Abstract

We report the measurement of reverse saturable absorption and an optical limiting response in a new metallorganic material, (Me4N)2[Cd(dmit)(Sph)2], with nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm. Pump–probe and open-aperture Z-scan techniques were used as mechanisms for an optical limiting response. The experimental results show that triplet–triplet absorption is responsible for measurable reverse saturable absorption at 532 nm, which results in optical limiting. The measured data can be simulated well by a rate-equation model, and thus the absorption cross section of the excited state can be evaluated.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron.,  17, 299–338 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. I. R. Whittall, A. M. McDonagh, M. G. Humphrey, and M. Samoc, “Organometallic complexes in nonlinear optics II: third-order nonlinearities and optical limiting studies,” Adv. Org. Chem. 43, 349–405 (1998).
  3. C. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2013–2020 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. D. Smith, “Laser, nonlinear optics and the optical computers: the first all-optical circuits,” Nature 316, 319–324 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. W. Van Stryland, Y. Y. Wu, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Soileau, and K. Mansour, “Optical limiting with semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1980–1989 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, “New optical limiting materials: synthesis, structures and nonlinear absorption of cubic cage shaped clusters,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 363–368 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, and A. A. Said, “Application of nonlinear optics to passive optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optics in Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 841–860.
  8. C. T. Law and G. A. Swartzlander, “Implementation of a package for optical limiter modeling,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids and Power Limiters, 95–106 (1997).
  9. H. A. Abdeldayem, D. O. Frazier, and M. S. Paley, “All-optical nand logic gate using organic materials,” in Operational Characteristics and Crystal Growth of Nonlinear Optical Materials, R. V. Lal and D. O. Frazier, eds., Proc. SPIE3793, 113–119 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of reverse saturable absorber limiters: material requirements and design considerations,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 161–172 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE–3, 358–367 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. R. Allan, D. R. Labergerie, S. J. Rychnovsky, T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond reverse saturable absorption in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6313–6317 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. R. Allan, S. J. Rychnovsky, C. H. Venzke, T. F. Boggess, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond investigations of the excited-state transition at 532 nm in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4 and synthesized analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 216–221 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, and M. Laghate, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting IN metalloporphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 147, 328–332 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Narayana Rao, S. Venugopal Rao, F. J. Aranda, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, M. Nakashima, and J. A. Akkara, “Ultrafast relaxation times of metalloporphyrins by time resolved degenerate four-wave mixing incoherent light,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2710–2715 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. F. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, “Synthesis and optical limiting capability of cubane-like mixed metal clusters (n-Bu4N)3[MoAg3BrX3S4] (X=Cl and I),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Ji, H. J. Du, S. H. Tang, and S. Shi, “Nanosecond reverse saturable absorption in cubanelike transition-metal clusters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876–881 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. L. W. Tutt and S. W. McCahon, “Reverse saturable absorption in metal cluster compounds,” Opt. Lett. 15, 700–702 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. X. Sun, Q. H. Gong, S. C. Yang, Y. H. Zou, L. Fei, X. H. Zhou, and D. Qiang, “Optical limiting properties of buckminsterfullerene C60/C70,” Opt. Commun. 102, 205–207 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. C. F. Li, L. Zhang, R. B. Wang, Y. L. Song, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1356–1360 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. V. Golovlev, W. R. Garrett, and C. H. Chen, “Reverse saturable absorption of C60 in liquids irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2801–2806 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. I. D. L. Albert, T. J. Marks, M. A. Ratner, and W. R. D. Rauh, “Optical limiting chromophores. Correlation effects in computing triplet–triplet absorption energies of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 837–844 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  31. Z. Jin, X. Sun, G. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 505–510 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  32. X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632–3634 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  33. L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  34. J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

2000 (6)

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. D. L. Albert, T. J. Marks, M. A. Ratner, and W. R. D. Rauh, “Optical limiting chromophores. Correlation effects in computing triplet–triplet absorption energies of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 837–844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jin, X. Sun, G. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (3)

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2013–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, and M. Laghate, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting IN metalloporphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 147, 328–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Whittall, A. M. McDonagh, M. G. Humphrey, and M. Samoc, “Organometallic complexes in nonlinear optics II: third-order nonlinearities and optical limiting studies,” Adv. Org. Chem. 43, 349–405 (1998).

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

V. V. Golovlev, W. R. Garrett, and C. H. Chen, “Reverse saturable absorption of C60 in liquids irradiated by picosecond and nanosecond laser pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2801–2806 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, “New optical limiting materials: synthesis, structures and nonlinear absorption of cubic cage shaped clusters,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 363–368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of reverse saturable absorber limiters: material requirements and design considerations,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 161–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Ji, H. J. Du, S. H. Tang, and S. Shi, “Nanosecond reverse saturable absorption in cubanelike transition-metal clusters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876–881 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, “Synthesis and optical limiting capability of cubane-like mixed metal clusters (n-Bu4N)3[MoAg3BrX3S4] (X=Cl and I),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, R. B. Wang, Y. L. Song, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1356–1360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, S. J. Rychnovsky, C. H. Venzke, T. F. Boggess, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond investigations of the excited-state transition at 532 nm in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4 and synthesized analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 216–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron.,  17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Sun, Q. H. Gong, S. C. Yang, Y. H. Zou, L. Fei, X. H. Zhou, and D. Qiang, “Optical limiting properties of buckminsterfullerene C60/C70,” Opt. Commun. 102, 205–207 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

G. R. Allan, D. R. Labergerie, S. J. Rychnovsky, T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond reverse saturable absorption in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6313–6317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

L. W. Tutt and S. W. McCahon, “Reverse saturable absorption in metal cluster compounds,” Opt. Lett. 15, 700–702 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

S. D. Smith, “Laser, nonlinear optics and the optical computers: the first all-optical circuits,” Nature 316, 319–324 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE–3, 358–367 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Abdeldayem, H. A.

H. A. Abdeldayem, D. O. Frazier, and M. S. Paley, “All-optical nand logic gate using organic materials,” in Operational Characteristics and Crystal Growth of Nonlinear Optical Materials, R. V. Lal and D. O. Frazier, eds., Proc. SPIE3793, 113–119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Akkara, J. A.

Albert, I. D. L.

I. D. L. Albert, T. J. Marks, M. A. Ratner, and W. R. D. Rauh, “Optical limiting chromophores. Correlation effects in computing triplet–triplet absorption energies of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 837–844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Allan, G. R.

G. R. Allan, S. J. Rychnovsky, C. H. Venzke, T. F. Boggess, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond investigations of the excited-state transition at 532 nm in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4 and synthesized analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 216–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, D. R. Labergerie, S. J. Rychnovsky, T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond reverse saturable absorption in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6313–6317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Andrieux, M.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anglaret, E.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aranda, F. J.

Bacou, F.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, R.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bedworth, P. V.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bernier, P.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bian, G. Q.

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Boggess, T. F.

G. R. Allan, S. J. Rychnovsky, C. H. Venzke, T. F. Boggess, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond investigations of the excited-state transition at 532 nm in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4 and synthesized analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 216–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron.,  17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, D. R. Labergerie, S. J. Rychnovsky, T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond reverse saturable absorption in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6313–6317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brunet, M.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cha, M.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, C. T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S. P.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of reverse saturable absorber limiters: material requirements and design considerations,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 161–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Du, H. J.

Fei, L.

Y. X. Sun, Q. H. Gong, S. C. Yang, Y. H. Zou, L. Fei, X. H. Zhou, and D. Qiang, “Optical limiting properties of buckminsterfullerene C60/C70,” Opt. Commun. 102, 205–207 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Frazier, D. O.

H. A. Abdeldayem, D. O. Frazier, and M. S. Paley, “All-optical nand logic gate using organic materials,” in Operational Characteristics and Crystal Growth of Nonlinear Optical Materials, R. V. Lal and D. O. Frazier, eds., Proc. SPIE3793, 113–119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, W. R.

Giuliano, C. R.

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE–3, 358–367 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Goh, S. H.

Z. Jin, X. Sun, G. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Golovlev, V. V.

Gong, Q. H.

Y. X. Sun, Q. H. Gong, S. C. Yang, Y. H. Zou, L. Fei, X. H. Zhou, and D. Qiang, “Optical limiting properties of buckminsterfullerene C60/C70,” Opt. Commun. 102, 205–207 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Govindaraj, A.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Goze, C.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of reverse saturable absorber limiters: material requirements and design considerations,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 161–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, Y. Y. Wu, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Soileau, and K. Mansour, “Optical limiting with semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1980–1989 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, and A. A. Said, “Application of nonlinear optics to passive optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optics in Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 841–860.

Hasabe, H.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heeger, A. J.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hess, L. D.

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE–3, 358–367 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Hor, T. S. A.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. H.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hummelen, J. C.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Humphrey, M. G.

I. R. Whittall, A. M. McDonagh, M. G. Humphrey, and M. Samoc, “Organometallic complexes in nonlinear optics II: third-order nonlinearities and optical limiting studies,” Adv. Org. Chem. 43, 349–405 (1998).

Ji, W.

Z. Jin, X. Sun, G. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, “New optical limiting materials: synthesis, structures and nonlinear absorption of cubic cage shaped clusters,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 363–368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Ji, H. J. Du, S. H. Tang, and S. Shi, “Nanosecond reverse saturable absorption in cubanelike transition-metal clusters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876–881 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, “Synthesis and optical limiting capability of cubane-like mixed metal clusters (n-Bu4N)3[MoAg3BrX3S4] (X=Cl and I),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jin, Z.

Z. Jin, X. Sun, G. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Journet, C.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kohlman, R. S.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Labergerie, D. R.

G. R. Allan, D. R. Labergerie, S. J. Rychnovsky, T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond reverse saturable absorption in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6313–6317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lafonta, F.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Laghate, M.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, and M. Laghate, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting IN metalloporphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 147, 328–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lang, J. P.

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, “Synthesis and optical limiting capability of cubane-like mixed metal clusters (n-Bu4N)3[MoAg3BrX3S4] (X=Cl and I),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Law, C. T.

C. T. Law and G. A. Swartzlander, “Implementation of a package for optical limiter modeling,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids and Power Limiters, 95–106 (1997).

Lee, L.-Y. S.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, C. F.

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, R. B. Wang, Y. L. Song, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1356–1360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, M. S.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Maekawa, M.

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Malko, A. I.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, K.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, Y. Y. Wu, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Soileau, and K. Mansour, “Optical limiting with semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1980–1989 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

I. D. L. Albert, T. J. Marks, M. A. Ratner, and W. R. D. Rauh, “Optical limiting chromophores. Correlation effects in computing triplet–triplet absorption energies of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 837–844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

McBranch, D. W.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

McCahon, S. W.

McDonagh, A. M.

I. R. Whittall, A. M. McDonagh, M. G. Humphrey, and M. Samoc, “Organometallic complexes in nonlinear optics II: third-order nonlinearities and optical limiting studies,” Adv. Org. Chem. 43, 349–405 (1998).

Mehendale, S. C.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Miles, P.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mishra, S. R.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, and M. Laghate, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting IN metalloporphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 147, 328–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Moreshead, W. V.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Munakata, M.

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Nakashima, M.

Narayana Rao, D.

Ng, D.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nogues, J. L. R.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Paley, M. S.

H. A. Abdeldayem, D. O. Frazier, and M. S. Paley, “All-optical nand logic gate using organic materials,” in Operational Characteristics and Crystal Growth of Nonlinear Optical Materials, R. V. Lal and D. O. Frazier, eds., Proc. SPIE3793, 113–119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Qiang, D.

Y. X. Sun, Q. H. Gong, S. C. Yang, Y. H. Zou, L. Fei, X. H. Zhou, and D. Qiang, “Optical limiting properties of buckminsterfullerene C60/C70,” Opt. Commun. 102, 205–207 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rao, C. N. R.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

Ratner, M. A.

I. D. L. Albert, T. J. Marks, M. A. Ratner, and W. R. D. Rauh, “Optical limiting chromophores. Correlation effects in computing triplet–triplet absorption energies of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 837–844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rauh, W. R. D.

I. D. L. Albert, T. J. Marks, M. A. Ratner, and W. R. D. Rauh, “Optical limiting chromophores. Correlation effects in computing triplet–triplet absorption energies of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 837–844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rawat, H. S.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, and M. Laghate, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting IN metalloporphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 147, 328–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Riehl, D.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rustagi, K. C.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Rychnovsky, S. J.

G. R. Allan, S. J. Rychnovsky, C. H. Venzke, T. F. Boggess, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond investigations of the excited-state transition at 532 nm in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4 and synthesized analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 216–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, D. R. Labergerie, S. J. Rychnovsky, T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond reverse saturable absorption in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6313–6317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of reverse saturable absorber limiters: material requirements and design considerations,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 161–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, and A. A. Said, “Application of nonlinear optics to passive optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optics in Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 841–860.

Samoc, M.

I. R. Whittall, A. M. McDonagh, M. G. Humphrey, and M. Samoc, “Organometallic complexes in nonlinear optics II: third-order nonlinearities and optical limiting studies,” Adv. Org. Chem. 43, 349–405 (1998).

Sariciftci, N. S.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shi, S.

W. Ji, H. J. Du, S. H. Tang, and S. Shi, “Nanosecond reverse saturable absorption in cubanelike transition-metal clusters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876–881 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, “New optical limiting materials: synthesis, structures and nonlinear absorption of cubic cage shaped clusters,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 363–368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, “Synthesis and optical limiting capability of cubane-like mixed metal clusters (n-Bu4N)3[MoAg3BrX3S4] (X=Cl and I),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smilowitz, L.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A. L.

G. R. Allan, D. R. Labergerie, S. J. Rychnovsky, T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond reverse saturable absorption in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6313–6317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. D.

S. D. Smith, “Laser, nonlinear optics and the optical computers: the first all-optical circuits,” Nature 316, 319–324 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

Song, Y. L.

Sood, A. K.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Spangler, C. W.

C. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2013–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Z. Jin, X. Sun, G. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. X.

Y. X. Sun, Q. H. Gong, S. C. Yang, Y. H. Zou, L. Fei, X. H. Zhou, and D. Qiang, “Optical limiting properties of buckminsterfullerene C60/C70,” Opt. Commun. 102, 205–207 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Z. R.

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Swartzlander, G. A.

C. T. Law and G. A. Swartzlander, “Implementation of a package for optical limiter modeling,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids and Power Limiters, 95–106 (1997).

Tang, S. H.

W. Ji, H. J. Du, S. H. Tang, and S. Shi, “Nanosecond reverse saturable absorption in cubanelike transition-metal clusters,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876–881 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, “Synthesis and optical limiting capability of cubane-like mixed metal clusters (n-Bu4N)3[MoAg3BrX3S4] (X=Cl and I),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tien, M.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tong, M. H.

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. Y.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, P. C.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L.

G. R. Allan, S. J. Rychnovsky, C. H. Venzke, T. F. Boggess, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond investigations of the excited-state transition at 532 nm in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4 and synthesized analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 216–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, D. R. Labergerie, S. J. Rychnovsky, T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond reverse saturable absorption in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6313–6317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tutt, L. W.

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron.,  17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Tutt and S. W. McCahon, “Reverse saturable absorption in metal cluster compounds,” Opt. Lett. 15, 700–702 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Stryland, E.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of reverse saturable absorber limiters: material requirements and design considerations,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 161–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, Y. Y. Wu, D. J. Hagan, M. J. Soileau, and K. Mansour, “Optical limiting with semiconductors,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1980–1989 (1988).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, and A. A. Said, “Application of nonlinear optics to passive optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optics in Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 841–860.

Venugopal Rao, S.

Venzke, C. H.

G. R. Allan, S. J. Rychnovsky, C. H. Venzke, T. F. Boggess, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond investigations of the excited-state transition at 532 nm in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4 and synthesized analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 216–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wada, T.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, H. L.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R. B.

Wang, X.

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y. X.

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, R. B. Wang, Y. L. Song, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1356–1360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wen, T. C.

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Whittall, I. R.

I. R. Whittall, A. M. McDonagh, M. G. Humphrey, and M. Samoc, “Organometallic complexes in nonlinear optics II: third-order nonlinearities and optical limiting studies,” Adv. Org. Chem. 43, 349–405 (1998).

Wu, T. T.

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wu, X.-L.

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y. Y.

Wudl, F.

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of reverse saturable absorber limiters: material requirements and design considerations,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 161–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, and A. A. Said, “Application of nonlinear optics to passive optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optics in Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 841–860.

Xin, X. Q.

S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, “New optical limiting materials: synthesis, structures and nonlinear absorption of cubic cage shaped clusters,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 363–368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, “Synthesis and optical limiting capability of cubane-like mixed metal clusters (n-Bu4N)3[MoAg3BrX3S4] (X=Cl and I),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G.

Z. Jin, X. Sun, G. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, G. Q.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q. F.

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Xu, S.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M.

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, S.

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, S. C.

Y. X. Sun, Q. H. Gong, S. C. Yang, Y. H. Zou, L. Fei, X. H. Zhou, and D. Qiang, “Optical limiting properties of buckminsterfullerene C60/C70,” Opt. Commun. 102, 205–207 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R. Q.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H. P.

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, R. B. Wang, Y. L. Song, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamics of reverse saturable absorption and all-optical switching in C60,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1356–1360 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, M. Y.

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, X. H.

Y. X. Sun, Q. H. Gong, S. C. Yang, Y. H. Zou, L. Fei, X. H. Zhou, and D. Qiang, “Optical limiting properties of buckminsterfullerene C60/C70,” Opt. Commun. 102, 205–207 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zou, Y. H.

Y. X. Sun, Q. H. Gong, S. C. Yang, Y. H. Zou, L. Fei, X. H. Zhou, and D. Qiang, “Optical limiting properties of buckminsterfullerene C60/C70,” Opt. Commun. 102, 205–207 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Org. Chem. (1)

I. R. Whittall, A. M. McDonagh, M. G. Humphrey, and M. Samoc, “Organometallic complexes in nonlinear optics II: third-order nonlinearities and optical limiting studies,” Adv. Org. Chem. 43, 349–405 (1998).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. Cha, N. S. Sariciftci, A. J. Heeger, J. C. Hummelen, and F. Wudl, “Enhanced nonlinear absorption and optical limiting in semiconducting polymer/methanofullerene charge transfer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3850–3852 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Y. Tsai, S. P. Chen, and T. C. Wen, “Nonlinear absorption and refraction in porphyrazine derivatives,” Chem. Phys. 240, 191–196 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (4)

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 307, 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 317, 510–514 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Z. Jin, X. Sun, G. Xu, S. H. Goh, and W. Ji, “Nonlinear optical properties of some polymer/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 505–510 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. H. Wei, T. H. Huang, T. T. Wu, P. C. Tsai, and M. S. Lin, “Studies of nonlinear absorption and refraction in C60/toluene solution,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 318, 53–57 (2000).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Giuliano and L. D. Hess, “Nonlinear absorption of light: optical saturation of electronic transitions in organic molecules with high intensity laser radiation,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE–3, 358–367 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

J. Dai, G. Q. Bian, X. Wang, Q. F. Xu, M. Y. Zhou, M. Munakata, M. Maekawa, M. H. Tong, Z. R. Sun, and H. P. Zeng, “A new method to synthesize unsymmetrical dithiolene metal complexes of 1,3-dithiole-2-thione-4,5-dithiolate for third-order nonlinear optical applications,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 122, 11007–11008 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, “Synthesis and optical limiting capability of cubane-like mixed metal clusters (n-Bu4N)3[MoAg3BrX3S4] (X=Cl and I),” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

C. W. Spangler, “Recent development in the design of organic materials for optical power limiting,” J. Mater. Chem. 9, 2013–2020 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

J. Phys. Chem. (3)

I. D. L. Albert, T. J. Marks, M. A. Ratner, and W. R. D. Rauh, “Optical limiting chromophores. Correlation effects in computing triplet–triplet absorption energies of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 104, 837–844 (2000).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, D. R. Labergerie, S. J. Rychnovsky, T. F. Boggess, A. L. Smirl, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond reverse saturable absorption in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 6313–6317 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Allan, S. J. Rychnovsky, C. H. Venzke, T. F. Boggess, and L. Tutt, “Picosecond investigations of the excited-state transition at 532 nm in King’s complex [(C5H5)Fe(CO)]4 and synthesized analogs,” J. Phys. Chem. 98, 216–221 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. (2)

S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, “New optical limiting materials: synthesis, structures and nonlinear absorption of cubic cage shaped clusters,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 363–368 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of reverse saturable absorber limiters: material requirements and design considerations,” Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. 374, 161–172 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. D. Smith, “Laser, nonlinear optics and the optical computers: the first all-optical circuits,” Nature 316, 319–324 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, and M. Laghate, “Nonlinear absorption and optical limiting IN metalloporphyrins,” Opt. Commun. 147, 328–332 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Hache, F. Bacou, M. Andrieux, F. Lafonta, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Brunet, and P. Bernier, “Optical limiting properties of single-wall carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Commun. 174, 271–275 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Y. X. Sun, Q. H. Gong, S. C. Yang, Y. H. Zou, L. Fei, X. H. Zhou, and D. Qiang, “Optical limiting properties of buckminsterfullerene C60/C70,” Opt. Commun. 102, 205–207 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

C. F. Li, L. Zhang, M. Yang, H. Wang, and Y. X. Wang, “Dynamic and steady-state behaviors of reverse saturable absorption in metallophthalocyanine,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1149–1157 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. W. Tutt and T. F. Boggess, “A review of optical limiting mechanisms and devices using organics, fullerenes, semiconductors and other materials,” Prog. Quantum Electron.,  17, 299–338 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

J. W. Perry, K. Mansour, L.-Y. S. Lee, X.-L. Wu, P. V. Bedworth, C. T. Chen, D. Ng, S. R. Marder, P. Miles, T. Wada, M. Tien, and H. Hasabe, “Organic optical limiter with a strong nonlinear absorptive response,” Science 273, 1533–1536 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

E. W. Van Stryland, D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, and A. A. Said, “Application of nonlinear optics to passive optical limiting,” in Nonlinear Optics in Organic Molecules and Polymers, H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), pp. 841–860.

C. T. Law and G. A. Swartzlander, “Implementation of a package for optical limiter modeling,” in Nonlinear Optical Liquids and Power Limiters, 95–106 (1997).

H. A. Abdeldayem, D. O. Frazier, and M. S. Paley, “All-optical nand logic gate using organic materials,” in Operational Characteristics and Crystal Growth of Nonlinear Optical Materials, R. V. Lal and D. O. Frazier, eds., Proc. SPIE3793, 113–119 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Xu, H. L. Wang, A. I. Malko, R. S. Kohlman, L. Smilowitz, V. I. Klimov, D. W. McBranch, J. L. R. Nogues, W. V. Moreshead, D. Hagan, S. Yang, and E. Van Stryland, “Development of solid state optical limiting devices,” in Power-Limiting Materials and Devices, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE3798, 76–84 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structure and visible absorption spectrum of (Me4N)2[Zn(dmit)(Sph)2] (2.5×10-4 mol L-1).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for optical limiting: BS1, BS2, beam splitters; L1L4, lenses; PD1PD3, photodiodes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the setup for the pump–probe experiment: M1, M2, reflective mirrors; L1L4, lenses; PD; photodiode; PMT, photomultiplier.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Optical limiting for the acetone solution of (Me4N)2[Cd(dmit)(Sph)2] at several concentrations at a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse width of 12 ns. Filled circles, experimental data; solid curves, theoretical fitting curves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Absorption spectrum of the excited states for the acetone solution of (Me4N)2[Cd(dmit)(Sph)2] pumped by a cw Ar+ 514-nm laser.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Five-level model of RSA.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Open-aperture Z scan for the acetone solution of (Me4N)2[Cd(dmit)(Sph)2] at a wavelength of 532 nm and a pulse width of 12 ns. Filled circles, experimental data; solid curve, theoretical fitting curve.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ddtNt(x, t)=(N0-Nt)I σ0hν,
ddxI(x, t)=(N0-Ni)σ0I-NtσtI,

Metrics