Abstract

An experimental and theoretical study of holographic gratings recorded exposing a homogeneous mixture of prepolymer and liquid crystals to a polarization light pattern is reported. The polarization pattern is obtained by a superposition of two waves with orthogonal linear polarization. This technique is based on the possibility of controlling the liquid-crystal alignment inside the droplets, through the photoalignment, during the photoinduced polymerization and the phase separation processes that precede the formation of polymer-dispersed liquid crystals. Diffraction gratings with a large anisotropy were observed, indicating a particular alignment of the liquid crystals inside the droplets. An investigation of the polarization properties of this grating and an explanation of the obtained results are presented.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Veziet, and W. W. Adams, “The morphology and performance of holographic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Polymer 36, 2699–2708 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  2. L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L.-C. Chen, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572–2574 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. Duca, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, “Detailed experimental investigation on recording of switchable diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films by UV laser curing,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 931–937 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals induced by the photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zeldovich, “The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1–139 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1995).
  10. N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Photoinduced anisotropy measurements in liquid-crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyesters,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4622–4627 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. L. M. Blinov, M. V. Kozlovsky, M. Ozaki, K. Skarp, and K. Yoshino, “Photoinduced dichroism and optical anisotropy in a liquid-crystalline azobenzene side chain polymer causedby anisotropic angular distribution of trans and cis isomers,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3860–3866 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599–1603 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. H. G. Galabova, D. W. Allender, and J. Chen, “Orientation and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1627–1631 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257–1265 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2001 (1)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572–2574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. Duca, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, “Detailed experimental investigation on recording of switchable diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films by UV laser curing,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 931–937 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L.-C. Chen, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals induced by the photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

L. M. Blinov, M. V. Kozlovsky, M. Ozaki, K. Skarp, and K. Yoshino, “Photoinduced dichroism and optical anisotropy in a liquid-crystalline azobenzene side chain polymer causedby anisotropic angular distribution of trans and cis isomers,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3860–3866 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Naydenova, L. Nikolova, T. Todorov, N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Diffraction from polarization holographic gratings with surface relief in side-chain azobenzene polyesters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1257–1265 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

H. G. Galabova, D. W. Allender, and J. Chen, “Orientation and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1627–1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599–1603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. C. R. Holme, P. S. Ramanujam, and S. Hvilsted, “Photoinduced anisotropy measurements in liquid-crystalline azobenzene side-chain polyesters,” Appl. Opt. 35, 4622–4627 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Veziet, and W. W. Adams, “The morphology and performance of holographic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Polymer 36, 2699–2708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zeldovich, “The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1–139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Adams, W. W.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Veziet, and W. W. Adams, “The morphology and performance of holographic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Polymer 36, 2699–2708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Allender, D. W.

H. G. Galabova, D. W. Allender, and J. Chen, “Orientation and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1627–1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, L. M.

L. M. Blinov, M. V. Kozlovsky, M. Ozaki, K. Skarp, and K. Yoshino, “Photoinduced dichroism and optical anisotropy in a liquid-crystalline azobenzene side chain polymer causedby anisotropic angular distribution of trans and cis isomers,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3860–3866 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bos, P. J.

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599–1603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bunning, T. J.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Veziet, and W. W. Adams, “The morphology and performance of holographic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Polymer 36, 2699–2708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

H. G. Galabova, D. W. Allender, and J. Chen, “Orientation and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1627–1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599–1603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L.-C. Chen, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cipparrone, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals induced by the photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Duca, D.

D. Duca, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, “Detailed experimental investigation on recording of switchable diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films by UV laser curing,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 931–937 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Fuh, A. Y.-G.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572–2574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L.-C. Chen, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galabova, H. G.

H. G. Galabova, D. W. Allender, and J. Chen, “Orientation and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1627–1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Holme, N. C. R.

Huang, C. Y.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572–2574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L.-C. Chen, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hvilsted, S.

Johnson, D. L.

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599–1603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ko, T.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572–2574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L.-C. Chen, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kozlovsky, M. V.

L. M. Blinov, M. V. Kozlovsky, M. Ozaki, K. Skarp, and K. Yoshino, “Photoinduced dichroism and optical anisotropy in a liquid-crystalline azobenzene side chain polymer causedby anisotropic angular distribution of trans and cis isomers,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3860–3866 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.-C.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572–2574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals induced by the photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, L. V.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Veziet, and W. W. Adams, “The morphology and performance of holographic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Polymer 36, 2699–2708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Naydenova, I.

Nikolova, L.

Ozaki, M.

L. M. Blinov, M. V. Kozlovsky, M. Ozaki, K. Skarp, and K. Yoshino, “Photoinduced dichroism and optical anisotropy in a liquid-crystalline azobenzene side chain polymer causedby anisotropic angular distribution of trans and cis isomers,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3860–3866 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pagliusi, P.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ramanujam, P. S.

Russo, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye-doped polymer-dispersed liquid crystals induced by the photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Skarp, K.

L. M. Blinov, M. V. Kozlovsky, M. Ozaki, K. Skarp, and K. Yoshino, “Photoinduced dichroism and optical anisotropy in a liquid-crystalline azobenzene side chain polymer causedby anisotropic angular distribution of trans and cis isomers,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3860–3866 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sukhov, A. V.

D. Duca, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, “Detailed experimental investigation on recording of switchable diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films by UV laser curing,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 931–937 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zeldovich, “The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1–139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sutherland, R. L.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Veziet, and W. W. Adams, “The morphology and performance of holographic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Polymer 36, 2699–2708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zeldovich, “The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1–139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Todorov, T.

Tondiglia, V.

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Veziet, and W. W. Adams, “The morphology and performance of holographic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Polymer 36, 2699–2708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, M.-S.

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572–2574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L.-C. Chen, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Umeton, C.

D. Duca, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, “Detailed experimental investigation on recording of switchable diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films by UV laser curing,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 931–937 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Veziet, D. L.

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Veziet, and W. W. Adams, “The morphology and performance of holographic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Polymer 36, 2699–2708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X.

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599–1603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

West, J. L.

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599–1603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

L. M. Blinov, M. V. Kozlovsky, M. Ozaki, K. Skarp, and K. Yoshino, “Photoinduced dichroism and optical anisotropy in a liquid-crystalline azobenzene side chain polymer causedby anisotropic angular distribution of trans and cis isomers,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3860–3866 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeldovich, B. Ya.

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zeldovich, “The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1–139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and T.-C. Liu, “Optically switchable gratings based on polymer-dispersed liquid crystal films doped with a guest-host dye,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2572–2574 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and G. Russo, “Diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal recorded by means of polarization holographic technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78, 1186–1188 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

L. M. Blinov, M. V. Kozlovsky, M. Ozaki, K. Skarp, and K. Yoshino, “Photoinduced dichroism and optical anisotropy in a liquid-crystalline azobenzene side chain polymer causedby anisotropic angular distribution of trans and cis isomers,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3860–3866 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Y.-G. Fuh, T.-C. Ko, M.-S. Tsai, C. Y. Huang, and L.-C. Chen, “Dynamical studies of gratings formed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 679–683 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

L. V. Natarajan, R. L. Sutherland, V. Tondiglia, T. J. Bunning, and W. W. Adams, “Electro-optical switching characteristics of volume holograms in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 89–98 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Liq. Cryst. (1)

D. Duca, A. V. Sukhov, and C. Umeton, “Detailed experimental investigation on recording of switchable diffraction gratings in polymer dispersed liquid crystal films by UV laser curing,” Liq. Cryst. 26, 931–937 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, A. V. Sukhov, and B. Ya. Zeldovich, “The orientational optical nonlinearity of liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136, 1–139 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

L. Nikolova and T. Todorov, “Diffraction efficiency and selectivity of polarization holographic recording,” Opt. Acta 31, 579–588 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E (2)

J. Chen, D. L. Johnson, P. J. Bos, X. Wang, and J. L. West, “Model of liquid crystal alignment by exposure to linearly polarized ultraviolet light,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 1599–1603 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Galabova, D. W. Allender, and J. Chen, “Orientation and surface anchoring of nematic liquid crystals on linearly polymerized photopolymers,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1627–1631 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polymer (1)

T. J. Bunning, L. V. Natarajan, V. Tondiglia, R. L. Sutherland, D. L. Veziet, and W. W. Adams, “The morphology and performance of holographic transmission gratings recorded in polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” Polymer 36, 2699–2708 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals: Physical Properties and Nonlinear Optical Phenomena (Wiley, New York, 1995).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup: M, mirror; L, lens; BS, beam splitter; W, λ/2 wave plate, P, polarizer; S, sample; Ph, photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Polarization modulation of the interference light field recording the grating in our geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time evolution of (a) η+1(0°) and (b) η+1(90°).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental polarization analysis of first and second-order diffracted-beam normalized intensities (diffraction efficiencies) at 0.08-W/cm2 recording intensity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Same as Fig. 4 at 0.2-W/cm2 recording intensity.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Theoretical curves of (a) η±1(α) and (b) η±2(α), for Δϕ=0.6 and Δψ=0.3.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Evolution of (a) Δϕ and (b) Δψ during the recording process.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E=22 cos(θ/2)cos(δ/2)i sin(δ/2),
T1=exp[(iΔφ)cos δ]00exp[-(iΔφ)cos δ],
T2=exp[(iΔψ)cos(δ+δ1)]00exp[(iΔψ)cos(δ+δ1)],
Eout=T2T1Einc.
I±1(α)=cos2 α[J1(Δφ)J0(Δψ)-J1(Δφ)J2(Δψ)+J1(Δψ)J0(Δφ)-J1(Δψ)J2(Δφ)]2+sin2 α[-J1(Δφ)J0(Δψ)+J1(Δφ)J2(Δψ)+J1(Δψ)J0(Δφ)-J1(Δψ)J2(Δφ)]2,
I±2(α)=cos2 α[-J0(Δφ)J2(Δψ)-J2(Δφ)J0(Δψ)-J1(Δφ)J1(Δψ)]2+sin2 α[-J0(Δφ)J2(Δψ)-J2(Δφ)J0(Δψ)+J1(Δφ)J1(Δψ)]2,
I±1(0°)=|J0(Δψ)J1(Δφ)+J1(Δψ)J0(Δφ)-J2(Δψ)J1(Δφ)-J2(Δφ)J1(Δψ)|2Iinc,
I±1(90°)=|-J0(Δψ)J1(Δφ)+J1(Δψ)J0(Δφ)+J2(Δψ)J1(Δφ)-J1(Δψ)J2(Δφ)|2Iinc.
ΔφI±1(0°)Iinc+I±1(90°)Iinc,
ΔψI±1(0°)Iinc-I±1(90°)Iinc.

Metrics