Abstract

The importance of lasing without inversion (LWI) in comparison with the use of nonlinear optical techniques and techniques based on high-intensity femtosecond light pulses to generate high-frequency coherent radiation is outlined. The original development and utilization of an experimental facility based on semiconductor diode lasers to study the fundamental aspects of LWI on the D1 line of the Cs atom, which is rarely attempted, is described. This experimental facility is used to observe inversionless amplification on the D1 line of the Cs atom by use of a Λ atomic scheme. A combination of EIT and broadband pumping of atoms from the lower to the upper level of the probe transition allowed the observation of the inversionless gain. Justification for the absence of inversion in the probe transition is provided. We report a single-pass inversionless gain of ≈11% with relatively weak incoherent pumping. The results show improvement over the previously reported inversionless gain observed in Na, Rb, and Cs, illustrating the potential advantage of using the D1 line of Cs.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  54. M. Weitz, B. C. Young, and S. Chu, “Atom interferometer based on adiabatic population transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2563–2566 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

2001

P. S. Bhatia, G. R. Welch and M. O. Scully, “A single mode semiconductor diode laser operating in strong feedback regime and tunable within D1 line of Cs atom,” Opt. Commun. 189, 321–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

J. Mompart and R. Corbalan, “Lasing without inversion,” J. Opt. B. Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, R7–R24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

H. Lee and M. O. Scully, “Manifestation of quantum interference in lasing without inversion,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 54, 33–38 (1999).

O. Kocharovskaya, R. Kolesov, and Y. Rostovtsev, “Lasing without inversion: a new path to gamma-ray laser,” Laser Phys. 9, 745–758 (1999).

1998

F. B. de Jong, A. Mavromanolakis, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, “Synchronously pumped laser without inversion in cadmium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4869–4876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Kocharovskaya, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and A. Imamoglu, “Inversionless amplification in the three-level atoms with and without hidden inversion in reservoir,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 649–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, D. E. Nikonov, and M. O. Scully, “A scheme for noninversion lasing for short wavelength lasers in helium like ions,” Found. Phys. 28, 611–619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yelin, M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, and P. Mandel, “Gain without inversion in the frequency up-conversion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 3858–3868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Fort, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, M. Inguscio, and M. Prevedelli, “Gain without inversion on the Cs D1 line,” Opt. Commun. 139, 31–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, “Laser oscillation without population inversion in sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053–2056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bokor, A. R. Neureuther, and W. G. Oldham, “Advanced lithography for ULSI,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 12, 11–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, G. R. Welch, E. S. Fry, L. Hollberg, C. G. Padmabandu, H. G. Robinson, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: the road to new short-wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys. 6, 436–447 (1996).

D. E. Nikonov, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, E. S. Fry, L. W. Hollberg, G. G. Padmbandu, G. R. Welch, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: a dream come true,” in Coherent Phenomena and Amplification without Inversion, A. L. Andreev, O. A. Kocharovskaya, and P. Mandel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2798, 342–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Imamoglu, R. J. Ram, S. Pau, and Y. Yamamoto, “Nonequilibrium condensates and lasers without inversion,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, and A. Hutchinson, “Quantum cascade lasers without intersubband population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 411–414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

M. Fleischhauer, T. McIllrath, and M. O. Scully, “Coherent population trapping and Fano-type interferences in lasing without inversion,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S123–S127 (1995).

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

M. Weitz, B. C. Young, and S. Chu, “Atom interferometer based on adiabatic population transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2563–2566 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreeuw, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, and W. D. Phillips, “Momentum transfer in laser-cooled cesium by adiabatic passage in a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997–1000 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion versus optical pumping and lasing without inversion assisted by optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 105, 79–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Imamoglu and R. J. Ram, “Semiconductor lasers without populatrion inversion,” Opt. Commun. 19, 1744–1746 (1994).

M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear optical frequency conversion,” Phys. Today 47(5), 25–32 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully and M. Fleischhauer, “Lasers without inversion,” Science 263, 337–338 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Kleinfeld and A. D. Streater, “Observation of gain due to coherence effects in a potassium–helium mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R4301–R4304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. van der, R. J. J. van Diest, A. Donszelmann, and H. B. van den Hauvell, “Experimental demonstration of light amplification without population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3243–3246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Pillet, C. Valentin, R. L. Yuan, and J. Yu, “Adiabatic population transfer in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 845–848 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Fearn, C. Keitel, M. O. Scully, and S. Zhu, “Lasing without inversion in a simple model of a three-level laser with microwave coupling,” Opt. Commun. 87, 323–330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic system,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and Y. V. Radeonychev, “Inversionless amplification in a three-level medium,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1997–2005 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. Fearn, “Lasing without inversion. I. Initial atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, M. O. Scully, H. Fearn, and L. M. Narducci, “Lasing without inversion. II. Raman process created atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).

1991

L. M. Narducci, H. M. Doss, P. Ru, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and C. Keitel, “A simple model of laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 81, 379–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, C. H. Keitel, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Physical origin of the gain in a four-level model of a Raman driven laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 86, 324–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “Generation of efficient ultrafast laser plasma x-ray source,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2409–2413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, W. White, N. Nathel, R. J. Blair, and R. W. Falcone, “Multiterawatt 100-fs laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1406–1408 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: interference of a lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1033–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

O. Kocharovskaya and Y. I. Khanin, “Coherent amplification of an ultrashort pulse in a three-level medium without a population inversion,” JETP Lett. 48, 630–634 (1988).

1986

1985

D. L. Matthews and P. L. Hagelstein, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1976

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, “Nonabsorbing atomic coherences by coherent two-photon transitions in a three-level optical pumping,” Nuovo Cimento 17, 333–338 (1976).

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of R. F. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapor,” Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alzetta, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of R. F. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapor,” Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Arimondo, E.

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, “Nonabsorbing atomic coherences by coherent two-photon transitions in a three-level optical pumping,” Nuovo Cimento 17, 333–338 (1976).

Backus, S.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhatia, P. S.

P. S. Bhatia, G. R. Welch and M. O. Scully, “A single mode semiconductor diode laser operating in strong feedback regime and tunable within D1 line of Cs atom,” Opt. Commun. 189, 321–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Blair, R. J.

Bokor, J.

J. Bokor, A. R. Neureuther, and W. G. Oldham, “Advanced lithography for ULSI,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 12, 11–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boller, K. J.

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, and A. Hutchinson, “Quantum cascade lasers without intersubband population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 411–414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cataliotti, F. S.

C. Fort, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, M. Inguscio, and M. Prevedelli, “Gain without inversion on the Cs D1 line,” Opt. Commun. 139, 31–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Z.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chu, S.

M. Weitz, B. C. Young, and S. Chu, “Atom interferometer based on adiabatic population transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2563–2566 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corbalan, R.

J. Mompart and R. Corbalan, “Lasing without inversion,” J. Opt. B. Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, R7–R24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

de Jong, F. B.

F. B. de Jong, A. Mavromanolakis, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, “Synchronously pumped laser without inversion in cadmium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4869–4876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Donszelmann, A.

W. E. van der, R. J. J. van Diest, A. Donszelmann, and H. B. van den Hauvell, “Experimental demonstration of light amplification without population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3243–3246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Doss, H. M.

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, C. H. Keitel, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Physical origin of the gain in a four-level model of a Raman driven laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 86, 324–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, H. M. Doss, P. Ru, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and C. Keitel, “A simple model of laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 81, 379–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, and A. Hutchinson, “Quantum cascade lasers without intersubband population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 411–414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcone, R. W.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “Generation of efficient ultrafast laser plasma x-ray source,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2409–2413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, W. White, N. Nathel, R. J. Blair, and R. W. Falcone, “Multiterawatt 100-fs laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1406–1408 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fearn, H.

M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. Fearn, “Lasing without inversion. I. Initial atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Fearn, C. Keitel, M. O. Scully, and S. Zhu, “Lasing without inversion in a simple model of a three-level laser with microwave coupling,” Opt. Commun. 87, 323–330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, M. O. Scully, H. Fearn, and L. M. Narducci, “Lasing without inversion. II. Raman process created atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, “Nonlinear optical frequency conversion,” Phys. Today 47(5), 25–32 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fleischhauer, M.

M. Fleischhauer, T. McIllrath, and M. O. Scully, “Coherent population trapping and Fano-type interferences in lasing without inversion,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S123–S127 (1995).

M. Fleischhauer and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion versus optical pumping and lasing without inversion assisted by optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 105, 79–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully and M. Fleischhauer, “Lasers without inversion,” Science 263, 337–338 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic system,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fort, C.

C. Fort, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, M. Inguscio, and M. Prevedelli, “Gain without inversion on the Cs D1 line,” Opt. Commun. 139, 31–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fry, E. S.

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, “Laser oscillation without population inversion in sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053–2056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, G. R. Welch, E. S. Fry, L. Hollberg, C. G. Padmabandu, H. G. Robinson, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: the road to new short-wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys. 6, 436–447 (1996).

D. E. Nikonov, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, E. S. Fry, L. W. Hollberg, G. G. Padmbandu, G. R. Welch, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: a dream come true,” in Coherent Phenomena and Amplification without Inversion, A. L. Andreev, O. A. Kocharovskaya, and P. Mandel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2798, 342–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gavrielides, A.

M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerz, C.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreeuw, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, and W. D. Phillips, “Momentum transfer in laser-cooled cesium by adiabatic passage in a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997–1000 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goldner, L. S.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreeuw, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, and W. D. Phillips, “Momentum transfer in laser-cooled cesium by adiabatic passage in a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997–1000 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, C. L.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gordon, S.

Gozzini, A.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of R. F. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapor,” Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Guo, C.

J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hagelstein, P. L.

D. L. Matthews and P. L. Hagelstein, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hamster, H.

Hänsch, T. W.

C. Fort, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, M. Inguscio, and M. Prevedelli, “Gain without inversion on the Cs D1 line,” Opt. Commun. 139, 31–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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S. E. Harris, “Electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Today 50(7), 36–42 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. E. Harris, “Lasers without inversion: interference of a lifetime-broadened resonances,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1033–1036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herne, C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, G. R. Welch, E. S. Fry, L. Hollberg, C. G. Padmabandu, H. G. Robinson, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: the road to new short-wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys. 6, 436–447 (1996).

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L. W.

D. E. Nikonov, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, E. S. Fry, L. W. Hollberg, G. G. Padmbandu, G. R. Welch, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: a dream come true,” in Coherent Phenomena and Amplification without Inversion, A. L. Andreev, O. A. Kocharovskaya, and P. Mandel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2798, 342–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, and A. Hutchinson, “Quantum cascade lasers without intersubband population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 411–414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imamoglu, A.

O. Kocharovskaya, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and A. Imamoglu, “Inversionless amplification in the three-level atoms with and without hidden inversion in reservoir,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 649–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Imamoglu, R. J. Ram, S. Pau, and Y. Yamamoto, “Nonequilibrium condensates and lasers without inversion,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Imamoglu and R. J. Ram, “Semiconductor lasers without populatrion inversion,” Opt. Commun. 19, 1744–1746 (1994).

K. J. Boller, A. Imamoglu, and S. E. Harris, “Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2593–2596 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Inguscio, M.

C. Fort, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, M. Inguscio, and M. Prevedelli, “Gain without inversion on the Cs D1 line,” Opt. Commun. 139, 31–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, D.

J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, Y.

J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jin, G.

J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, W. White, N. Nathel, R. J. Blair, and R. W. Falcone, “Multiterawatt 100-fs laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1406–1408 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “Generation of efficient ultrafast laser plasma x-ray source,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2409–2413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keitel, C.

H. Fearn, C. Keitel, M. O. Scully, and S. Zhu, “Lasing without inversion in a simple model of a three-level laser with microwave coupling,” Opt. Commun. 87, 323–330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, H. M. Doss, P. Ru, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and C. Keitel, “A simple model of laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 81, 379–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Keitel, C. H.

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic system,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, C. H. Keitel, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Physical origin of the gain in a four-level model of a Raman driven laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 86, 324–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Khanin, Y. I.

O. Kocharovskaya and Y. I. Khanin, “Coherent amplification of an ultrashort pulse in a three-level medium without a population inversion,” JETP Lett. 48, 630–634 (1988).

Kleinfeld, J. A.

J. A. Kleinfeld and A. D. Streater, “Observation of gain due to coherence effects in a potassium–helium mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R4301–R4304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kmetec, J. D.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kocharovskaya, O.

O. Kocharovskaya, R. Kolesov, and Y. Rostovtsev, “Lasing without inversion: a new path to gamma-ray laser,” Laser Phys. 9, 745–758 (1999).

O. Kocharovskaya, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and A. Imamoglu, “Inversionless amplification in the three-level atoms with and without hidden inversion in reservoir,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 649–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and Y. V. Radeonychev, “Inversionless amplification in a three-level medium,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1997–2005 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Kocharovskaya and Y. I. Khanin, “Coherent amplification of an ultrashort pulse in a three-level medium without a population inversion,” JETP Lett. 48, 630–634 (1988).

Kolesov, R.

O. Kocharovskaya, R. Kolesov, and Y. Rostovtsev, “Lasing without inversion: a new path to gamma-ray laser,” Laser Phys. 9, 745–758 (1999).

Lange, W.

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, H.

H. Lee and M. O. Scully, “Manifestation of quantum interference in lasing without inversion,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 54, 33–38 (1999).

Li, X.

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lukin, M. D.

S. F. Yelin, M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, and P. Mandel, “Gain without inversion in the frequency up-conversion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 3858–3868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, “Laser oscillation without population inversion in sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053–2056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, G. R. Welch, E. S. Fry, L. Hollberg, C. G. Padmabandu, H. G. Robinson, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: the road to new short-wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys. 6, 436–447 (1996).

D. E. Nikonov, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, E. S. Fry, L. W. Hollberg, G. G. Padmbandu, G. R. Welch, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: a dream come true,” in Coherent Phenomena and Amplification without Inversion, A. L. Andreev, O. A. Kocharovskaya, and P. Mandel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2798, 342–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Macklin, J. J.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using intense femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mandel, P.

S. F. Yelin, M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, and P. Mandel, “Gain without inversion in the frequency up-conversion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 3858–3868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and Y. V. Radeonychev, “Inversionless amplification in a three-level medium,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1997–2005 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, D. L.

D. L. Matthews and P. L. Hagelstein, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–113 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mavromanolakis, A.

F. B. de Jong, A. Mavromanolakis, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, “Synchronously pumped laser without inversion in cadmium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4869–4876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McIllrath, T.

M. Fleischhauer, T. McIllrath, and M. O. Scully, “Coherent population trapping and Fano-type interferences in lasing without inversion,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S123–S127 (1995).

Moi, L.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of R. F. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapor,” Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mompart, J.

J. Mompart and R. Corbalan, “Lasing without inversion,” J. Opt. B. Quantum Semiclassical Opt. 2, R7–R24 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Moulton, P. F.

Murnane, M. M.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. W. Falcone, “Generation of efficient ultrafast laser plasma x-ray source,” Phys. Fluids B 3, 2409–2413 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Narducci, L. M.

S. Y. Zhu, M. O. Scully, H. Fearn, and L. M. Narducci, “Lasing without inversion. II. Raman process created atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic system,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, H. M. Doss, P. Ru, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and C. Keitel, “A simple model of laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 81, 379–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, C. H. Keitel, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Physical origin of the gain in a four-level model of a Raman driven laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 86, 324–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nathel, N.

Neureuther, A. R.

J. Bokor, A. R. Neureuther, and W. G. Oldham, “Advanced lithography for ULSI,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 12, 11–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikonov, D.

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nikonov, D. E.

S. Zhu, D. E. Nikonov, and M. O. Scully, “A scheme for noninversion lasing for short wavelength lasers in helium like ions,” Found. Phys. 28, 611–619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Nikonov, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, E. S. Fry, L. W. Hollberg, G. G. Padmbandu, G. R. Welch, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: a dream come true,” in Coherent Phenomena and Amplification without Inversion, A. L. Andreev, O. A. Kocharovskaya, and P. Mandel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2798, 342–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, “Laser oscillation without population inversion in sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053–2056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nottelmann, A.

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oldham, W. G.

J. Bokor, A. R. Neureuther, and W. G. Oldham, “Advanced lithography for ULSI,” IEEE Circuits Devices Mag. 12, 11–15 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Orriols, G.

G. Alzetta, A. Gozzini, L. Moi, and G. Orriols, “An experimental method for the observation of R. F. transitions and laser beat resonances in oriented Na vapor,” Nuovo Cimento B 36, 5–20 (1976).
[CrossRef]

E. Arimondo and G. Orriols, “Nonabsorbing atomic coherences by coherent two-photon transitions in a three-level optical pumping,” Nuovo Cimento 17, 333–338 (1976).

Padmabandu, C. G.

M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, G. R. Welch, E. S. Fry, L. Hollberg, C. G. Padmabandu, H. G. Robinson, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: the road to new short-wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys. 6, 436–447 (1996).

Padmabandu, G. G.

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, “Laser oscillation without population inversion in sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053–2056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padmbandu, G. G.

D. E. Nikonov, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, E. S. Fry, L. W. Hollberg, G. G. Padmbandu, G. R. Welch, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: a dream come true,” in Coherent Phenomena and Amplification without Inversion, A. L. Andreev, O. A. Kocharovskaya, and P. Mandel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2798, 342–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pau, S.

A. Imamoglu, R. J. Ram, S. Pau, and Y. Yamamoto, “Nonequilibrium condensates and lasers without inversion,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peters, C.

A. Nottelmann, C. Peters, and W. Lange, “Inversionless amplification of picosecond pulses due to Zeeman coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 1783–1786 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phillips, W. D.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreeuw, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, and W. D. Phillips, “Momentum transfer in laser-cooled cesium by adiabatic passage in a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997–1000 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pillet, P.

P. Pillet, C. Valentin, R. L. Yuan, and J. Yu, “Adiabatic population transfer in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 845–848 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prevedelli, M.

C. Fort, F. S. Cataliotti, T. W. Hänsch, M. Inguscio, and M. Prevedelli, “Gain without inversion on the Cs D1 line,” Opt. Commun. 139, 31–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Radeonychev, Y. V.

O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and Y. V. Radeonychev, “Inversionless amplification in a three-level medium,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1997–2005 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ram, R. J.

A. Imamoglu, R. J. Ram, S. Pau, and Y. Yamamoto, “Nonequilibrium condensates and lasers without inversion,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Imamoglu and R. J. Ram, “Semiconductor lasers without populatrion inversion,” Opt. Commun. 19, 1744–1746 (1994).

Robinson, H. G.

M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, G. R. Welch, E. S. Fry, L. Hollberg, C. G. Padmabandu, H. G. Robinson, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: the road to new short-wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys. 6, 436–447 (1996).

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rolston, S. L.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreeuw, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, and W. D. Phillips, “Momentum transfer in laser-cooled cesium by adiabatic passage in a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997–1000 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rostovtsev, Y.

O. Kocharovskaya, R. Kolesov, and Y. Rostovtsev, “Lasing without inversion: a new path to gamma-ray laser,” Laser Phys. 9, 745–758 (1999).

Rostovtsev, Y. V.

O. Kocharovskaya, Y. V. Rostovtsev, and A. Imamoglu, “Inversionless amplification in the three-level atoms with and without hidden inversion in reservoir,” Phys. Rev. A 58, 649–654 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ru, P.

L. M. Narducci, H. M. Doss, P. Ru, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and C. Keitel, “A simple model of laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 81, 379–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rundquist, A.

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scully, M. O.

P. S. Bhatia, G. R. Welch and M. O. Scully, “A single mode semiconductor diode laser operating in strong feedback regime and tunable within D1 line of Cs atom,” Opt. Commun. 189, 321–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

H. Lee and M. O. Scully, “Manifestation of quantum interference in lasing without inversion,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 54, 33–38 (1999).

S. Zhu, D. E. Nikonov, and M. O. Scully, “A scheme for noninversion lasing for short wavelength lasers in helium like ions,” Found. Phys. 28, 611–619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. F. Yelin, M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, and P. Mandel, “Gain without inversion in the frequency up-conversion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 3858–3868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, “Laser oscillation without population inversion in sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053–2056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, G. R. Welch, E. S. Fry, L. Hollberg, C. G. Padmabandu, H. G. Robinson, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: the road to new short-wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys. 6, 436–447 (1996).

D. E. Nikonov, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, E. S. Fry, L. W. Hollberg, G. G. Padmbandu, G. R. Welch, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: a dream come true,” in Coherent Phenomena and Amplification without Inversion, A. L. Andreev, O. A. Kocharovskaya, and P. Mandel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2798, 342–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, T. McIllrath, and M. O. Scully, “Coherent population trapping and Fano-type interferences in lasing without inversion,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S123–S127 (1995).

M. Fleischhauer and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion versus optical pumping and lasing without inversion assisted by optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 105, 79–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully and M. Fleischhauer, “Lasers without inversion,” Science 263, 337–338 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. Fearn, “Lasing without inversion. I. Initial atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic system,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, M. O. Scully, H. Fearn, and L. M. Narducci, “Lasing without inversion. II. Raman process created atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).

H. Fearn, C. Keitel, M. O. Scully, and S. Zhu, “Lasing without inversion in a simple model of a three-level laser with microwave coupling,” Opt. Commun. 87, 323–330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, H. M. Doss, P. Ru, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and C. Keitel, “A simple model of laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 81, 379–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, C. H. Keitel, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Physical origin of the gain in a four-level model of a Raman driven laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 86, 324–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shubin, I. N.

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, “Laser oscillation without population inversion in sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053–2056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, and A. Hutchinson, “Quantum cascade lasers without intersubband population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 411–414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, and A. Hutchinson, “Quantum cascade lasers without intersubband population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 411–414 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, A. V.

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

F. B. de Jong, A. Mavromanolakis, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, “Synchronously pumped laser without inversion in cadmium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4869–4876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreeuw, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, and W. D. Phillips, “Momentum transfer in laser-cooled cesium by adiabatic passage in a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997–1000 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. A. Kleinfeld and A. D. Streater, “Observation of gain due to coherence effects in a potassium–helium mixture,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R4301–R4304 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, A.

Tittel, F. K.

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valentin, C.

P. Pillet, C. Valentin, R. L. Yuan, and J. Yu, “Adiabatic population transfer in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 845–848 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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W. E. van der, R. J. J. van Diest, A. Donszelmann, and H. B. van den Hauvell, “Experimental demonstration of light amplification without population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3243–3246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van der, W. E.

W. E. van der, R. J. J. van Diest, A. Donszelmann, and H. B. van den Hauvell, “Experimental demonstration of light amplification without population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3243–3246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Diest, R. J. J.

W. E. van der, R. J. J. van Diest, A. Donszelmann, and H. B. van den Hauvell, “Experimental demonstration of light amplification without population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3243–3246 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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F. B. de Jong, A. Mavromanolakis, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, “Synchronously pumped laser without inversion in cadmium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4869–4876 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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M. Weitz, B. C. Young, and S. Chu, “Atom interferometer based on adiabatic population transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2563–2566 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Welch, G. R.

P. S. Bhatia, G. R. Welch and M. O. Scully, “A single mode semiconductor diode laser operating in strong feedback regime and tunable within D1 line of Cs atom,” Opt. Commun. 189, 321–336 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, “Laser oscillation without population inversion in sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053–2056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, G. R. Welch, E. S. Fry, L. Hollberg, C. G. Padmabandu, H. G. Robinson, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: the road to new short-wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys. 6, 436–447 (1996).

D. E. Nikonov, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, E. S. Fry, L. W. Hollberg, G. G. Padmbandu, G. R. Welch, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: a dream come true,” in Coherent Phenomena and Amplification without Inversion, A. L. Andreev, O. A. Kocharovskaya, and P. Mandel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2798, 342–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, C. I.

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreeuw, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, and W. D. Phillips, “Momentum transfer in laser-cooled cesium by adiabatic passage in a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997–1000 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W.

Wilkinson, S. R.

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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A. Imamoglu, R. J. Ram, S. Pau, and Y. Yamamoto, “Nonequilibrium condensates and lasers without inversion,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yelin, S. F.

S. F. Yelin, M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, and P. Mandel, “Gain without inversion in the frequency up-conversion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 3858–3868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Young, B. C.

M. Weitz, B. C. Young, and S. Chu, “Atom interferometer based on adiabatic population transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2563–2566 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. Pillet, C. Valentin, R. L. Yuan, and J. Yu, “Adiabatic population transfer in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 845–848 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yuan, R. L.

P. Pillet, C. Valentin, R. L. Yuan, and J. Yu, “Adiabatic population transfer in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 845–848 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, J.

J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, D. E. Nikonov, and M. O. Scully, “A scheme for noninversion lasing for short wavelength lasers in helium like ions,” Found. Phys. 28, 611–619 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic system,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Fearn, C. Keitel, M. O. Scully, and S. Zhu, “Lasing without inversion in a simple model of a three-level laser with microwave coupling,” Opt. Commun. 87, 323–330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, S. Y.

M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. Fearn, “Lasing without inversion. I. Initial atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, M. O. Scully, H. Fearn, and L. M. Narducci, “Lasing without inversion. II. Raman process created atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).

L. M. Narducci, H. M. Doss, P. Ru, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and C. Keitel, “A simple model of laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 81, 379–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, C. H. Keitel, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Physical origin of the gain in a four-level model of a Raman driven laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 86, 324–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zibrov, A. S.

M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, G. R. Welch, E. S. Fry, L. Hollberg, C. G. Padmabandu, H. G. Robinson, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: the road to new short-wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys. 6, 436–447 (1996).

D. E. Nikonov, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, E. S. Fry, L. W. Hollberg, G. G. Padmbandu, G. R. Welch, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: a dream come true,” in Coherent Phenomena and Amplification without Inversion, A. L. Andreev, O. A. Kocharovskaya, and P. Mandel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2798, 342–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zubairy, M. S.

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic system,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
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Appl. Phys. B

M. Fleischhauer, T. McIllrath, and M. O. Scully, “Coherent population trapping and Fano-type interferences in lasing without inversion,” Appl. Phys. B 60, S123–S127 (1995).

Found. Phys.

S. Zhu, D. E. Nikonov, and M. O. Scully, “A scheme for noninversion lasing for short wavelength lasers in helium like ions,” Found. Phys. 28, 611–619 (1998).
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M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, G. R. Welch, E. S. Fry, L. Hollberg, C. G. Padmabandu, H. G. Robinson, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: the road to new short-wavelength lasers,” Laser Phys. 6, 436–447 (1996).

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P. S. Bhatia, G. R. Welch and M. O. Scully, “A single mode semiconductor diode laser operating in strong feedback regime and tunable within D1 line of Cs atom,” Opt. Commun. 189, 321–336 (2001).
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J. Gao, C. Guo, X. Guo, G. Jin, P. Wang, J. Zhao, H. Zhang, Y. Jiang, D. Wang, and D. Jiang, “Observation of light amplification without population inversion in sodium,” Opt. Commun. 93, 323–327 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer and M. O. Scully, “Lasing without inversion versus optical pumping and lasing without inversion assisted by optical pumping,” Opt. Commun. 105, 79–83 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, H. M. Doss, P. Ru, M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and C. Keitel, “A simple model of laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 81, 379–384 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, C. H. Keitel, S. Y. Zhu, and H. M. Doss, “Physical origin of the gain in a four-level model of a Raman driven laser without inversion,” Opt. Commun. 86, 324–332 (1991).
[CrossRef]

H. Fearn, C. Keitel, M. O. Scully, and S. Zhu, “Lasing without inversion in a simple model of a three-level laser with microwave coupling,” Opt. Commun. 87, 323–330 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel, L. M. Narducci, M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and M. S. Zubairy, “Lasing without inversion: interference of radiatively broadened resonances in dressed atomic system,” Opt. Commun. 94, 599–608 (1992).
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Phys. Rev. A

S. F. Yelin, M. D. Lukin, M. O. Scully, and P. Mandel, “Gain without inversion in the frequency up-conversion regime,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 3858–3868 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Pillet, C. Valentin, R. L. Yuan, and J. Yu, “Adiabatic population transfer in a multilevel system,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 845–848 (1993).
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O. Kocharovskaya, P. Mandel, and Y. V. Radeonychev, “Inversionless amplification in a three-level medium,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1997–2005 (1992).
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A. Imamoglu, R. J. Ram, S. Pau, and Y. Yamamoto, “Nonequilibrium condensates and lasers without inversion,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 4250–4253 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. B. de Jong, A. Mavromanolakis, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and H. B. van Linden van den Heuvell, “Synchronously pumped laser without inversion in cadmium,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4869–4876 (1998).
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Phys. Rev. Lett.

A. S. Zibrov, M. D. Lukin, D. E. Nikonov, L. Hollberg, M. O. Scully, V. L. Velichansky, and H. G. Robinson, “Experimental demonstration of laser oscillation without population inversion via quantum interference in Rb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1499–1502 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. S. Fry, X. Li, D. Nikonov, G. G. Padmabandu, M. O. Scully, A. V. Smith, F. K. Tittel, C. Wang, S. R. Wilkinson, and S. Zhu, “Atomic coherence effects within the sodium D1 line: lasing without inversion via population trapping,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3235–3238 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. G. Padmabandu, G. R. Welch, I. N. Shubin, E. S. Fry, D. E. Nikonov, M. D. Lukin, and M. O. Scully, “Laser oscillation without population inversion in sodium atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2053–2056 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, and A. Hutchinson, “Quantum cascade lasers without intersubband population inversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 411–414 (1996).
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M. O. Scully, S. Zhu, and A. Gavrielides, “Degenerate quantum-beat laser: lasing without inversion and inversion without lasing,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2813–2816 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Weitz, B. C. Young, and S. Chu, “Atom interferometer based on adiabatic population transfer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2563–2566 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Goldner, C. Gerz, R. J. C. Spreeuw, S. L. Rolston, C. I. Westbrook, and W. D. Phillips, “Momentum transfer in laser-cooled cesium by adiabatic passage in a light field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 997–1000 (1994).
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[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

D. E. Nikonov, M. O. Scully, M. D. Lukin, E. S. Fry, L. W. Hollberg, G. G. Padmbandu, G. R. Welch, and A. S. Zibrov, “Lasing without inversion: a dream come true,” in Coherent Phenomena and Amplification without Inversion, A. L. Andreev, O. A. Kocharovskaya, and P. Mandel, eds., Proc. SPIE 2798, 342–350 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Science

M. O. Scully and M. Fleischhauer, “Lasers without inversion,” Science 263, 337–338 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Rundquist, C. G. Durfee, Z. Chang, C. Herne, S. Backus, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Phase-matched generation of coherent soft x-rays,” Science 280, 1412–1415 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Naturforsch. Teil A

H. Lee and M. O. Scully, “Manifestation of quantum interference in lasing without inversion,” Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 54, 33–38 (1999).

Z. Phys. D

M. O. Scully, S. Y. Zhu, and H. Fearn, “Lasing without inversion. I. Initial atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Zhu, M. O. Scully, H. Fearn, and L. M. Narducci, “Lasing without inversion. II. Raman process created atomic coherence,” Z. Phys. D 22, 471–481 (1992).

Other

M. O. Scully and M. S. Zubairy, Quantum Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1997).

www.exciton.com.

A. Sher, Lasers without Inversion and Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1998).

O. Svelto, Principles of Lasers (Plenum, New York, 1998).

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

D. Waarts, “Semiconductor lasers for frequency conversion,” in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 1 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), p. 56.

ftp://optocan_guest:optocan@ftp.perkinelmer.com/Optocan/, Optoelectronics Division, EG & G Canada LTEE/Ltd., Vaudreuil, Quebec, Canada.

W. T. Welford, Aberrations of the Symmetrical Optical System (Academic, New York, 1974).

P. S. Bhatia, G. R. Welch, and M. O. Scully, “LWI gain free from Raman gain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Generic Λ atomic scheme. Two resonant fields tuned to transitions ba and ca with their respective Rabi frequencies Ωab and Ωac share a common upper level. Transition bc is dipole forbidden.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coefficients of coupling between various Zeeman sublevels of the ground state (6 2S1/2) and the excited state (6 2P1/2) of the D1 line of the Cs atom: (a) π-polarized light, (b) σ+-polarized light. These coefficients are normalized such that the squares of all the coefficients within the D1 line add to unity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental realization of the Λ atomic scheme in the D1 line of the  133Cs(I=7/2) atom. Lines with double arrows show the state of polarization of the lasers.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Schematic overview of the diode-based LWI spectrometer: W’s, 3/4-in. diameter antireflection-coated exit windows; HP1–HP5, folding-mirror arrangement for height and polarization adjustment of the diode-laser beam; T, Galilean telescope; L1–L4, focusing lenses; P1–P4, polarizers; SC, sample cell; As, irises; Ms, turning mirrors; GF, glass flat; BS1–BS4, beam splitters; ATs, beam attenuators; PD1, PD2, photodiodes; AOM, acousto-optic modulator, LO, local oscillator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Large-diameter drive beam overlapping a smaller-diameter probe beam at an angle. Within the cell boundaries the drive beam fully overlaps the probe beam. If the angle between the two beams remains fixed then, as the drive-beam diameter is reduced, the drive beam within the cell boundaries will no longer fully overlap the probe beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Incorrectly and (b) correctly overlapped probe and drive beams. Within the cell boundaries the drive beam (D) fully overlaps the probe beam (P) in (b) but not in (a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Absorption spectrum of a weak probe laser. (b) Modification of the probe absorption spectrum in the presence of a strong drive beam. (c) Observed LWI gain in the probe transition in the presence of drive and incoherent pump lasers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Effect of an incoherent pump laser on the absorption of the probe laser. Probe absorption (a) without and (b), (c) with an incoherent pump laser. The incoherent pump laser intensity in (c) is greater than in (b).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Values of Relevant Characteristics of the D1 Line of the Cs Atoma

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Table 2 Laser Parametersa

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G=3λab2Nγab4π ImρabΩab,
G=3λab2Nγab4π(ρaa-ρbb)γbc+(ρcc-ρaa)|Ωac|2γacγabγbc+|Ωac|2,

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