Abstract

We analyze the intensity-dependent optical response of the passive optical limiters realized with distributed-feedback structures, which consist of alternating layers of materials possessing opposite Kerr nonlinearities. By elaborating an analytical model and employing numerical simulations, we explore device performance with respect to key requirements for passive optical-limiter deployment. We prove that the proposed limiting mechanism results in complete clamping of transmitted intensity to a sensor-safe limiting value, independent of incident intensity. We provide a direct analytical result of this limiting intensity in terms of structural and material parameters.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. B. Lin, R. J. Tonucci, and A. J. Campillo, “Two-dimensional photonic bandgap optical limiters in the visible,” Opt. Lett. 23, 94–96 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. C. Hollins, “Overview of research on nonlinear optical limiters at DERA (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency),” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE3282, 2–8 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  3. T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of optical limiting devices based on excited-state absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4110–4122 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. I. C. Khoo, M. Wood, and B. D. Guenther, “Nonlinear liquid crystal optical fiber array for all-optical switching/limiting,” in LEOS ’96 9th Annual Meeting (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), Vol. 2, pp. 211–212.
  5. P. Miles, “Bottleneck optical pulse limiters revisited,” Appl. Opt. 38, 566–570 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. S. Werner, “Children’s sunglasses: caveat emptor,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 318–320 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  7. S. M. Luria, “Preferred density of sunglasses,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61, 397–402 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. P. N. Prasad, “Design, ultrastructure, and dynamics of nonlinear optical effects in polymeric thin films,” in Electroactive Polymer Materials: State-of-the-Art Review of Conductive Polymers, A. Wirsén, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1987), pp. 41–67.
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    [Crossref]
  13. R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, S. Matsuda, and H. D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, and E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 154–181 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  15. R. Bozio, M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Optical limiting of fullerene derivatives embedded in sol-gel materials,” in Photoactive Organic Materials Science and Applications, F. Kajzer, ed., NATO ASI Ser. B572, 159–174 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and P. J. Wilson, “Design criteria for optical power limiters,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 167–178 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  17. S. John, “The localization of light,” in Photonics Band Gaps and Localization, C. M. Soukoulis, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1993), pp. 1–22.
  18. K. Ishizu, T. Ikemoto, and A. Ichimure, “Architecture of polymeric superstructures formed by locking cubic lattices of core-shell polymer microspheres,” Polymer 39, 449–454 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  19. K. Ishizu, F. Naruse, and R. Saito, “The aggregation behavior of core-shell type polymer microspheres,” Polymer 35, 2329–2334 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  20. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
  21. G. I. Stegeman, C. Liao, and H. G. Winful, “Distributed feedback bistability in channel waveguides,” Optical Bistability 2, C. M. Bowden, H. M. Gibbs, and S. L. McCall, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1983), pp. 389–396.
  22. H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).
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  24. A. Yarif and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  25. J. He and M. Cada, “Combined distributed feedback and Fabry–Perot structures with a phase-matching layer for bistable devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2150–2152 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  26. M. Bertolotti, P. Masciulli, P. Ranieri, and C. Sibilia, “Optical bistability in nonlinear Cantor corrugated waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1517–1525 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  27. L. Caleo, C. Sibilia, P. Masciulli, and M. Bertlotti, “Nonlinear-optical filters based on the cascading second-order effect,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2315–2324 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  28. H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, and E. Garmire, “Theory of bistability in nonlinear distributed feedback structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379–381 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  29. H. G. Winful and G. D. Cooperman, “Self-pulsing and chaos in distributed feedback bistable optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 298–300 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  30. C.-X. Shi, “Optical bistability in reflective fiber grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2037–2043 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  31. H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, 1985).
  32. S. Dubovitsky and W. H. Steier, “Analysis of optical bistability in a nonlinear coupled resonator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 585–589 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  33. Z. X. Zhang, W. Qiu, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chang, and Y. Q. Shen, “Doped polymer films with high nonlinear refractive indices,” Electron. Lett. 32, 129–130 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  34. C. R. Mendoca, M. M. Costa, J. A. Giacometti, F. D. Nunes, and S. C. Zilio, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polyesterene films doped with azobenzene dye Disperse Red 1,” Electron. Lett. 34, 116–117 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  35. E. W. Van Stryland and M. Shei-Bahae, “Z-scan,” in Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998), pp. 655–692.
  36. F. J. Aranda, C. F. Cheng, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, “Two-photon absorption in polybenzine,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 185–194.
  37. P. A. Fleiz, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Z-scan measurements of molten diphenylbuandiene in the isotropic liquid state,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh Pa., 1994), pp. 211–216.
  38. M. Brunel, F. Chaput, S. A. Vindogradov, B. Campagne, M. Canva, J-P. Boilot, and A. Brun, “Reverse saturable absorption in organically-doped xerogels,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, R. Pachter, P. Hood, D. Hagan, K. Lewis, and J. Perry, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 97–102.

1999 (2)

1998 (5)

N. S. Pate, L. Hall, L. Katherine, and K. A. Raushenbach, “Interferometric all-optical switches for ultrafast signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2831–2842 (1998).
[Crossref]

H. B. Lin, R. J. Tonucci, and A. J. Campillo, “Two-dimensional photonic bandgap optical limiters in the visible,” Opt. Lett. 23, 94–96 (1998).
[Crossref]

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, S. Matsuda, and H. D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Ishizu, T. Ikemoto, and A. Ichimure, “Architecture of polymeric superstructures formed by locking cubic lattices of core-shell polymer microspheres,” Polymer 39, 449–454 (1998).
[Crossref]

C. R. Mendoca, M. M. Costa, J. A. Giacometti, F. D. Nunes, and S. C. Zilio, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polyesterene films doped with azobenzene dye Disperse Red 1,” Electron. Lett. 34, 116–117 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1996 (2)

M. Bertolotti, P. Masciulli, P. Ranieri, and C. Sibilia, “Optical bistability in nonlinear Cantor corrugated waveguide,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1517–1525 (1996).
[Crossref]

Z. X. Zhang, W. Qiu, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chang, and Y. Q. Shen, “Doped polymer films with high nonlinear refractive indices,” Electron. Lett. 32, 129–130 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

C.-X. Shi, “Optical bistability in reflective fiber grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2037–2043 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

M. Scolara, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic bandgap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Ishizu, F. Naruse, and R. Saito, “The aggregation behavior of core-shell type polymer microspheres,” Polymer 35, 2329–2334 (1994).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

J. He and M. Cada, “Combined distributed feedback and Fabry–Perot structures with a phase-matching layer for bistable devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2150–2152 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Dubovitsky and W. H. Steier, “Analysis of optical bistability in a nonlinear coupled resonator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 585–589 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. S. Werner, “Children’s sunglasses: caveat emptor,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 318–320 (1991).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

S. M. Luria, “Preferred density of sunglasses,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61, 397–402 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

H. G. Winful and G. D. Cooperman, “Self-pulsing and chaos in distributed feedback bistable optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 298–300 (1982).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, and E. Garmire, “Theory of bistability in nonlinear distributed feedback structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379–381 (1979).
[Crossref]

Akkara, J. A.

F. J. Aranda, C. F. Cheng, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, “Two-photon absorption in polybenzine,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 185–194.

Aranda, F. J.

F. J. Aranda, C. F. Cheng, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, “Two-photon absorption in polybenzine,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 185–194.

Bertlotti, M.

Bertolotti, M.

Bloemer, M. J.

M. Scolara, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic bandgap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref]

Boilot, J-P.

M. Brunel, F. Chaput, S. A. Vindogradov, B. Campagne, M. Canva, J-P. Boilot, and A. Brun, “Reverse saturable absorption in organically-doped xerogels,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, R. Pachter, P. Hood, D. Hagan, K. Lewis, and J. Perry, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 97–102.

Bowden, C. M.

M. Scolara, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic bandgap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref]

Bozio, R.

R. Bozio, M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Optical limiting of fullerene derivatives embedded in sol-gel materials,” in Photoactive Organic Materials Science and Applications, F. Kajzer, ed., NATO ASI Ser. B572, 159–174 (1996).
[Crossref]

Brun, A.

M. Brunel, F. Chaput, S. A. Vindogradov, B. Campagne, M. Canva, J-P. Boilot, and A. Brun, “Reverse saturable absorption in organically-doped xerogels,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, R. Pachter, P. Hood, D. Hagan, K. Lewis, and J. Perry, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 97–102.

Brunel, M.

M. Brunel, F. Chaput, S. A. Vindogradov, B. Campagne, M. Canva, J-P. Boilot, and A. Brun, “Reverse saturable absorption in organically-doped xerogels,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, R. Pachter, P. Hood, D. Hagan, K. Lewis, and J. Perry, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 97–102.

Brusatin, G.

R. Bozio, M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Optical limiting of fullerene derivatives embedded in sol-gel materials,” in Photoactive Organic Materials Science and Applications, F. Kajzer, ed., NATO ASI Ser. B572, 159–174 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bunning, T. J.

P. A. Fleiz, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Z-scan measurements of molten diphenylbuandiene in the isotropic liquid state,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh Pa., 1994), pp. 211–216.

Cada, M.

J. He and M. Cada, “Combined distributed feedback and Fabry–Perot structures with a phase-matching layer for bistable devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2150–2152 (1992).
[Crossref]

Caleo, L.

Campagne, B.

M. Brunel, F. Chaput, S. A. Vindogradov, B. Campagne, M. Canva, J-P. Boilot, and A. Brun, “Reverse saturable absorption in organically-doped xerogels,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, R. Pachter, P. Hood, D. Hagan, K. Lewis, and J. Perry, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 97–102.

Campillo, A. J.

Canva, M.

M. Brunel, F. Chaput, S. A. Vindogradov, B. Campagne, M. Canva, J-P. Boilot, and A. Brun, “Reverse saturable absorption in organically-doped xerogels,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, R. Pachter, P. Hood, D. Hagan, K. Lewis, and J. Perry, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 97–102.

Chang, P. S.

Z. X. Zhang, W. Qiu, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chang, and Y. Q. Shen, “Doped polymer films with high nonlinear refractive indices,” Electron. Lett. 32, 129–130 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chapple, P. B.

J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and P. J. Wilson, “Design criteria for optical power limiters,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 167–178 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chaput, F.

M. Brunel, F. Chaput, S. A. Vindogradov, B. Campagne, M. Canva, J-P. Boilot, and A. Brun, “Reverse saturable absorption in organically-doped xerogels,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, R. Pachter, P. Hood, D. Hagan, K. Lewis, and J. Perry, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 97–102.

Cheng, C. F.

F. J. Aranda, C. F. Cheng, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, “Two-photon absorption in polybenzine,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 185–194.

Clark, W. W.

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, and E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 154–181 (1989).
[Crossref]

Cooperman, G. D.

H. G. Winful and G. D. Cooperman, “Self-pulsing and chaos in distributed feedback bistable optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 298–300 (1982).
[Crossref]

Costa, M. M.

C. R. Mendoca, M. M. Costa, J. A. Giacometti, F. D. Nunes, and S. C. Zilio, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polyesterene films doped with azobenzene dye Disperse Red 1,” Electron. Lett. 34, 116–117 (1998).
[Crossref]

Dogariu, A.

Dowling, J. P.

M. Scolara, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic bandgap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref]

Dubovitsky, S.

S. Dubovitsky and W. H. Steier, “Analysis of optical bistability in a nonlinear coupled resonator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 585–589 (1992).
[Crossref]

Fleiz, P. A.

P. A. Fleiz, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Z-scan measurements of molten diphenylbuandiene in the isotropic liquid state,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh Pa., 1994), pp. 211–216.

Garmire, E.

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, and E. Garmire, “Theory of bistability in nonlinear distributed feedback structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379–381 (1979).
[Crossref]

Giacometti, J. A.

C. R. Mendoca, M. M. Costa, J. A. Giacometti, F. D. Nunes, and S. C. Zilio, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polyesterene films doped with azobenzene dye Disperse Red 1,” Electron. Lett. 34, 116–117 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gibbs, H. M.

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, 1985).

Guenther, B. D.

I. C. Khoo, M. Wood, and B. D. Guenther, “Nonlinear liquid crystal optical fiber array for all-optical switching/limiting,” in LEOS ’96 9th Annual Meeting (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), Vol. 2, pp. 211–212.

Guglielmi, M.

R. Bozio, M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Optical limiting of fullerene derivatives embedded in sol-gel materials,” in Photoactive Organic Materials Science and Applications, F. Kajzer, ed., NATO ASI Ser. B572, 159–174 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hagan, D. J.

Hall, L.

N. S. Pate, L. Hall, L. Katherine, and K. A. Raushenbach, “Interferometric all-optical switches for ultrafast signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2831–2842 (1998).
[Crossref]

He, J.

J. He and M. Cada, “Combined distributed feedback and Fabry–Perot structures with a phase-matching layer for bistable devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2150–2152 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hermann, J. A.

J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and P. J. Wilson, “Design criteria for optical power limiters,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 167–178 (1994).
[Crossref]

Hollins, R. C.

R. C. Hollins, “Overview of research on nonlinear optical limiters at DERA (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency),” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE3282, 2–8 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ichimure, A.

K. Ishizu, T. Ikemoto, and A. Ichimure, “Architecture of polymeric superstructures formed by locking cubic lattices of core-shell polymer microspheres,” Polymer 39, 449–454 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ikemoto, T.

K. Ishizu, T. Ikemoto, and A. Ichimure, “Architecture of polymeric superstructures formed by locking cubic lattices of core-shell polymer microspheres,” Polymer 39, 449–454 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ishizu, K.

K. Ishizu, T. Ikemoto, and A. Ichimure, “Architecture of polymeric superstructures formed by locking cubic lattices of core-shell polymer microspheres,” Polymer 39, 449–454 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Ishizu, F. Naruse, and R. Saito, “The aggregation behavior of core-shell type polymer microspheres,” Polymer 35, 2329–2334 (1994).
[Crossref]

John, S.

S. John, “The localization of light,” in Photonics Band Gaps and Localization, C. M. Soukoulis, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1993), pp. 1–22.

Kaplan, D. L.

F. J. Aranda, C. F. Cheng, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, “Two-photon absorption in polybenzine,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 185–194.

Katherine, L.

N. S. Pate, L. Hall, L. Katherine, and K. A. Raushenbach, “Interferometric all-optical switches for ultrafast signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2831–2842 (1998).
[Crossref]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, M. Wood, and B. D. Guenther, “Nonlinear liquid crystal optical fiber array for all-optical switching/limiting,” in LEOS ’96 9th Annual Meeting (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), Vol. 2, pp. 211–212.

Liao, C.

G. I. Stegeman, C. Liao, and H. G. Winful, “Distributed feedback bistability in channel waveguides,” Optical Bistability 2, C. M. Bowden, H. M. Gibbs, and S. L. McCall, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1983), pp. 389–396.

Lin, H. B.

Luria, S. M.

S. M. Luria, “Preferred density of sunglasses,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61, 397–402 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maggini, M.

R. Bozio, M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Optical limiting of fullerene derivatives embedded in sol-gel materials,” in Photoactive Organic Materials Science and Applications, F. Kajzer, ed., NATO ASI Ser. B572, 159–174 (1996).
[Crossref]

Marburger, J. H.

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, and E. Garmire, “Theory of bistability in nonlinear distributed feedback structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379–381 (1979).
[Crossref]

Masciulli, P.

Matsuda, S.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, S. Matsuda, and H. D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

Mendoca, C. R.

C. R. Mendoca, M. M. Costa, J. A. Giacometti, F. D. Nunes, and S. C. Zilio, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polyesterene films doped with azobenzene dye Disperse Red 1,” Electron. Lett. 34, 116–117 (1998).
[Crossref]

Meneghetti, M.

R. Bozio, M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Optical limiting of fullerene derivatives embedded in sol-gel materials,” in Photoactive Organic Materials Science and Applications, F. Kajzer, ed., NATO ASI Ser. B572, 159–174 (1996).
[Crossref]

Miles, P.

Miller, M. J.

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, and E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 154–181 (1989).
[Crossref]

Miyata, S.

H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).

Nalwa, H. S.

H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).

Naruse, F.

K. Ishizu, F. Naruse, and R. Saito, “The aggregation behavior of core-shell type polymer microspheres,” Polymer 35, 2329–2334 (1994).
[Crossref]

Nunes, F. D.

C. R. Mendoca, M. M. Costa, J. A. Giacometti, F. D. Nunes, and S. C. Zilio, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polyesterene films doped with azobenzene dye Disperse Red 1,” Electron. Lett. 34, 116–117 (1998).
[Crossref]

Pate, N. S.

N. S. Pate, L. Hall, L. Katherine, and K. A. Raushenbach, “Interferometric all-optical switches for ultrafast signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2831–2842 (1998).
[Crossref]

Prasad, P. N.

P. N. Prasad, “Design, ultrastructure, and dynamics of nonlinear optical effects in polymeric thin films,” in Electroactive Polymer Materials: State-of-the-Art Review of Conductive Polymers, A. Wirsén, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1987), pp. 41–67.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Prato, M.

R. Bozio, M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Optical limiting of fullerene derivatives embedded in sol-gel materials,” in Photoactive Organic Materials Science and Applications, F. Kajzer, ed., NATO ASI Ser. B572, 159–174 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pun, E. Y. B.

Z. X. Zhang, W. Qiu, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chang, and Y. Q. Shen, “Doped polymer films with high nonlinear refractive indices,” Electron. Lett. 32, 129–130 (1996).
[Crossref]

Qiu, W.

Z. X. Zhang, W. Qiu, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chang, and Y. Q. Shen, “Doped polymer films with high nonlinear refractive indices,” Electron. Lett. 32, 129–130 (1996).
[Crossref]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, S. Matsuda, and H. D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ranieri, P.

Rao, D. V. G. L. N.

F. J. Aranda, C. F. Cheng, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, “Two-photon absorption in polybenzine,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 185–194.

Raushenbach, K. A.

N. S. Pate, L. Hall, L. Katherine, and K. A. Raushenbach, “Interferometric all-optical switches for ultrafast signal processing,” Appl. Opt. 27, 2831–2842 (1998).
[Crossref]

Roach, J. F.

F. J. Aranda, C. F. Cheng, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, “Two-photon absorption in polybenzine,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 185–194.

Said, A. A.

Saito, R.

K. Ishizu, F. Naruse, and R. Saito, “The aggregation behavior of core-shell type polymer microspheres,” Polymer 35, 2329–2334 (1994).
[Crossref]

Salamo, G. J.

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, and E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 154–181 (1989).
[Crossref]

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Scolara, M.

M. Scolara, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic bandgap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref]

Scorrano, G.

R. Bozio, M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Optical limiting of fullerene derivatives embedded in sol-gel materials,” in Photoactive Organic Materials Science and Applications, F. Kajzer, ed., NATO ASI Ser. B572, 159–174 (1996).
[Crossref]

Sharp, E. J.

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, and E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 154–181 (1989).
[Crossref]

Shei-Bahae, M.

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Shei-Bahae, “Z-scan,” in Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998), pp. 655–692.

Shen, Y. Q.

Z. X. Zhang, W. Qiu, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chang, and Y. Q. Shen, “Doped polymer films with high nonlinear refractive indices,” Electron. Lett. 32, 129–130 (1996).
[Crossref]

Shi, C.-X.

C.-X. Shi, “Optical bistability in reflective fiber grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2037–2043 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sibilia, C.

Signorini, R.

R. Bozio, M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Optical limiting of fullerene derivatives embedded in sol-gel materials,” in Photoactive Organic Materials Science and Applications, F. Kajzer, ed., NATO ASI Ser. B572, 159–174 (1996).
[Crossref]

Staromlynska, J.

J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and P. J. Wilson, “Design criteria for optical power limiters,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 167–178 (1994).
[Crossref]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman, C. Liao, and H. G. Winful, “Distributed feedback bistability in channel waveguides,” Optical Bistability 2, C. M. Bowden, H. M. Gibbs, and S. L. McCall, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1983), pp. 389–396.

Steier, W. H.

S. Dubovitsky and W. H. Steier, “Analysis of optical bistability in a nonlinear coupled resonator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 585–589 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sutherland, R. L.

P. A. Fleiz, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Z-scan measurements of molten diphenylbuandiene in the isotropic liquid state,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh Pa., 1994), pp. 211–216.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Tonucci, R. J.

Tran, P.

Van Stryland, E. W.

T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, A. Dogariu, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Optimization of optical limiting devices based on excited-state absorption,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4110–4122 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Shei-Bahae, “Z-scan,” in Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998), pp. 655–692.

Vindogradov, S. A.

M. Brunel, F. Chaput, S. A. Vindogradov, B. Campagne, M. Canva, J-P. Boilot, and A. Brun, “Reverse saturable absorption in organically-doped xerogels,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, R. Pachter, P. Hood, D. Hagan, K. Lewis, and J. Perry, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 97–102.

Werner, J. S.

J. S. Werner, “Children’s sunglasses: caveat emptor,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 318–320 (1991).
[Crossref]

Williams, D. J.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Wilson, P. J.

J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and P. J. Wilson, “Design criteria for optical power limiters,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 167–178 (1994).
[Crossref]

Winful, H. G.

H. G. Winful and G. D. Cooperman, “Self-pulsing and chaos in distributed feedback bistable optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 298–300 (1982).
[Crossref]

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, and E. Garmire, “Theory of bistability in nonlinear distributed feedback structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379–381 (1979).
[Crossref]

G. I. Stegeman, C. Liao, and H. G. Winful, “Distributed feedback bistability in channel waveguides,” Optical Bistability 2, C. M. Bowden, H. M. Gibbs, and S. L. McCall, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1983), pp. 389–396.

Wood, G. L.

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, and E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 154–181 (1989).
[Crossref]

Wood, M.

I. C. Khoo, M. Wood, and B. D. Guenther, “Nonlinear liquid crystal optical fiber array for all-optical switching/limiting,” in LEOS ’96 9th Annual Meeting (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), Vol. 2, pp. 211–212.

Xia, T.

Yamada, S.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, S. Matsuda, and H. D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yankelevich, H. D.

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, S. Matsuda, and H. D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yarif, A.

A. Yarif and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

Yeh, P.

A. Yarif and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

Zhang, Z. X.

Z. X. Zhang, W. Qiu, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chang, and Y. Q. Shen, “Doped polymer films with high nonlinear refractive indices,” Electron. Lett. 32, 129–130 (1996).
[Crossref]

Zilio, S. C.

C. R. Mendoca, M. M. Costa, J. A. Giacometti, F. D. Nunes, and S. C. Zilio, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polyesterene films doped with azobenzene dye Disperse Red 1,” Electron. Lett. 34, 116–117 (1998).
[Crossref]

Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. (1)

S. M. Luria, “Preferred density of sunglasses,” Am. J. Optom. Physiol. Opt. 61, 397–402 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. He and M. Cada, “Combined distributed feedback and Fabry–Perot structures with a phase-matching layer for bistable devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2150–2152 (1992).
[Crossref]

H. G. Winful, J. H. Marburger, and E. Garmire, “Theory of bistability in nonlinear distributed feedback structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 35, 379–381 (1979).
[Crossref]

H. G. Winful and G. D. Cooperman, “Self-pulsing and chaos in distributed feedback bistable optical devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 298–300 (1982).
[Crossref]

R. Rangel-Rojo, S. Yamada, S. Matsuda, and H. D. Yankelevich, “Large near-resonance third-order nonlinearity in an azobenzene-functionalized polymer film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1021–1023 (1998).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

Z. X. Zhang, W. Qiu, E. Y. B. Pun, P. S. Chang, and Y. Q. Shen, “Doped polymer films with high nonlinear refractive indices,” Electron. Lett. 32, 129–130 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. R. Mendoca, M. M. Costa, J. A. Giacometti, F. D. Nunes, and S. C. Zilio, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polyesterene films doped with azobenzene dye Disperse Red 1,” Electron. Lett. 34, 116–117 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. Dubovitsky and W. H. Steier, “Analysis of optical bistability in a nonlinear coupled resonator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 585–589 (1992).
[Crossref]

C.-X. Shi, “Optical bistability in reflective fiber grating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 2037–2043 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Optom. Vision Sci. (1)

J. S. Werner, “Children’s sunglasses: caveat emptor,” Optom. Vision Sci. 68, 318–320 (1991).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Scolara, J. P. Dowling, C. M. Bowden, and M. J. Bloemer, “Optical limiting and switching of ultrashort pulses in nonlinear photonic bandgap materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1368–1371 (1994).
[Crossref]

Polymer (2)

K. Ishizu, T. Ikemoto, and A. Ichimure, “Architecture of polymeric superstructures formed by locking cubic lattices of core-shell polymer microspheres,” Polymer 39, 449–454 (1998).
[Crossref]

K. Ishizu, F. Naruse, and R. Saito, “The aggregation behavior of core-shell type polymer microspheres,” Polymer 35, 2329–2334 (1994).
[Crossref]

Other (18)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

G. I. Stegeman, C. Liao, and H. G. Winful, “Distributed feedback bistability in channel waveguides,” Optical Bistability 2, C. M. Bowden, H. M. Gibbs, and S. L. McCall, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1983), pp. 389–396.

H. S. Nalwa and S. Miyata, Nonlinear Optics of Organic Molecules and Polymers (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997).

P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Layered Media (Wiley, New York, 1988).

A. Yarif and P. Yeh, Optical Waves in Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1984).

G. L. Wood, W. W. Clark, M. J. Miller, G. J. Salamo, and E. J. Sharp, “Evaluation of passive optical limiters and switches,” in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 154–181 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. Bozio, M. Meneghetti, R. Signorini, M. Maggini, G. Scorrano, M. Prato, G. Brusatin, and M. Guglielmi, “Optical limiting of fullerene derivatives embedded in sol-gel materials,” in Photoactive Organic Materials Science and Applications, F. Kajzer, ed., NATO ASI Ser. B572, 159–174 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. A. Hermann, P. B. Chapple, J. Staromlynska, and P. J. Wilson, “Design criteria for optical power limiters,” in Nonlinear Optical Materials for Switching and Limiting, M. J. Soileau, ed., Proc. SPIE2229, 167–178 (1994).
[Crossref]

S. John, “The localization of light,” in Photonics Band Gaps and Localization, C. M. Soukoulis, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1993), pp. 1–22.

P. N. Prasad, “Design, ultrastructure, and dynamics of nonlinear optical effects in polymeric thin films,” in Electroactive Polymer Materials: State-of-the-Art Review of Conductive Polymers, A. Wirsén, ed. (Technomic, Lancaster, Pa., 1987), pp. 41–67.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

R. C. Hollins, “Overview of research on nonlinear optical limiters at DERA (Defence Evaluation & Research Agency),” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices II, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE3282, 2–8 (1988).
[Crossref]

I. C. Khoo, M. Wood, and B. D. Guenther, “Nonlinear liquid crystal optical fiber array for all-optical switching/limiting,” in LEOS ’96 9th Annual Meeting (IEEE, Piscataway, N.J., 1996), Vol. 2, pp. 211–212.

H. M. Gibbs, Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light (Academic, Orlando, 1985).

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Shei-Bahae, “Z-scan,” in Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Optical Materials, M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1998), pp. 655–692.

F. J. Aranda, C. F. Cheng, D. V. G. L. N. Rao, J. A. Akkara, D. L. Kaplan, and J. F. Roach, “Two-photon absorption in polybenzine,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1994), pp. 185–194.

P. A. Fleiz, R. L. Sutherland, and T. J. Bunning, “Z-scan measurements of molten diphenylbuandiene in the isotropic liquid state,” in Materials for Optical Limiting, R. Crane, K. Lewis, E. Van Stryland, and M. Khoshnevisan, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh Pa., 1994), pp. 211–216.

M. Brunel, F. Chaput, S. A. Vindogradov, B. Campagne, M. Canva, J-P. Boilot, and A. Brun, “Reverse saturable absorption in organically-doped xerogels,” in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Sutherland, R. Pachter, P. Hood, D. Hagan, K. Lewis, and J. Perry, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 97–102.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Transmitted intensity as a function of incident intensity for structure with |nnl|=0.01 for various numbers of layers. All of the limiters clamp the transmitted intensity to a limiting value.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmitted intensity is plotted as a function of incident intensity on a semi-log scale for structures with |nnl|=0.01 for different numbers of layers. This plot illustrates the transition section between low and high incident intensities and the saturation to a limiting value.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Indices of refraction are plotted across the structure of 300 layers with |nnl|=0.01. The decay of the intensity across the structure is thus demonstrated.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of transmittance spectra for structures with |nnl|=0.01 with increasing number of layers is shown. The nonlinear behavior of the limiter is responsible for the formation of a stopband at the desired frequency.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Plot demonstrates the evolution of the transmittance spectra made of 300 layers with |nnl|=0.01 as a function of increased incident intensity. As the incident intensity is increased, the stopband becomes deeper and wider.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Values of limiting intensities are plotted as a function of the number of layers for nnl values of ±0.005, ±0.01, and ±0.02. The values obtained from numerical calculations, shown on the plot as squares, triangles, and diamonds, follow exactly the curves predicted by the analytical model.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n=n0+nnlI,
ajbj=12 exp(ikj+1tj+1)1+kj+1kjexp(-ikj+1tj+1)1-kj+1kjexp(ikj+1tj+1)1-kj+1kjexp(-ikj+1tj+1)1+kj+1kjaj+1bj+1,
a0b0=M1×M2××MN×aN0,
i dA1(z)dz=ωc [(n01-n02)+(nnl1-nnl2)I(z)]×exp-i πd2Λ sin πd2Λπ×A2(z)expi2ωn0c-2πΛz-ωc[n¯nlI(z)×A1(z)],
i dA2(z)dz=-ωc [(n01-n02)+(nnl1-nnl2)I(z)]expi πd2Λsin πd2Λπ×A1(z)expi2ωn0c-2πΛz+ωc[n¯nlI(z)×A2(z)],
n0=n01d1+n02d2Λ,n¯nl=nnl1d1+nnl2d2Λ,
dA1(z)dz=-ωc 2nnlπ[|A1(z)|2+|A2(z)|2]A2(z)expi2ωn0c-2πΛz,
dA2(z)dz=-ωc 2nnlπ[|A1(z)|2+|A2(z)|2]A1(z)exp-i2ωn0c-2πΛz.
A1(z)=1+2 exp-4iIoutnnl(L-z)Λn0+exp-8iIoutnnl(L-z)Λn02+2 exp-8iIoutnnl(L-z)Λn01/2A1out.
i(z)=1+cos4Ioutnnl(L-z)Λn02 cos4Ioutnnl(L-z)Λn0Iout.
Iin=12 1cos4Iouta+1Iout,
ILimiting=π4 n0Nnnl.

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