R. Rios Leite, and M. Ducloy, “Doppler-free evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 59, 103–106 (1986).

M. S. Albert, G. D. Cates, B. Driehuys, W. Happer, B. Saam, C. S. Springer, Jr., and A. Wishnia, “Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized ^{129}Xe,” Nature 370, 199–201 (1994).

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, “Experimental determination of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atom,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).

T. E. Chupp, M. E. Wagshul, K. P. Coulter, A. B. McDonald, and W. Happer, “Polarized, high density, gaseous ^{3}He targets,” Phys. Rev. C 36, 2244–2251 (1987).

M. S. Albert, G. D. Cates, B. Driehuys, W. Happer, B. Saam, C. S. Springer, Jr., and A. Wishnia, “Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized ^{129}Xe,” Nature 370, 199–201 (1994).

Z. Wu, W. Happer, and J. Daniels, “Coherent nuclear-spin interactions of adsorbed ^{131}Xe gas with surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1480–1483 (1987).

Z. Wu, M. Kitano, W. Happer, M. Hou, and J. Daniels, “Optical determination of alkali metal vapor number density using Faraday rotation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4483–4492 (1986).

X. Zeng, Z. Wu, T. Call, E. Miron, D. Schreiber, and W. Happer, “Experimental determination of the rate constants for spin exchange between optically pumped K, Rb and Cs atoms and ^{129}Xe nuclei in alkali-metal–noble-gas van der Waals molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 260–278 (1985).

X. Zeng, Z. Wu, T. Call, E. Miron, D. Schreiber, and W. Happer, “Experimental determination of the rate constants for spin exchange between optically pumped K, Rb and Cs atoms and ^{129}Xe nuclei in alkali-metal–noble-gas van der Waals molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 260–278 (1985).

B. Shirinzadeh and C. C. Wang, “Accurate determination of the vapor pressure of potassium using optical absorption,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3265–3270 (1983).

Z. Wu, M. Kitano, W. Happer, M. Hou, and J. Daniels, “Optical determination of alkali metal vapor number density using Faraday rotation,” Appl. Opt. 25, 4483–4492 (1986).

K. Niemax and G. Pichler, “New aspects in the self-broadening of alkali resonance lines,” J. Phys. B 8, 179–184 (1975).

J. Carlsten, “Laser selective excitation of a three-level atom: barium,” J. Phys. B 7, 1620–1632 (1974).

M. S. Albert, G. D. Cates, B. Driehuys, W. Happer, B. Saam, C. S. Springer, Jr., and A. Wishnia, “Biological magnetic resonance imaging using laser-polarized ^{129}Xe,” Nature 370, 199–201 (1994).

N. Gershenfeld, “The measurement of optically thick atomic vapor densities by the nonlinear least-squares fitting of absorption or fluorescence spectra,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 224, 570–572 (1984).

P. Simoneau, S. Le Boiteaux, C. B. De Araujo, D. Bloch, J. R. Rios Leite, and M. Ducloy, “Doppler-free evanescent wave spectroscopy,” Opt. Commun. 59, 103–106 (1986).

P. Boissel and F. Kerherve, “Absorption de lumiere par des atomes dans une onde evanescente,” Opt. Commun. 37, 397–402 (1981).

S. Y. Chen, “Pressure effect of homogeneous Rb vapor on its resonance line,” Phys. Rev. 58, 884–887 (1940).

M. A. Bouchiat and J. Brossel, “Relaxation of optically pumped Rb atoms on paraffin-coated walls,” Phys. Rev. A 147, 41–54 (1965).

T. Killian, “Thermionic phenomena caused by vapors of rubidium and potassium,” Phys. Rev. 27, 578–587 (1926).

X. Zeng, Z. Wu, T. Call, E. Miron, D. Schreiber, and W. Happer, “Experimental determination of the rate constants for spin exchange between optically pumped K, Rb and Cs atoms and ^{129}Xe nuclei in alkali-metal–noble-gas van der Waals molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 260–278 (1985).

T. E. Chupp, M. E. Wagshul, K. P. Coulter, A. B. McDonald, and W. Happer, “Polarized, high density, gaseous ^{3}He targets,” Phys. Rev. C 36, 2244–2251 (1987).

V. G. Bordo, J. Loerke, and H. G. Rubahn, “Two-photon evanescent-volume wave spectroscopy: a new account of gas–solid dynamics in the boundary layer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1490–1493 (2001).

Z. Wu, W. Happer, and J. Daniels, “Coherent nuclear-spin interactions of adsorbed ^{131}Xe gas with surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1480–1483 (1987).

D. R. Benton, G. D. Cates, M. Gatzky, W. Happer, K. C. Hasson, and N. R. Newbury, “Laser production of large nuclear-spin polarization in frozen xenon,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2591–2594 (1990).

E. Arimondo, M. Inguscio, and P. Violino, “Experimental determination of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atom,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 31–75 (1977).

A. C. G. Mitchell and M. W. Zemansky, Resonance Radiation and Excited Atoms (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1934).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, London, 1980).

M. V. Klein, Optics (Wiley, New York, 1970), pp. 570–573.