Abstract

We investigate a new ultrahighly sensitive nonlinear optical response in pure nematic liquid crystals composed of rodlike molecules characterized by conjugated acetylene groups. Under the combined application of low-intensity optical waves and dc electrical fields, a photorefractivelike grating formation has been found in degenerate four-wave mixing experiments. Polarization-dependent pump–probe experiments reveal the underlying orientational effect of a space-charge field. The photorefractive-like origin of the gratings was proved by two beam-coupling experiments in which a refractive-index grating was phase shifted by π/2 with respect to the interference grating. The huge optical nonlinearity found in such materials makes them promising for future applications in all-optical image processing and adaptive optics.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Prost and J. R. LaLanne, “Laser-induced optical Kerr effect and the dynamics of orientation in the isotropic phase of a nematogen,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2090–2093 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. K. L. Wong and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced ordering in the isotropic phase of a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 895–897 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. S. Zolotko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, and L. Chillag, “The effect of an optical field on the nematic phase of the liquid crystal OCBP,” JETP Lett. 32, 158–162 (1980).
  4. I. C. Khoo and S. L. Zhuang, “Nonlinear optical amplification in a nematic liquid crystal above the Frederiks transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 3–4 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, and Y. S. Chilingarian, “Fredericks transition induced by light,” Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 32–37 (1981).
  6. S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakilian, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411–1414 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  7. I. Jánossy and T. Kosa, “Influence of anthraquinone dyes on optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1183–1185 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. D. Paparo, L. Marrucci, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, M. Kreuzer, P. Lehnert, and T. Vogeler, “Molecular-field-enhanced optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 38–41 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Xhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-induced enhancement of optical nonlinearity in liquids and liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 42–45 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Kreuzer, L. Marrucci, and D. Paparo, “Light-induced modification of kinetic molecular properties: enhancementof optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids, photoinduced torque and molecular motors in dye-doped nematics,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 157–183 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. I. C. Khoo, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723–1725 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. I. C. Khoo, “Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid crystal films,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2137–2139 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 59, 142–146 (1994).
  15. H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive effects observed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1144–1146 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. B. D. Guenther and I. C. Khoo, “Beam amplification and cleanup with two- and four-wave mixing in photorefractive nematic liquid crystal films,” in Liquid Crystals, I. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE 3143, 191–200 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, Vol. 61 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  18. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993), pp. 82–98.
  19. I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shin, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photo-excitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 150, 195–200 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules by photoinduced space charge fields,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 115–126 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Sikharulidze, G. Chilaya, K. Praefcke, and D. Blunk, “First observation of an optically controlled electro-optic effect in nematic-discotic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 23, 439–442 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994), and reference therein.
    [CrossRef]
  25. W. E. Moerner, A. G. Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  26. E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875–882 (1994), and reference therein.
  27. G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzula, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals induced by photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Sutter and P. Gunter, “Photorefractive gratings in the organic crystal 2-cyclooctylamino-5-nitropyridine doped with 7, 7, 8, 8-tetracyanoquinodimethane,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274–2278 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  31. R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “Highly sensitive photoelectrical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 331, 483–490 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  32. R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “The photoelectrical reorientation effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 379–388 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  33. I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens and optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. Meindl, “Photoelektrisch Reorientierungseffekte in nematischen Flüssigkristallen,” PhD. dissertation (Technical University, Berlin, 1999), pp. 41–67.
  35. I. C. Khoo and S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 38–47.
  36. H. Ono and N. Kwatsuki, “Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162–1164 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  37. I. C. Khoo, “Optical-DC-field induced space charge fields and photorefractive-like holographic grating formation in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 53–66 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  38. W. Helfrich, “Conduction-induced alignment of nematic liquid crystals: basic model and stability considerations,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092–4105 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. V. Serak, A. A. Kovalev, and A. V. Agashko, “Short-laser-pulse-induced photoelectric phenomena and reorientation in nematics activated with ionic dyes,” Tech. Phys. 45, 858–864 (2000).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (3)

M. Kreuzer, L. Marrucci, and D. Paparo, “Light-induced modification of kinetic molecular properties: enhancementof optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids, photoinduced torque and molecular motors in dye-doped nematics,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 157–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens and optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Serak, A. A. Kovalev, and A. V. Agashko, “Short-laser-pulse-induced photoelectric phenomena and reorientation in nematics activated with ionic dyes,” Tech. Phys. 45, 858–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “Highly sensitive photoelectrical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 331, 483–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “The photoelectrical reorientation effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 379–388 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzula, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals induced by photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shin, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photo-excitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 150, 195–200 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules by photoinduced space charge fields,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 115–126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (8)

D. Sikharulidze, G. Chilaya, K. Praefcke, and D. Blunk, “First observation of an optically controlled electro-optic effect in nematic-discotic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 23, 439–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. G. Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kwatsuki, “Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162–1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive effects observed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1144–1146 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. D. Guenther and I. C. Khoo, “Beam amplification and cleanup with two- and four-wave mixing in photorefractive nematic liquid crystal films,” in Liquid Crystals, I. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE 3143, 191–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Paparo, L. Marrucci, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, M. Kreuzer, P. Lehnert, and T. Vogeler, “Molecular-field-enhanced optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 38–41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Xhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-induced enhancement of optical nonlinearity in liquids and liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Optical-DC-field induced space charge fields and photorefractive-like holographic grating formation in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 53–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (4)

I. C. Khoo, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 59, 142–146 (1994).

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875–882 (1994), and reference therein.

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994), and reference therein.
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

1981 (2)

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, and Y. S. Chilingarian, “Fredericks transition induced by light,” Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 32–37 (1981).

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakilian, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411–1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

A. S. Zolotko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, and L. Chillag, “The effect of an optical field on the nematic phase of the liquid crystal OCBP,” JETP Lett. 32, 158–162 (1980).

I. C. Khoo and S. L. Zhuang, “Nonlinear optical amplification in a nematic liquid crystal above the Frederiks transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 3–4 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1973 (2)

J. Prost and J. R. LaLanne, “Laser-induced optical Kerr effect and the dynamics of orientation in the isotropic phase of a nematogen,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2090–2093 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. K. L. Wong and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced ordering in the isotropic phase of a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 895–897 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

W. Helfrich, “Conduction-induced alignment of nematic liquid crystals: basic model and stability considerations,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092–4105 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Abbate, G.

D. Paparo, L. Marrucci, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, M. Kreuzer, P. Lehnert, and T. Vogeler, “Molecular-field-enhanced optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 38–41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Agashko, A. V.

S. V. Serak, A. A. Kovalev, and A. V. Agashko, “Short-laser-pulse-induced photoelectric phenomena and reorientation in nematics activated with ionic dyes,” Tech. Phys. 45, 858–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Arakilian, S. M.

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakilian, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411–1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Blunk, D.

D. Sikharulidze, G. Chilaya, K. Praefcke, and D. Blunk, “First observation of an optically controlled electro-optic effect in nematic-discotic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 23, 439–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Busch, S.

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “The photoelectrical reorientation effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 379–388 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “Highly sensitive photoelectrical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 331, 483–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Chilaya, G.

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules by photoinduced space charge fields,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 115–126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photo-excitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 150, 195–200 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Sikharulidze, G. Chilaya, K. Praefcke, and D. Blunk, “First observation of an optically controlled electro-optic effect in nematic-discotic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 23, 439–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chilingarian, Y. S.

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, and Y. S. Chilingarian, “Fredericks transition induced by light,” Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 32–37 (1981).

Chillag, L.

A. S. Zolotko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, and L. Chillag, “The effect of an optical field on the nematic phase of the liquid crystal OCBP,” JETP Lett. 32, 158–162 (1980).

Cipparrone, G.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzula, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals induced by photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Durbin, S. D.

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakilian, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411–1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, B. D.

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shin, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Guenther and I. C. Khoo, “Beam amplification and cleanup with two- and four-wave mixing in photorefractive nematic liquid crystal films,” in Liquid Crystals, I. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE 3143, 191–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

Helfrich, W.

W. Helfrich, “Conduction-induced alignment of nematic liquid crystals: basic model and stability considerations,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092–4105 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Jánossy, I.

Jarasch, M.

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Xhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-induced enhancement of optical nonlinearity in liquids and liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jepsen, A. G.

W. E. Moerner, A. G. Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawatsuki, N.

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens and optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, S. Slussarenko, B. D. Guenther, M. Y. Shin, P. Chen, and W. V. Wood, “Optically induced space charge fields, dc voltage, and extraordinarily large nonlinearity in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 23, 253–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. D. Guenther and I. C. Khoo, “Beam amplification and cleanup with two- and four-wave mixing in photorefractive nematic liquid crystal films,” in Liquid Crystals, I. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE 3143, 191–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Optical-DC-field induced space charge fields and photorefractive-like holographic grating formation in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 53–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid crystal films,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2137–2139 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo and S. L. Zhuang, “Nonlinear optical amplification in a nematic liquid crystal above the Frederiks transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 3–4 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Kitaeva, V. F.

A. S. Zolotko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, and L. Chillag, “The effect of an optical field on the nematic phase of the liquid crystal OCBP,” JETP Lett. 32, 158–162 (1980).

Kosa, T.

Kovalev, A. A.

S. V. Serak, A. A. Kovalev, and A. V. Agashko, “Short-laser-pulse-induced photoelectric phenomena and reorientation in nematics activated with ionic dyes,” Tech. Phys. 45, 858–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kreuzer, M.

M. Kreuzer, L. Marrucci, and D. Paparo, “Light-induced modification of kinetic molecular properties: enhancementof optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids, photoinduced torque and molecular motors in dye-doped nematics,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 157–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Paparo, L. Marrucci, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, M. Kreuzer, P. Lehnert, and T. Vogeler, “Molecular-field-enhanced optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 38–41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kroo, N.

A. S. Zolotko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, and L. Chillag, “The effect of an optical field on the nematic phase of the liquid crystal OCBP,” JETP Lett. 32, 158–162 (1980).

Kwatsuki, N.

H. Ono and N. Kwatsuki, “Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162–1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

LaLanne, J. R.

J. Prost and J. R. LaLanne, “Laser-induced optical Kerr effect and the dynamics of orientation in the isotropic phase of a nematogen,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2090–2093 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lehnert, P.

D. Paparo, L. Marrucci, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, M. Kreuzer, P. Lehnert, and T. Vogeler, “Molecular-field-enhanced optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 38–41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Macdonald, R.

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “The photoelectrical reorientation effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 379–388 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “Highly sensitive photoelectrical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 331, 483–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photo-excitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 150, 195–200 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules by photoinduced space charge fields,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 115–126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Marrucci, L.

M. Kreuzer, L. Marrucci, and D. Paparo, “Light-induced modification of kinetic molecular properties: enhancementof optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids, photoinduced torque and molecular motors in dye-doped nematics,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 157–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Paparo, L. Marrucci, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, M. Kreuzer, P. Lehnert, and T. Vogeler, “Molecular-field-enhanced optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 38–41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mazzula, A.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzula, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals induced by photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meindl, P.

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “Highly sensitive photoelectrical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 331, 483–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “The photoelectrical reorientation effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 379–388 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photo-excitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 150, 195–200 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules by photoinduced space charge fields,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 115–126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner, A. G. Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. F.

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994), and reference therein.
[CrossRef]

Muenster, R.

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Xhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-induced enhancement of optical nonlinearity in liquids and liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

H. Ono and N. Kwatsuki, “Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162–1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive effects observed in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1144–1146 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pagliusi, P.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzula, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paparo, D.

M. Kreuzer, L. Marrucci, and D. Paparo, “Light-induced modification of kinetic molecular properties: enhancementof optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids, photoinduced torque and molecular motors in dye-doped nematics,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 157–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

D. Paparo, L. Marrucci, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, M. Kreuzer, P. Lehnert, and T. Vogeler, “Molecular-field-enhanced optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 38–41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Praefcke, K.

D. Sikharulidze, G. Chilaya, K. Praefcke, and D. Blunk, “First observation of an optically controlled electro-optic effect in nematic-discotic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 23, 439–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Prost, J.

J. Prost and J. R. LaLanne, “Laser-induced optical Kerr effect and the dynamics of orientation in the isotropic phase of a nematogen,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2090–2093 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Rudenko, E. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875–882 (1994), and reference therein.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 59, 142–146 (1994).

Santamato, E.

D. Paparo, L. Marrucci, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, M. Kreuzer, P. Lehnert, and T. Vogeler, “Molecular-field-enhanced optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 38–41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Serak, S. V.

S. V. Serak, A. A. Kovalev, and A. V. Agashko, “Short-laser-pulse-induced photoelectric phenomena and reorientation in nematics activated with ionic dyes,” Tech. Phys. 45, 858–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Xhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-induced enhancement of optical nonlinearity in liquids and liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakilian, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411–1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. K. L. Wong and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced ordering in the isotropic phase of a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 895–897 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M. Y.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens and optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Shin, M. Y.

Shishido, A.

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens and optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sikharulidze, D.

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules by photoinduced space charge fields,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 115–126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photo-excitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 150, 195–200 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Sikharulidze, G. Chilaya, K. Praefcke, and D. Blunk, “First observation of an optically controlled electro-optic effect in nematic-discotic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 23, 439–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Silence, S. M.

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994), and reference therein.
[CrossRef]

Simoni, F.

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzula, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Orientational gratings in dye doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals induced by photorefractive effect,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1505–1507 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S.

Sobolev, N. N.

A. S. Zolotko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, and L. Chillag, “The effect of an optical field on the nematic phase of the liquid crystal OCBP,” JETP Lett. 32, 158–162 (1980).

Sukhov, A. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875–882 (1994), and reference therein.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 59, 142–146 (1994).

Sutter, K.

Tabiryan, N. V.

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, and Y. S. Chilingarian, “Fredericks transition induced by light,” Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 32–37 (1981).

Thompson, C. L.

W. E. Moerner, A. G. Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vogeler, T.

D. Paparo, L. Marrucci, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, M. Kreuzer, P. Lehnert, and T. Vogeler, “Molecular-field-enhanced optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 38–41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wasielewski, M. R.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K. L.

G. K. L. Wong and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced ordering in the isotropic phase of a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 895–897 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. V.

Xhuang, X.

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Xhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-induced enhancement of optical nonlinearity in liquids and liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, B. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zel’dovich, B. Y.

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, and Y. S. Chilingarian, “Fredericks transition induced by light,” Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 32–37 (1981).

Zhuang, S. L.

I. C. Khoo and S. L. Zhuang, “Nonlinear optical amplification in a nematic liquid crystal above the Frederiks transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 3–4 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zolotko, A. S.

A. S. Zolotko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, and L. Chillag, “The effect of an optical field on the nematic phase of the liquid crystal OCBP,” JETP Lett. 32, 158–162 (1980).

Adv. Mater. (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

W. E. Moerner, A. G. Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

H. Ono and N. Kwatsuki, “Orientational holographic grating observed in liquid crystals sandwiched with photoconductive polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1162–1164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and S. L. Zhuang, “Nonlinear optical amplification in a nematic liquid crystal above the Frederiks transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 3–4 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

F. Simoni, G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzula, and P. Pagliusi, “Polymer dispersed liquid crystals: effects of photorefractivity and local heating on holographic recording,” Chem. Phys. 245, 429–436 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

W. F. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994), and reference therein.
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. Helfrich, “Conduction-induced alignment of nematic liquid crystals: basic model and stability considerations,” J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092–4105 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. (2)

M. Kreuzer, L. Marrucci, and D. Paparo, “Light-induced modification of kinetic molecular properties: enhancementof optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids, photoinduced torque and molecular motors in dye-doped nematics,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 9, 157–183 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “The photoelectrical reorientation effect in nematic liquid crystals,” J. Nonlin. Opt. Phys. Mater. 8, 379–388 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JETP (1)

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875–882 (1994), and reference therein.

JETP Lett. (2)

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 59, 142–146 (1994).

A. S. Zolotko, V. F. Kitaeva, N. Kroo, N. N. Sobolev, and L. Chillag, “The effect of an optical field on the nematic phase of the liquid crystal OCBP,” JETP Lett. 32, 158–162 (1980).

Liq. Cryst. (1)

D. Sikharulidze, G. Chilaya, K. Praefcke, and D. Blunk, “First observation of an optically controlled electro-optic effect in nematic-discotic liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. 23, 439–442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (4)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, and F. Simoni, “Writing and erasure of holographic gratings in dye doped PDLC,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 299, 329–336 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules by photoinduced space charge fields,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 320, 115–126 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, and S. Busch, “Highly sensitive photoelectrical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 331, 483–490 (1999).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Optical-DC-field induced space charge fields and photorefractive-like holographic grating formation in nematic liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 282, 53–66 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

R. Macdonald, P. Meindl, G. Chilaya, and D. Sikharulidze, “Photo-excitation of space charge fields and reorientation of a nematic liquid crystal of discotic molecules,” Opt. Commun. 150, 195–200 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. Prost and J. R. LaLanne, “Laser-induced optical Kerr effect and the dynamics of orientation in the isotropic phase of a nematogen,” Phys. Rev. A 8, 2090–2093 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

G. K. L. Wong and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced ordering in the isotropic phase of a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 30, 895–897 (1973).
[CrossRef]

D. Paparo, L. Marrucci, G. Abbate, E. Santamato, M. Kreuzer, P. Lehnert, and T. Vogeler, “Molecular-field-enhanced optical Kerr effect in absorbing liquids,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 38–41 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Muenster, M. Jarasch, X. Xhuang, and Y. R. Shen, “Dye-induced enhancement of optical nonlinearity in liquids and liquid crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 42–45 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakilian, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical-field-induced birefringence and Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 1411–1414 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

B. D. Guenther and I. C. Khoo, “Beam amplification and cleanup with two- and four-wave mixing in photorefractive nematic liquid crystal films,” in Liquid Crystals, I. Khoo, ed., Proc. SPIE 3143, 191–200 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, M. Y. Shih, and A. Shishido, “Supra-nonlinear photosensitive liquid crystals for image processing, switchable holographic lens and optical limiting,” Proc. SPIE 4107, 151–159 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

B. Y. Zel’dovich, N. V. Tabiryan, and Y. S. Chilingarian, “Fredericks transition induced by light,” Sov. Phys. JETP 54, 32–37 (1981).

Tech. Phys. (1)

S. V. Serak, A. A. Kovalev, and A. V. Agashko, “Short-laser-pulse-induced photoelectric phenomena and reorientation in nematics activated with ionic dyes,” Tech. Phys. 45, 858–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications I, Vol. 61 of Topics in Applied Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993), pp. 82–98.

P. Meindl, “Photoelektrisch Reorientierungseffekte in nematischen Flüssigkristallen,” PhD. dissertation (Technical University, Berlin, 1999), pp. 41–67.

I. C. Khoo and S.-T. Wu, Optics and Nonlinear Optics of Liquid Crystals (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993), pp. 38–47.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Material under investigation. Phase sequence: K 62 °C N 90 °C I (data by Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction efficiency of s- and p-polarized probe beams versus writing beam intensity (s-polarized writing beams). Grating period, Λ=60 µm; applied dc voltage, Vdc=9.0 V. Inset, pump–probe experimental geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency, for a p-polarized probe beam versus the dc voltage (s-polarized writing beams). Grating period, Λ=60 µm; intensities of (both) writing beams, I=1.4 mW/cm2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for TBC measurements.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

The motionless TBC technique allows the normalized gain coefficient Γ to be estimated by calculation of coupling ratio γo. The intensity of beam I1 was detected while writing beam I2 was switched on and off.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The TBC grating-translation technique permits complete characterization of the optical modulation properties, showing that the gratings obtained are pure phase gratings (refractive-index modulation) with a spatial phase shift of π/2 (for an explanation, see text).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Transmittance spectrum of a 100-µm-thick PTP 502 sample in the wavelength region of interest for unpolarized light.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I1(d)=Io exp(-Kd)21+exp(-Γd/cos Θ),
I2(d)=Io exp(-Kd)21+exp(Γd/cos Θ),
Γ4πΔn sin Φpλ cos Θ,
Γ=(cos Θ/d)[ln(γo)-ln(2-γo)],
γoIwithpumpIwithoutpump
I1+I2=Io exp-Kocos Θd2-4A cosΦa+2πΛx,
I1-I2=Io exp-Kocos Θd-4P sinΦp+2πΛx,
AΔK4 cos Θd,PπΔnλ cos Θd.
n2Δn/ΔI17 cm2/W.
Γ-Δ[cos Θ sin Θ(Ez2-δEx2 cos2 qx)+(1-2 cos Θ)EzδEx cos qx]ey,
-Δ[cos Θ sin ΘEz2+(1-2 cos Θ)EzδEx cos qx]ey,

Metrics