Abstract

Hyperfine structures of the R(58)320, P(55)320, and P(104)340 transitions of molecular iodine near 532 nm are measured by heterodyne beating of two I2-stabilized lasers. The measured hyperfine splittings are fitted to a four-term Hamiltonian, which includes the electric quadrupole, spin–rotation, tensor spin–spin, and scalar spin–spin interactions, with an accuracy of ∼600 Hz for the R(58)320 and P(55)320 transitions. Highly accurate hyperfine constants are obtained from this fit. The rotation dependence of the excited state (the B state, v=32) electric quadrupole constant eQq is found to be eQq(J)=-544.049(14)-0.0002110(43)J(J+1) MHz. The observed hyperfine transitions are good candidates for an optical frequency reference in the 532-nm region.

© 2001 Optical Society of America

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  2. A. Arie and R. L. Byer, “Laser heterodyne spectroscopy of  127I2 hyperfine structure near 532 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1990–1997 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Arie and R. L. Byer, “The hyperfine structure of the  127I2 P(119)35–0 transition,” Opt. Commun. 111, 253–258 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982); especially Refs. 6 and 7 therein.
    [Crossref]
  6. J. H. Shirley, “Modulation transfer processes in optical hyterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 7, 537–539 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  9. J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  10. F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  11. F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of  127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, T. H. Yoon, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for wavelength standards at 532 nm and 1064 nm,” in Recent Developments in Optical Gauge Block Metrology, N. Brown and J. E. Decker, eds., Proc. SPIE3477, 2–10 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35–0 and P(84)33–0 transitions of  127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101–108 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  14. J.-P. Wallerand, F. du Burck, B. Mercier, A. N. Goncharov, M. Himbert, and Ch. J. Bordé, “Frequency measurements of hyperfine splittings in ground rovibronic states of I2 bystimulated resonant Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 63–76 (1999).
  15. (Personal communication of F.-L. Hong with Ch. J. Bordé, 1998).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. P. Jungner, M. L. Eickhoff, S. D. Swartz, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Stability and absolute frequency of molecular iodine transitions near 532 nm,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. SPIE2378, 22–34 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  19. S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas Du Spectre D’Absorption de la Molecule D’Iode (Editions de CNRS, Paris, 1978).
  21. Model 126 and 142, Lightwave Electronics Corporation, Mountain View, Calif.
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    [Crossref]
  23. H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98),58–1 line of  127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347–352 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  24. Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of  127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (France) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  25. S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Wakasugi, T. Horiguchi, M. Koizumi, and Y. Yoshizawa, “Hyperfine structure near the 13–1 band head in the B–X transition of  127I2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 2298–2304 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  27. H. Knöckel, S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision measurement of hyperfine structures near 790 nm of I2,” Z. Phys. D 37, 43–48 (1996).
    [Crossref]

2001 (2)

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35–0 and P(84)33–0 transitions of  127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101–108 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (5)

J.-P. Wallerand, F. du Burck, B. Mercier, A. N. Goncharov, M. Himbert, and Ch. J. Bordé, “Frequency measurements of hyperfine splittings in ground rovibronic states of I2 bystimulated resonant Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 63–76 (1999).

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre (1997),” Metrologia 36, 211–244 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of  127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

H. Knöckel, S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision measurement of hyperfine structures near 790 nm of I2,” Z. Phys. D 37, 43–48 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32–0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

A. Arie and R. L. Byer, “The hyperfine structure of the  127I2 P(119)35–0 transition,” Opt. Commun. 111, 253–258 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[Crossref]

1982 (2)

G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982); especially Refs. 6 and 7 therein.
[Crossref]

J. H. Shirley, “Modulation transfer processes in optical hyterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 7, 537–539 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of  127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (France) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98),58–1 line of  127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347–352 (1979).
[Crossref]

Arie, A.

Bi, Z.-Y.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bodermann, B.

H. Knöckel, S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision measurement of hyperfine structures near 790 nm of I2,” Z. Phys. D 37, 43–48 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bordé, C. J.

G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982); especially Refs. 6 and 7 therein.
[Crossref]

Bordé, Ch. J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[Crossref]

J.-P. Wallerand, F. du Burck, B. Mercier, A. N. Goncharov, M. Himbert, and Ch. J. Bordé, “Frequency measurements of hyperfine splittings in ground rovibronic states of I2 bystimulated resonant Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 63–76 (1999).

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of  127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (France) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[Crossref]

(Personal communication of F.-L. Hong with Ch. J. Bordé, 1998).

Byer, R. L.

Camy, G.

G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982); especially Refs. 6 and 7 therein.
[Crossref]

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of  127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (France) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Decomps, B.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of  127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (France) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[Crossref]

Descoubes, J.-P.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of  127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (France) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[Crossref]

Diddams, S. A.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

du Burck, F.

J.-P. Wallerand, F. du Burck, B. Mercier, A. N. Goncharov, M. Himbert, and Ch. J. Bordé, “Frequency measurements of hyperfine splittings in ground rovibronic states of I2 bystimulated resonant Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 63–76 (1999).

Ducloy, M.

G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982); especially Refs. 6 and 7 therein.
[Crossref]

Eickhoff, M.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32–0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[Crossref]

Eickhoff, M. L.

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Jungner, M. L. Eickhoff, S. D. Swartz, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Stability and absolute frequency of molecular iodine transitions near 532 nm,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. SPIE2378, 22–34 (1995).
[Crossref]

Foth, H. J.

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98),58–1 line of  127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347–352 (1979).
[Crossref]

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[Crossref]

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas Du Spectre D’Absorption de la Molecule D’Iode (Editions de CNRS, Paris, 1978).

Goncharov, A. N.

J.-P. Wallerand, F. du Burck, B. Mercier, A. N. Goncharov, M. Himbert, and Ch. J. Bordé, “Frequency measurements of hyperfine splittings in ground rovibronic states of I2 bystimulated resonant Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 63–76 (1999).

Gustafson, E. K.

Hall, J. L.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of  127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32–0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

L.-S. Ma, J. H. Shirley, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy for stabilizing lasers,” U.S. Patent4,590,597 (May26, 1986).

P. Jungner, M. L. Eickhoff, S. D. Swartz, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Stability and absolute frequency of molecular iodine transitions near 532 nm,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. SPIE2378, 22–34 (1995).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, T. H. Yoon, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for wavelength standards at 532 nm and 1064 nm,” in Recent Developments in Optical Gauge Block Metrology, N. Brown and J. E. Decker, eds., Proc. SPIE3477, 2–10 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hänsch, T. W.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Himbert, M.

J.-P. Wallerand, F. du Burck, B. Mercier, A. N. Goncharov, M. Himbert, and Ch. J. Bordé, “Frequency measurements of hyperfine splittings in ground rovibronic states of I2 bystimulated resonant Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 63–76 (1999).

Hollberg, L.

L.-S. Ma, J. H. Shirley, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy for stabilizing lasers,” U.S. Patent4,590,597 (May26, 1986).

Holzwarth, R.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, F.-L.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35–0 and P(84)33–0 transitions of  127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101–108 (2000).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of  127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, T. H. Yoon, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for wavelength standards at 532 nm and 1064 nm,” in Recent Developments in Optical Gauge Block Metrology, N. Brown and J. E. Decker, eds., Proc. SPIE3477, 2–10 (1998).
[Crossref]

(Personal communication of F.-L. Hong with Ch. J. Bordé, 1998).

Horiguchi, T.

Ishikawa, J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35–0 and P(84)33–0 transitions of  127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101–108 (2000).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of  127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, T. H. Yoon, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for wavelength standards at 532 nm and 1064 nm,” in Recent Developments in Optical Gauge Block Metrology, N. Brown and J. E. Decker, eds., Proc. SPIE3477, 2–10 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jones, D. J.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jungner, P.

P. Jungner, M. L. Eickhoff, S. D. Swartz, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Stability and absolute frequency of molecular iodine transitions near 532 nm,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. SPIE2378, 22–34 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jungner, P. A.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32–0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[Crossref]

Knöckel, H.

H. Knöckel, S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision measurement of hyperfine structures near 790 nm of I2,” Z. Phys. D 37, 43–48 (1996).
[Crossref]

Koizumi, M.

Kremser, S.

H. Knöckel, S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision measurement of hyperfine structures near 790 nm of I2,” Z. Phys. D 37, 43–48 (1996).
[Crossref]

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[Crossref]

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas Du Spectre D’Absorption de la Molecule D’Iode (Editions de CNRS, Paris, 1978).

Ma, L.-S.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of  127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, T. H. Yoon, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for wavelength standards at 532 nm and 1064 nm,” in Recent Developments in Optical Gauge Block Metrology, N. Brown and J. E. Decker, eds., Proc. SPIE3477, 2–10 (1998).
[Crossref]

L.-S. Ma, J. H. Shirley, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy for stabilizing lasers,” U.S. Patent4,590,597 (May26, 1986).

Mercier, B.

J.-P. Wallerand, F. du Burck, B. Mercier, A. N. Goncharov, M. Himbert, and Ch. J. Bordé, “Frequency measurements of hyperfine splittings in ground rovibronic states of I2 bystimulated resonant Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 63–76 (1999).

Onae, A.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pfister, O.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

Picard, S.

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre (1997),” Metrologia 36, 211–244 (1999).
[Crossref]

Ranka, J. K.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robertsson, L.

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[Crossref]

Schiller, S.

Shirley, J. H.

J. H. Shirley, “Modulation transfer processes in optical hyterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 7, 537–539 (1982).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L.-S. Ma, J. H. Shirley, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy for stabilizing lasers,” U.S. Patent4,590,597 (May26, 1986).

Spieweck, F.

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98),58–1 line of  127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347–352 (1979).
[Crossref]

Swartz, S.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32–0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[Crossref]

Swartz, S. D.

P. Jungner, M. L. Eickhoff, S. D. Swartz, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Stability and absolute frequency of molecular iodine transitions near 532 nm,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. SPIE2378, 22–34 (1995).
[Crossref]

Taubman, M.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tiemann, B.

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tiemann, E.

H. Knöckel, S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision measurement of hyperfine structures near 790 nm of I2,” Z. Phys. D 37, 43–48 (1996).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vigué, J.

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of  127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (France) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[Crossref]

Wakasugi, M.

Wallerand, J.-P.

J.-P. Wallerand, F. du Burck, B. Mercier, A. N. Goncharov, M. Himbert, and Ch. J. Bordé, “Frequency measurements of hyperfine splittings in ground rovibronic states of I2 bystimulated resonant Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 63–76 (1999).

Waltman, S.

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32–0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, S. Picard, Ch. J. Bordé, and J. L. Hall, “Rotation dependence of electric quadrupole hyperfine interaction in the ground state of molecular iodine by high resolution laser spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 18, 379–387 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of  127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32–0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Jungner, M. L. Eickhoff, S. D. Swartz, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Stability and absolute frequency of molecular iodine transitions near 532 nm,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. SPIE2378, 22–34 (1995).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, T. H. Yoon, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for wavelength standards at 532 nm and 1064 nm,” in Recent Developments in Optical Gauge Block Metrology, N. Brown and J. E. Decker, eds., Proc. SPIE3477, 2–10 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yoda, J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of  127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[Crossref]

Yoon, T. H.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, T. H. Yoon, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for wavelength standards at 532 nm and 1064 nm,” in Recent Developments in Optical Gauge Block Metrology, N. Brown and J. E. Decker, eds., Proc. SPIE3477, 2–10 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yoshizawa, Y.

Zhang, J.

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

H. J. Foth and F. Spieweck, “Hyperfine structure of the R(98),58–1 line of  127I2 at 514.5 nm,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 65, 347–352 (1979).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. D (1)

J.-P. Wallerand, F. du Burck, B. Mercier, A. N. Goncharov, M. Himbert, and Ch. J. Bordé, “Frequency measurements of hyperfine splittings in ground rovibronic states of I2 bystimulated resonant Raman spectroscopy,” Eur. Phys. J. D 6, 63–76 (1999).

IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. (6)

P. A. Jungner, S. Swartz, M. Eickhoff, J. Ye, J. L. Hall, and S. Waltman, “Absolute frequency of the molecular iodine transition R(56)32–0 near 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 151–154 (1995).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, J. Yoda, J. Ye, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Frequency comparison of  127I2-stabilized Nd:YAG lasers,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 532–536 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. L. Hall, L.-S. Ma, M. Taubman, B. Tiemann, F.-L. Hong, O. Pfister, and J. Ye, “Stabilization and frequency measurement of the I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 583–586 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. L. Eickhoff and J. L. Hall, “Optical frequency standard at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 44, 155–158 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Ye, L. Robertsson, S. Picard, L.-S. Ma, and J. L. Hall, “Absolute frequency atlas of molecular I2 lines at 532 nm,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 48, 544–549 (1999).
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, Z.-Y. Bi, J. Zhang, A. Onae, and J. Yoda, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for international comparisons,” IEEE Trans. Instrum. Meas. 50, 486–489 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. (France) (1)

Ch. J. Bordé, G. Camy, B. Decomps, J.-P. Descoubes, and J. Vigué, “High precision saturation spectroscopy of  127I2 with argon lasers at 5145 Å and 5017 Å: I—Main resonances,” J. Phys. (France) 42, 1393–1411 (1981).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. (Paris) (1)

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[Crossref]

Metrologia (1)

T. J. Quinn, “Practical realization of the definition of the metre (1997),” Metrologia 36, 211–244 (1999).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

A. Arie and R. L. Byer, “The hyperfine structure of the  127I2 P(119)35–0 transition,” Opt. Commun. 111, 253–258 (1994).
[Crossref]

G. Camy, C. J. Bordé, and M. Ducloy, “Heterodyne saturation spectroscopy through frequency modulation of the saturation beam,” Opt. Commun. 41, 325–330 (1982); especially Refs. 6 and 7 therein.
[Crossref]

F.-L. Hong and J. Ishikawa, “Hyperfine structures of the R(122)35–0 and P(84)33–0 transitions of  127I2 near 532 nm,” Opt. Commun. 183, 101–108 (2000).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. A. Diddams, D. J. Jones, J. Ye, S. T. Cundiff, J. L. Hall, J. K. Ranka, R. S. Windeler, R. Holzwarth, T. Udem, and T. W. Hänsch, “Direct link between microwave and optical frequencies with a 300 THz femtosecond laser comb,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 5102–5105 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Phys. D (1)

H. Knöckel, S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, and E. Tiemann, “High precision measurement of hyperfine structures near 790 nm of I2,” Z. Phys. D 37, 43–48 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, Atlas Du Spectre D’Absorption de la Molecule D’Iode (Editions de CNRS, Paris, 1978).

Model 126 and 142, Lightwave Electronics Corporation, Mountain View, Calif.

L.-S. Ma, J. H. Shirley, L. Hollberg, and J. L. Hall, “Modulation transfer spectroscopy for stabilizing lasers,” U.S. Patent4,590,597 (May26, 1986).

F.-L. Hong, J. Ishikawa, T. H. Yoon, L.-S. Ma, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “A portable I2-stabilized Nd:YAG laser for wavelength standards at 532 nm and 1064 nm,” in Recent Developments in Optical Gauge Block Metrology, N. Brown and J. E. Decker, eds., Proc. SPIE3477, 2–10 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Jungner, M. L. Eickhoff, S. D. Swartz, J. Ye, and J. L. Hall, “Stability and absolute frequency of molecular iodine transitions near 532 nm,” in Laser Frequency Stabilization and Noise Reduction, Y. Shevy, ed., Proc. SPIE2378, 22–34 (1995).
[Crossref]

(Personal communication of F.-L. Hong with Ch. J. Bordé, 1998).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the experimental setup: for frequency locking of Nd:YAG lasers and heterodyne measurement of the hyperfine splitting of iodine: APD, avalanche photodiode; PBS1 and PBS2, polarization beamsplitters; AOM, an acousto-optic modulator; EOM, an electro-optic modulator; and D, a detector.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Modulation transfer signals of the R(58)320 transition. The a3 and a4 hyperfine components are overlapped. The ratio S/N of the a10 component is ∼1000 in a 10-Hz bandwidth.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Modulation transfer signals of the P(55)320 transition. The a5 and a6 components are very close to each other. The a1 component of the P(104)340 transition is located between the a14 and the a15 components of the P(55)320 transition because the two transitions overlap. Weak lines in the spectrum belong to other rovibration transitions.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Modulation transfer signals of the P(104)340 transition. All 15 hyperfine components are isolated. Weak lines in the spectrum belong to other rovibration transitions.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Excited-state electric quadrupole hyperfine constant eQq as a function of the rotational quantum number J. Filled circles, calculated eQq values; solid curve, fitting result using the J(J+1) term.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Hyperfine constants ΔC, Δd, and Δδ as a function of the rotational quantum number J. Rotation dependence is observed for the spin–rotation hyperfine interaction. The error bar of the hyperfine constant ΔC is indicated by the dimensions of the filled circles in (a).

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Rovibrational Transitions of Molecular Iodine near 532 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Observed and Calculated Hyperfine Components of the R(58)32–0 Transitiona

Tables Icon

Table 3 Observed and Calculated Hyperfine Components of the P(55)320 Transitiona

Tables Icon

Table 4 Observed and Calculated Hyperfine Components of the P(104)34–0 Transitiona

Tables Icon

Table 5 Fitted Hyperfine Constants

Tables Icon

Table 6 Electric Quadrupole Hyperfine Constants

Tables Icon

Table 7 Hyperfine Constants ΔC, Δd, and Δδ

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

eQq(J)=-2452.556(2)-0.000164(5)J(J+1)-0.000000005(2)J2(J+1)2 MHz.
Hhfs=eQq×HEQ+C×HSR+d×HTSS+δ×HSSS,
JIF|HR|JIF=BJ(J+1)-DJ2(J+1)2+HJ3(J+1)3,
ΔeQq=eQq-eQq,
ΔC=C-C,
Δd=d-d,
Δδ=δ-δ.
eQq(J)=eQq0+αJ(J+1)
eQq0=-544.049(14)MHz,
α=-0.2110(43)kHz.
ΔC(J)=83.5(4)+0.0009(1)J(J+1)kHz.

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