Abstract

We report the measurement of reverse saturable absorption and an optical limiting response in a new metallorganic material, (Me4N)2[Cd(dmit)(Sph)2], with nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. Pump–probe and open-aperture Z-scan techniques were used as mechanisms for an optical limiting response. The experimental results show that triplet–triplet absorption is responsible for measurable reverse saturable absorption at 532 nm, which results in optical limiting. The measured data can be simulated well by a rate-equation model, and thus the absorption cross section of the excited state can be evaluated.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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1999 (7)

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Torres, G. de la Torre, and J. Garcia-Ruiz, “Synthesis of new push-pull unsymmetrically substituted unsaturated metallophthalocyanines: targets for nonlinear optics,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 2323–2326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (7)

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).
[CrossRef]

O. V. Przhonska, J. H. Lim, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, “Nonlinear light absorption of polymethine dyes in liquid and solid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 802–809 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Shang, Y. Liu, G. Tang, G. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Optical nonlinearities of hypocrellin a with the excitation of nanosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1502–1511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, Z. Bao, L. Yu, B. Hsieh, and U. Scherf, “Femtosecond Z-scan and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements of real and imaginary parts of the third-order nonlinearity of soluble conjugated polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 817–824 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (1)

S. Hughes and B. Wherrett, “Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitation to optical limiting dyes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546–3552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

1994 (1)

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adant, C.

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Albota, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bao, Z.

Bechlel, J. H.

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).

Beljonne, D.

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bhatt, J. C.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bondar, M. V.

Boutton, C.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Br?das, J. L.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Br?das, J.-L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bramerie, L.

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Brochard, P.

Brott, L. L.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cabanel, R.

Cao, Z. Q.

Chen, S. P.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

Chen, Y. L.

Chen, Y. X.

Clarson, S. J.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).

de Araújo, C. B.

de la Torre, G.

T. Torres, G. de la Torre, and J. Garcia-Ruiz, “Synthesis of new push-pull unsymmetrically substituted unsaturated metallophthalocyanines: targets for nonlinear optics,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 2323–2326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

de Melo, C. P.

Demenicis, L.

Deng, X.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Detrembleur, C.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dillard, A. G.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

dos Santos, C. G.

Drost, K. J.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).

Dubois, P.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ehrlich, J. E.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fu, J.-Y.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gang, Y.

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Ruiz, J.

T. Torres, G. de la Torre, and J. Garcia-Ruiz, “Synthesis of new push-pull unsymmetrically substituted unsaturated metallophthalocyanines: targets for nonlinear optics,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 2323–2326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

Grolier-Mazza, V.

Hagan, D. J.

O. V. Przhonska, J. H. Lim, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, “Nonlinear light absorption of polymethine dyes in liquid and solid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 802–809 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, G. S.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Heikal, A. A.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hess, S. E.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, B.

Hu, Z.-Y.

Hughes, S.

S. Hughes and B. Wherrett, “Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitation to optical limiting dyes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546–3552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J?rome, R.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K. Y

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).

Jonusauskas, G.

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kannan, R.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kogej, T.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lee, I.-Y. S.

Levin, M. D.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

Lin, W.

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).

Liu, S.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).

X. Shang, Y. Liu, G. Tang, G. Zhang, and W. Chen, “Optical nonlinearities of hypocrellin a with the excitation of nanosecond pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1502–1511 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Maertens, C.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McCord-Maughon, D.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

McElvain, J.

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, F.

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oberle, J.

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. J.

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).

Perry, J. W.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, D. V.

Pierce, B. M.

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Przhonska, O. V.

Reinhardt, B. A.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. S. He, G. C. Xu, P. N. Prasad, B. A. Reinhardt, J. C. Bhatt, and A. G. Dillard, “Two-photon absorption and optical-limiting properties of novel organic compounds,” Opt. Lett. 20, 435–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rockel, H.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Ehrlich, X. L. Wu, I.-Y. S. Lee, Z.-Y. Hu, H. Rockel, S. R. Marder, and J. W. Perry, “Two-photon absorption and broadband optical limiting with bis-donor stilbenes,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1843–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rulliere, C.

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rumi, M.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Samoc, A.

Samoc, M.

Scherf, U.

Shang, X.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Y.

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).

Slominsky, Y. L.

Song, Y.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Souto-Maior, R.

Subramaniam, G.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tackx, P.

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tang, G.

Torres, T.

T. Torres, G. de la Torre, and J. Garcia-Ruiz, “Synthesis of new push-pull unsymmetrically substituted unsaturated metallophthalocyanines: targets for nonlinear optics,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 2323–2326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. Y.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

O. V. Przhonska, J. H. Lim, D. J. Hagan, E. W. Van Stryland, M. V. Bondar, and Y. L. Slominsky, “Nonlinear light absorption of polymethine dyes in liquid and solid media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 802–809 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).

Wang, Y.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Webb, W. W.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wen, T. C.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B.

S. Hughes and B. Wherrett, “Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitation to optical limiting dyes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546–3552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X. L.

Wu, X.-L.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. C.

Yu, L.

Yuan, L.

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Zhang, X.

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).

Zheng, L.

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).

Zhou, J.

Adv. Mater. (2)

Y. Gang, J. Wang, J. McElvain, and A. J. Heeger, “Large-area, full-color image sensors made with semiconducting polymers,” Adv. Mater. 11, 1431–1434 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Y Jen, Y. Liu, L. Zheng, S. Liu, K. J. Drost, Y. Zhang, and L. R. Dalton, “Synthesis and characterization of highly efficient, chemically and thermally stable chromophores with chromone-containing electron acceptors for NLO applications,” Adv. Mater. 11, 452–455 (1999).

Chem. Eur. J. (1)

C. Maertens, C. Detrembleur, P. Dubois, R. Jκrome, C. Boutton, A. Persoons, T. Kogej, and J. L. Brκdas, “Structure–second-order polarizability relationship in chromophores incorporating a spacer: a joint experimental and theoretical study,” Chem. Eur. J. 5, 369–380 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (1)

B. A. Reinhardt, L. L. Brott, S. J. Clarson, A. G. Dillard, J. C. Bhatt, R. Kannan, L. Yuan, G. S. He, and P. N. Prasad, “Highly active two-photon dyes: design, synthesis, and characterization toward application,” Chem. Mater. 10, 1863–1874 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Kogej, D. Beljonne, F. Meyers, J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, and J. L. Brκdas, “Mechanisms for enhancement of two-photon absorption in donor-acceptor conjugated chromophores,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 298, 1–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

J.-L. Brκdas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, A. Persoons, and B. M. Pierce, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Eur. J. Org. Chem. (1)

T. Torres, G. de la Torre, and J. Garcia-Ruiz, “Synthesis of new push-pull unsymmetrically substituted unsaturated metallophthalocyanines: targets for nonlinear optics,” Eur. J. Org. Chem. 1999, 2323–2326 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Wang, Y. Shi, D. J. Olson, W. Lin, and J. H. Bechlel, “Push-pull poled polymer Mach–Zehnder modulators with a single microstrip line electrode,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 51–53 (1999).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Opt. Commun. (2)

X. Deng, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Song, S. Liu, and C. Li, “Intensity threshold in the conversion from reverse saturable absorption to saturable absorption and its application in optical limiting,” Opt. Commun. 168, 207–221 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Oberle, L. Bramerie, G. Jonusauskas, and C. Rulliere, “Optical-limiting properties of push-pull diphenyl-butadiene,” Opt. Commun. 169, 325–332 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

S. Hughes and B. Wherrett, “Multilevel rate-equation analysis to explain the recent observations of limitation to optical limiting dyes,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3546–3552 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors, and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

M. Albota, D. Beljonne, J.-L. Brκdas, J. E. Ehrlich, J.-Y. Fu, A. A. Heikal, S. E. Hess, T. Kogej, M. D. Levin, S. R. Marder, D. McCord-Maughon, J. W. Perry, H. Rockel, M. Rumi, G. Subramaniam, W. W. Webb, X.-L. Wu, and C. Xu, “Design of organic molecules with large two-photon absorption cross sections,” Science 281, 1653–1656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

M. Kuzyk, “All-optical materials and devices,” in Organic Thin Films for Waveguiding Nonlinear Optics, F. Kajzar and J. D. Swalen, eds. (Gordon & Breach, Amsterdam, 1996), pp. 759–820.
[CrossRef]

H. Nishihara, M. Haruna, and T. Suhara, Optical Integrated Circuits (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1989).
[CrossRef]

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyatu, Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC Press, Boca Reton, Fla., 1997).

B. S. Furniss, A. J. Hannaford, P. W. G. Smith, and A. R. Tatchell, Vogel’s Textbook of Practical Organic Chemistry, 5th ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 1257–1260.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structure and visible absorption spectrum of (Me4N)2[Zn(dmit)(Sph)2] (2.5×10-4 mol L-1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for optical limiting: BS1, BS2, beam splitters; L1L4, lenses; PD1PD3, photodiodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the setup for the pump–probe experiment: M1, M2, reflective mirrors; L1L4, lenses; PD; photodiode; PMT, photomultiplier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical limiting for the acetone solution of (Me4N)2[Cd(dmit)(Sph)2] at several concentrations at a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse width of 12 ns. Filled circles, experimental data; solid curves, theoretical fitting curves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectrum of the excited states for the acetone solution of (Me4N)2[Cd(dmit)(Sph)2] pumped by a cw Ar+ 514-nm laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Five-level model of RSA.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Open-aperture Z scan for the acetone solution of (Me4N)2[Cd(dmit)(Sph)2] at a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse width of 12 ns. Filled circles, experimental data; solid curve, theoretical fitting curve.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ddtNt(x, t)=(N0-Nt)I σ0hν,
ddxI(x, t)=(N0-Ni)σ0I-NtσtI,

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