Abstract

We report on linear and nonlinear optical properties of Disperse Red 1-doped solgel waveguides. The refractive-index and optical-propagation losses of the guiding layer were measured between 0.756 μm and 1.64 μm. The spectral broadening of the chromophore charge-transfer transition in the visible is modeled with a Voigt-profile function. In the telecommunications window the attenuation is dominated by the overtones of the O—H bonds vibration bands. The nonlinear optical coefficients were measured at different poling strengths with the Maker-fringe method. The nonlinear coefficient d33 was found to be 4.5 pm V−1 at 1.58 μm for a poling field of 60 V μm−1.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  1. Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Betchel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).
  2. M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stähelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguides for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
  3. M. P. Andrews, “An overview of sol-gel guest-host materials chemistry for optical devices,” in Integrated Optics Devices: Potential for Commercialization, S. Nafaji and M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE 2997, 48–59 (1997).
  4. G. H. Hsiue, R. H. Lee, and R. J. Jeng, “All sol-gel organic-inorganic nonlinear optical materials based on melamines and an alkoxysilane dye,” Polymer 40, 6417–6428 (1999).
  5. L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10631–10643 (1991).
  6. A. C. Le Duff, V. Ricci, T. Pliska, M. Canva, G. Stegeman, K. P. Chan, and R. Twieg, “Importance of chromophore environment on the near-infrared absorption of polymeric waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 39, 947–953 (2000).
  7. A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemer, “Key trade-off for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).
  8. T. Pliska, W. R. Cho, J. Meier, A. C. Le Duff, V. Ricci, A. Otomo, M. Canva, G. Stegeman, P. Raimond, and F. Kajzar, “Comparative properties of nonlinear optical polymers for guided-wave second-harmonic generation at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1554–1564 (2000).
  9. F. Chaput, D. Riehl, J. P. Boilot, T. Gacoin, M. Canva, Y. Levy, and A. Brun, “Photorefractive sol-gel materials,” in Better Ceramics Through Chemistry VII, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 435, 583–588 (1996).
  10. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University, London, 1992), pp. 92–97.
  11. M. A. Mondragón, V. M. Castaño, J. Garcia, and S. Téllez, “Vibrational analysis of Si(OC2H5)4 and spectroscopic studies on the formation of glasses via silica gels,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 293–304 (1995).
  12. A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).
  13. J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).
  14. Y. Lévy, F. Chaput, D. Rhiel, and J. P. Boilot, “Nonlinear optical properties of stable sol-gel systems,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzas and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 247–262 (1995).
  15. E. Toussaere, “Polymères électro-optiques pour l’optique non linéaire: caractérisation optique et modèles statistiques,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris-Sud, France, 1993).
  16. D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).

2000 (3)

1999 (1)

G. H. Hsiue, R. H. Lee, and R. J. Jeng, “All sol-gel organic-inorganic nonlinear optical materials based on melamines and an alkoxysilane dye,” Polymer 40, 6417–6428 (1999).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

M. P. Andrews, “An overview of sol-gel guest-host materials chemistry for optical devices,” in Integrated Optics Devices: Potential for Commercialization, S. Nafaji and M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE 2997, 48–59 (1997).

1996 (2)

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemer, “Key trade-off for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).

F. Chaput, D. Riehl, J. P. Boilot, T. Gacoin, M. Canva, Y. Levy, and A. Brun, “Photorefractive sol-gel materials,” in Better Ceramics Through Chemistry VII, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 435, 583–588 (1996).

1995 (3)

M. A. Mondragón, V. M. Castaño, J. Garcia, and S. Téllez, “Vibrational analysis of Si(OC2H5)4 and spectroscopic studies on the formation of glasses via silica gels,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 293–304 (1995).

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Y. Lévy, F. Chaput, D. Rhiel, and J. P. Boilot, “Nonlinear optical properties of stable sol-gel systems,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzas and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 247–262 (1995).

1993 (1)

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).

1992 (1)

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).

1991 (1)

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10631–10643 (1991).

Ahlheim, M.

Andrews, M. P.

M. P. Andrews, “An overview of sol-gel guest-host materials chemistry for optical devices,” in Integrated Optics Devices: Potential for Commercialization, S. Nafaji and M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE 2997, 48–59 (1997).

Bauer, S.

Bauer-Gogonea, S.

Beljonne, D.

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Betchel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Betchel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).

Boilot, J. P.

F. Chaput, D. Riehl, J. P. Boilot, T. Gacoin, M. Canva, Y. Levy, and A. Brun, “Photorefractive sol-gel materials,” in Better Ceramics Through Chemistry VII, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 435, 583–588 (1996).

Y. Lévy, F. Chaput, D. Rhiel, and J. P. Boilot, “Nonlinear optical properties of stable sol-gel systems,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzas and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 247–262 (1995).

Bradley, D. D. C.

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Brédas, J. L.

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Brinker, W.

Brun, A.

F. Chaput, D. Riehl, J. P. Boilot, T. Gacoin, M. Canva, Y. Levy, and A. Brun, “Photorefractive sol-gel materials,” in Better Ceramics Through Chemistry VII, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 435, 583–588 (1996).

Canva, M.

Castaño, V. M.

M. A. Mondragón, V. M. Castaño, J. Garcia, and S. Téllez, “Vibrational analysis of Si(OC2H5)4 and spectroscopic studies on the formation of glasses via silica gels,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 293–304 (1995).

Cha, M.

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Chan, K. P.

Chaput, F.

F. Chaput, D. Riehl, J. P. Boilot, T. Gacoin, M. Canva, Y. Levy, and A. Brun, “Photorefractive sol-gel materials,” in Better Ceramics Through Chemistry VII, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 435, 583–588 (1996).

Y. Lévy, F. Chaput, D. Rhiel, and J. P. Boilot, “Nonlinear optical properties of stable sol-gel systems,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzas and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 247–262 (1995).

Cheng, L. T.

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10631–10643 (1991).

Cho, W. R.

Cornil, J.

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Dalton, L. R.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Betchel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).

Diemeer, M.

Diemer, M.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemer, “Key trade-off for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).

Flipse, M. C.

Gacoin, T.

F. Chaput, D. Riehl, J. P. Boilot, T. Gacoin, M. Canva, Y. Levy, and A. Brun, “Photorefractive sol-gel materials,” in Better Ceramics Through Chemistry VII, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 435, 583–588 (1996).

Garcia, J.

M. A. Mondragón, V. M. Castaño, J. Garcia, and S. Téllez, “Vibrational analysis of Si(OC2H5)4 and spectroscopic studies on the formation of glasses via silica gels,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 293–304 (1995).

Hagler, T.

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Hsiue, G. H.

G. H. Hsiue, R. H. Lee, and R. J. Jeng, “All sol-gel organic-inorganic nonlinear optical materials based on melamines and an alkoxysilane dye,” Polymer 40, 6417–6428 (1999).

Jäger, M.

Jeng, R. J.

G. H. Hsiue, R. H. Lee, and R. J. Jeng, “All sol-gel organic-inorganic nonlinear optical materials based on melamines and an alkoxysilane dye,” Polymer 40, 6417–6428 (1999).

Jurich, M.

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).

Kajzar, F.

Le Duff, A. C.

Lee, R. H.

G. H. Hsiue, R. H. Lee, and R. J. Jeng, “All sol-gel organic-inorganic nonlinear optical materials based on melamines and an alkoxysilane dye,” Polymer 40, 6417–6428 (1999).

Lehr, F.

Levy, Y.

F. Chaput, D. Riehl, J. P. Boilot, T. Gacoin, M. Canva, Y. Levy, and A. Brun, “Photorefractive sol-gel materials,” in Better Ceramics Through Chemistry VII, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 435, 583–588 (1996).

Lévy, Y.

Y. Lévy, F. Chaput, D. Rhiel, and J. P. Boilot, “Nonlinear optical properties of stable sol-gel systems,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzas and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 247–262 (1995).

Marder, S. R.

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10631–10643 (1991).

Martin, S. J.

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Meier, J.

Meredith, G. R.

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10631–10643 (1991).

Mondragón, M. A.

M. A. Mondragón, V. M. Castaño, J. Garcia, and S. Téllez, “Vibrational analysis of Si(OC2H5)4 and spectroscopic studies on the formation of glasses via silica gels,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 293–304 (1995).

Otomo, A.

Pliska, T.

Raimond, P.

Rhiel, D.

Y. Lévy, F. Chaput, D. Rhiel, and J. P. Boilot, “Nonlinear optical properties of stable sol-gel systems,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzas and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 247–262 (1995).

Ricci, V.

Riehl, D.

F. Chaput, D. Riehl, J. P. Boilot, T. Gacoin, M. Canva, Y. Levy, and A. Brun, “Photorefractive sol-gel materials,” in Better Ceramics Through Chemistry VII, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 435, 583–588 (1996).

Rikken, G.

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10631–10643 (1991).

Roberts, D. A.

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Betchel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Betchel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).

Skumanich, A.

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).

Stähelin, M.

Stegeman, G.

A. C. Le Duff, V. Ricci, T. Pliska, M. Canva, G. Stegeman, K. P. Chan, and R. Twieg, “Importance of chromophore environment on the near-infrared absorption of polymeric waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 39, 947–953 (2000).

T. Pliska, W. R. Cho, J. Meier, A. C. Le Duff, V. Ricci, A. Otomo, M. Canva, G. Stegeman, P. Raimond, and F. Kajzar, “Comparative properties of nonlinear optical polymers for guided-wave second-harmonic generation at telecommunication wavelengths,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 1554–1564 (2000).

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemer, “Key trade-off for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Stegeman, G. I.

Steier, W. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Betchel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).

Stevenson, S. H.

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10631–10643 (1991).

Swalen, J. D.

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).

Tam, W.

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10631–10643 (1991).

Téllez, S.

M. A. Mondragón, V. M. Castaño, J. Garcia, and S. Téllez, “Vibrational analysis of Si(OC2H5)4 and spectroscopic studies on the formation of glasses via silica gels,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 293–304 (1995).

Torruellas, W. E.

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Twieg, R.

Wirges, W.

Yilmaz, S.

Zhang, C.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Betchel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).

Zhang, H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Betchel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).

Zysset, B.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemer, “Key trade-off for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).

A. Skumanich, M. Jurich, and J. D. Swalen, “Absorption and scattering in nonlinear polymeric systems,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 446–448 (1993).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

D. A. Roberts, “Simplified characterization of uniaxial and biaxial nonlinear optical crystals: a plea for standardization of nomenclature and conventions,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2057–2074 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

L. T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10631–10643 (1991).

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (1)

F. Chaput, D. Riehl, J. P. Boilot, T. Gacoin, M. Canva, Y. Levy, and A. Brun, “Photorefractive sol-gel materials,” in Better Ceramics Through Chemistry VII, Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 435, 583–588 (1996).

Polymer (1)

G. H. Hsiue, R. H. Lee, and R. J. Jeng, “All sol-gel organic-inorganic nonlinear optical materials based on melamines and an alkoxysilane dye,” Polymer 40, 6417–6428 (1999).

Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop (2)

J. Cornil, D. Beljonne, S. J. Martin, D. D. C. Bradley, T. Hagler, M. Cha, W. E. Torruellas, G. Stegeman, and J. L. Brédas, “Vibronic contributions in frequency-dependent linear and nonlinear optical processes: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzar and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 17–32 (1995).

Y. Lévy, F. Chaput, D. Rhiel, and J. P. Boilot, “Nonlinear optical properties of stable sol-gel systems,” in Photoactive Organic Material, F. Kajzas and V. M. Agranovich, eds., Proc. NATO Adv. Res. Workshop 9, 247–262 (1995).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. P. Andrews, “An overview of sol-gel guest-host materials chemistry for optical devices,” in Integrated Optics Devices: Potential for Commercialization, S. Nafaji and M. N. Armenise, eds., Proc. SPIE 2997, 48–59 (1997).

Science (1)

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Betchel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (Sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288, 119–122 (2000).

Vib. Spectrosc. (1)

M. A. Mondragón, V. M. Castaño, J. Garcia, and S. Téllez, “Vibrational analysis of Si(OC2H5)4 and spectroscopic studies on the formation of glasses via silica gels,” Vib. Spectrosc. 9, 293–304 (1995).

Other (2)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Cambridge University, London, 1992), pp. 92–97.

E. Toussaere, “Polymères électro-optiques pour l’optique non linéaire: caractérisation optique et modèles statistiques,” Ph.D. dissertation (Université Paris-Sud, France, 1993).

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