Abstract

We describe techniques for laser spectroscopy in the vacuum-UV (VUV) spectral region that combine high spectral resolution with high absolute accuracy. A nearly transform-limited nanosecond laser source at 120 nm is constructed with difference-frequency mixing. This source is used to perform the first, to our knowledge, Doppler-free VUV measurement. We measure the inherently narrow 11S21S two-photon transition in atomic helium with a spectral resolution of 7 parts in 108 (180 MHz), the narrowest line width so far observed at such short wavelengths. Careful measurements of optical phase perturbations allow us to determine the absolute frequency of the line center to a fractional uncertainty of 1 part in 108. Improvements now in progress should reduce this uncertainty to 2 parts in 109.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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  36. M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911–4923 (1992).
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    [CrossRef]
  39. Acton Research Corporation, aluminum mirror with a MgF2 coating.

1999

A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “High-resolution spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1844–1851 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828–3831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Pachucki, “Quantum electrodynamics effects on singlet S-states of helium of order mα6,” J. Phys. B 31, 3547–3556 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 11S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Melikechi, S. Gangopadhyay, and E. E. Eyler, “Generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation for precision laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7776–7778 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 11S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 11S–21P transition isotope shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Pachucki, D. Leibfried, M. Weitz, A. Huber, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, “Theory of the energy levels and precise two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen and deuterium,” J. Phys. B 29, 177–195 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

T. N. Chang and T. K. Fang, “Effect of positive-energy orbitals on the photoionization cross sections and oscillator strengths of He and divalent atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2638–2644 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Yamanouchi and S. Tsuchiya, “Tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser spectroscopy: excited state dynamics of jet-cooled molecules and van der Waals complexes,” J. Phys. B 28, 133–165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

1993

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “First laser excitation of the 4He 11S–21P resonance line at 58 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1690–1692 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911–4923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991

A. Lago, “Generation of VUV/XUV laser light,” AIP Conf. Proc. 225, 29–34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

1989

1988

C. R. Vidal, “Vacuum ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of small molecules,” Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 23, 1–35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. N. R. Ashfold and J. D. Prince, “Multiphoton processes in molecular gases,” Contemp. Phys. 29, 129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, and R. Wallenstein, “Tunable coherent VUV radiation generated by nonlinear optical frequency conversion in gases,” Comments At. Mol. Phys. 18, 157–180 (1986).

1985

K. G. H. Baldwin, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, and M. C. Gower, “Generation of tunable coherent VUV radiation by anti-Stokes Raman scattering of excimer-pumped dye laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 351–354 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

T. A. Miller, “Chemistry and chemical intermediates in supersonic free jet expansions,” Science 223, 545–553 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. G. H. Baldwin, J. P. Marangos, and D. D. Burgess, “Application of coherent VUV radiation to the measurement of Lyman-α absorption lineshapes in a dense Z-pinch plasma,” J. Phys. D 17, L169–L173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1982

1980

1975

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971

R. S. Van Dyck, Jr., C. E. Johnson, and H. A. Shugart, “Radiative lifetime of the 21S0 metastable state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 1327–1336 (1971).
[CrossRef]

V. Jacobs, “Two-photon decay rate of the 21S0 metastable state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 939–944 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1969

G. W. F. Drake, G. A. Victor, and A. Dalgarno, “Two-photon decay of the singlet and triplet metastable states of helium-like ions,” Phys. Rev. 180, 25–32 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Acef, O.

B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ashfold, M. N. R.

M. N. R. Ashfold and J. D. Prince, “Multiphoton processes in molecular gases,” Contemp. Phys. 29, 129 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Balakrishnan, A.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Baldwin, K. G. H.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, and J. H. Carver, “Vacuum-ultraviolet absorption linewidth measurement using high-order anti-Stokes Raman-shifted radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1200–1208 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. G. H. Baldwin, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, and M. C. Gower, “Generation of tunable coherent VUV radiation by anti-Stokes Raman scattering of excimer-pumped dye laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 351–354 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. G. H. Baldwin, J. P. Marangos, and D. D. Burgess, “Application of coherent VUV radiation to the measurement of Lyman-α absorption lineshapes in a dense Z-pinch plasma,” J. Phys. D 17, L169–L173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Bergeson, S. D.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Biraben, F.

B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, “Effects of focusing on third-order nonlinear processes,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-11, 287–296 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Burgess, D. D.

K. G. H. Baldwin, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, and M. C. Gower, “Generation of tunable coherent VUV radiation by anti-Stokes Raman scattering of excimer-pumped dye laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 351–354 (1985).
[CrossRef]

K. G. H. Baldwin, J. P. Marangos, and D. D. Burgess, “Application of coherent VUV radiation to the measurement of Lyman-α absorption lineshapes in a dense Z-pinch plasma,” J. Phys. D 17, L169–L173 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Cagnac, B.

B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Carver, J. H.

Chang, T. N.

T. N. Chang and T. K. Fang, “Effect of positive-energy orbitals on the photoionization cross sections and oscillator strengths of He and divalent atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2638–2644 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, C. H.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911–4923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Clairon, A.

B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Connerade, J. P.

Copeland, R. A.

P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cosby, P. C.

P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dalgarno, A.

G. W. F. Drake, G. A. Victor, and A. Dalgarno, “Two-photon decay of the singlet and triplet metastable states of helium-like ions,” Phys. Rev. 180, 25–32 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Danzmann, K.

M. S. Fee, K. Danzmann, and S. Chu, “Optical heterodyne measurement of pulsed lasers: toward high-precision pulsed spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 4911–4923 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Beauvoir, B.

B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dooley, P. M.

P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Drake, G. W. F.

G. W. F. Drake, G. A. Victor, and A. Dalgarno, “Two-photon decay of the singlet and triplet metastable states of helium-like ions,” Phys. Rev. 180, 25–32 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Eikema, K. S. E.

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828–3831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 11S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 11S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 11S–21P transition isotope shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “First laser excitation of the 4He 11S–21P resonance line at 58 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1690–1692 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eyler, E. E.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
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N. Melikechi, S. Gangopadhyay, and E. E. Eyler, “Generation of vacuum ultraviolet radiation for precision laser spectroscopy,” Appl. Opt. 36, 7776–7778 (1997).
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S. Gangopadhyay, N. Melikechi, and E. E. Eyler, “Optical phase perturbations in nanosecond pulsed amplification and second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 231–241 (1994).
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T. N. Chang and T. K. Fang, “Effect of positive-energy orbitals on the photoionization cross sections and oscillator strengths of He and divalent atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2638–2644 (1995).
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P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
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B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, and J. H. Carver, “Vacuum-ultraviolet absorption linewidth measurement using high-order anti-Stokes Raman-shifted radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1200–1208 (1989).
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Gower, M. C.

K. G. H. Baldwin, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, and M. C. Gower, “Generation of tunable coherent VUV radiation by anti-Stokes Raman scattering of excimer-pumped dye laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 351–354 (1985).
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A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “High-resolution spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1844–1851 (1999).
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Hänsch, T. W.

A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “High-resolution spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1844–1851 (1999).
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K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828–3831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Pachucki, D. Leibfried, M. Weitz, A. Huber, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, “Theory of the energy levels and precise two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen and deuterium,” J. Phys. B 29, 177–195 (1996).
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R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, and R. Wallenstein, “Tunable coherent VUV radiation generated by nonlinear optical frequency conversion in gases,” Comments At. Mol. Phys. 18, 157–180 (1986).

Hilbig, R.

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, and R. Wallenstein, “Tunable coherent VUV radiation generated by nonlinear optical frequency conversion in gases,” Comments At. Mol. Phys. 18, 157–180 (1986).

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, “Narrowband tunable VUV radiation generated by nonresonant sum- and difference-frequency mixing in xenon and krypton,” Appl. Opt. 21, 913–917 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 11S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 11S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 11S–21P transition isotope shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “First laser excitation of the 4He 11S–21P resonance line at 58 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1690–1692 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, A.

A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “High-resolution spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1844–1851 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Pachucki, D. Leibfried, M. Weitz, A. Huber, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, “Theory of the energy levels and precise two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen and deuterium,” J. Phys. B 29, 177–195 (1996).
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Jacobs, V.

V. Jacobs, “Two-photon decay rate of the 21S0 metastable state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 939–944 (1971).
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Johnson, C. E.

R. S. Van Dyck, Jr., C. E. Johnson, and H. A. Shugart, “Radiative lifetime of the 21S0 metastable state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 1327–1336 (1971).
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Julien, L.

B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

König, W.

K. Pachucki, D. Leibfried, M. Weitz, A. Huber, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, “Theory of the energy levels and precise two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen and deuterium,” J. Phys. B 29, 177–195 (1996).
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A. Lago, “Generation of VUV/XUV laser light,” AIP Conf. Proc. 225, 29–34 (1991).
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R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, and R. Wallenstein, “Tunable coherent VUV radiation generated by nonlinear optical frequency conversion in gases,” Comments At. Mol. Phys. 18, 157–180 (1986).

Leibfried, D.

K. Pachucki, D. Leibfried, M. Weitz, A. Huber, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, “Theory of the energy levels and precise two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen and deuterium,” J. Phys. B 29, 177–195 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, and J. H. Carver, “Vacuum-ultraviolet absorption linewidth measurement using high-order anti-Stokes Raman-shifted radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1200–1208 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lucatorto, T. B.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ma, H.

Marangos, J. P.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
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J. P. Marangos, N. Shen, H. Ma, M. H. R. Hutchinson, and J. P. Connerade, “Broadly tunable vacuum-ultraviolet radiation source employing resonant enhanced sum-difference frequency mixing in krypton,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1254–1263 (1990).
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K. G. H. Baldwin, J. P. Marangos, D. D. Burgess, and M. C. Gower, “Generation of tunable coherent VUV radiation by anti-Stokes Raman scattering of excimer-pumped dye laser radiation,” Opt. Commun. 52, 351–354 (1985).
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K. G. H. Baldwin, J. P. Marangos, and D. D. Burgess, “Application of coherent VUV radiation to the measurement of Lyman-α absorption lineshapes in a dense Z-pinch plasma,” J. Phys. D 17, L169–L173 (1984).
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S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
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T. A. Miller, “Chemistry and chemical intermediates in supersonic free jet expansions,” Science 223, 545–553 (1984).
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P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nez, F.

B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O’Brian, T. R.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
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K. Pachucki, “Quantum electrodynamics effects on singlet S-states of helium of order mα6,” J. Phys. B 31, 3547–3556 (1998).
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K. Pachucki, D. Leibfried, M. Weitz, A. Huber, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, “Theory of the energy levels and precise two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen and deuterium,” J. Phys. B 29, 177–195 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Price, J. L.

P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
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M. N. R. Ashfold and J. D. Prince, “Multiphoton processes in molecular gases,” Contemp. Phys. 29, 129 (1988).
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S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
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Sansonetti, C. J.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shen, N.

Shugart, H. A.

R. S. Van Dyck, Jr., C. E. Johnson, and H. A. Shugart, “Radiative lifetime of the 21S0 metastable state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 1327–1336 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Slanger, T. G.

P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thorne, A. P.

P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Touahri, D.

B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchiya, S.

K. Yamanouchi and S. Tsuchiya, “Tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser spectroscopy: excited state dynamics of jet-cooled molecules and van der Waals complexes,” J. Phys. B 28, 133–165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 11S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 11S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 11S–21P transition isotope shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “First laser excitation of the 4He 11S–21P resonance line at 58 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1690–1692 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dyck Jr., R. S.

R. S. Van Dyck, Jr., C. E. Johnson, and H. A. Shugart, “Radiative lifetime of the 21S0 metastable state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 1327–1336 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 11S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurement in the 11S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Precision measurements in helium at 58 nm: ground state Lamb shift and the 11S–21P transition isotope shift,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1216–1219 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “First laser excitation of the 4He 11S–21P resonance line at 58 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1690–1692 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Wallenstein, R.

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, and R. Wallenstein, “Tunable coherent VUV radiation generated by nonlinear optical frequency conversion in gases,” Comments At. Mol. Phys. 18, 157–180 (1986).

R. Hilbig and R. Wallenstein, “Narrowband tunable VUV radiation generated by nonresonant sum- and difference-frequency mixing in xenon and krypton,” Appl. Opt. 21, 913–917 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walz, J.

K. S. E. Eikema, J. Walz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Continuous wave coherent Lyman-α radiation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 3828–3831 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Weitz, M.

A. Huber, B. Gross, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “High-resolution spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1844–1851 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Pachucki, D. Leibfried, M. Weitz, A. Huber, W. König, and T. W. Hänsch, “Theory of the energy levels and precise two-photon spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen and deuterium,” J. Phys. B 29, 177–195 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wen, J.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Westbrook, N.

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Precision spectroscopy in He as a test of QED,” Phys. Scr. T 83, 76–82 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Bergeson, A. Balakrishnan, K. G. H. Baldwin, T. B. Lucatorto, J. P. Marangos, T. J. McIlrath, T. R. O’Brian, S. L. Rolston, C. J. Sansonetti, J. Wen, N. Westbrook, C. H. Cheng, and E. E. Eyler, “Measurement of the He ground state Lamb shift via the two-photon 11S–21S transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 3475–3478 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wolff, B.

R. Hilbig, G. Hilber, A. Lago, B. Wolff, and R. Wallenstein, “Tunable coherent VUV radiation generated by nonlinear optical frequency conversion in gases,” Comments At. Mol. Phys. 18, 157–180 (1986).

Yamanouchi, K.

K. Yamanouchi and S. Tsuchiya, “Tunable vacuum ultraviolet laser spectroscopy: excited state dynamics of jet-cooled molecules and van der Waals complexes,” J. Phys. B 28, 133–165 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

P. M. Dooley, B. R. Lewis, S. T. Gibson, K. G. H. Baldwin, P. C. Cosby, J. L. Price, R. A. Copeland, T. G. Slanger, A. P. Thorne, K. Yoshino, and J. E. Murray, “A comparative high-resolution study of predissociation linewidths in the Schumann–Runge bands of O2,” J. Chem. Phys. 109, 3856–3867 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zondy, J. J.

B. de Beauvoir, F. Nez, L. Julien, B. Cagnac, F. Biraben, D. Touahri, L. Hilico, O. Acef, A. Clairon, and J. J. Zondy, “Absolute frequency measurement of the 2S–8S/D transitions in hydrogen and deuterium: new determination of the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 440–443 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. At. Mol. Phys.

C. R. Vidal, “Vacuum ultraviolet laser spectroscopy of small molecules,” Adv. At. Mol. Phys. 23, 1–35 (1988).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc.

A. Lago, “Generation of VUV/XUV laser light,” AIP Conf. Proc. 225, 29–34 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

4WDFM VUV generation scheme in Kr employed in the present experiment. The gray horizontal line represents a virtual state.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Pulse-amplified dye laser and frequency multiplication scheme used to generate the fundamental (842-nm) and the fourth-harmonic (210-nm) input wavelengths for the VUV generation process. A, amplifier; G, grating; SF, spatial filter; T, telescope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical arrangement for the VUV generation system, including a side view of alignment devices (inset).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

VUV signal output as a function of Kr and Ar pressure used in the phase-matching process.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

He energy level diagram showing the excitation and ionization scheme for the 11S21S transition.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Interaction region for the Doppler-free two-photon resonant, three-photon ionization process.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Detailed spectrum of the Doppler-free portion of the He+ signal (circles) averaged over three scans. Also shown is a least-squares fit to the data (bottom curve) and the inverted reference etalon signal (top).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Schematic diagram of the Ne absorption spectrometer: BS, beam splitter; AOM, acousto-optic modulator; WP, wave plate; M, mirror; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; BPD, balanced photodiode.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Spectrum of the complete He transition (left-hand side) and the Ne reference line (right-hand side) as a function of cw (842-nm) laser detuning. Also shown is the inverted output signal from the 75-MHz reference cavity.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Instantaneous frequency of the pulsed laser (circles) as a function of time. For reference the intensity of the 842-nm laser pulse is also plotted (curve) on the same time scale.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Plot of the apparent frequency of the He 11S21S transition as a function of 210-nm pulse energy. The slope of this line is -85 MHz/mJ. This translates into a shift at 120 nm of -43 MHz/mJ.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Uncertainty Budget for He 11S21S Transitiona

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