Abstract

The efficiency of multilayered poled polymer devices for parametric mixing depends critically on the creation of large electric fields in the nonlinear layer containing chromophores with large hyperpolarizabilities. The effect of changing the relative glass-transition temperatures of the polymer films constituting a four-layer waveguide has been investigated. An increase in the nonlinearity by a factor of 3.6, as measured by Maker fringes, has been found between an optimized and a nonoptimized combination. Correlation between the poling current density and the propagation losses has also been identified.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, “χ(2)-cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. I. Stegeman and R. H. Stolen, “Waveguides and fibers for nonlinear optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 652–662 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. Hofmann, G. Schreiber, C. Haase, H. Herrmann, W. Grundkötter, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Quasi-phase-matched difference-frequency generation in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 896–889 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. H. Chou, J. Hauden, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on difference-frequency generation in LiNbO3 waveguides with integrated coupling structures,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1004–1006 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength converter based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653–655 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  6. F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. 8, 592–601 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Tang, J. M. Taboada, G. Cao, L. Li, and R. T. Chen, “Enhanced electro-optic coefficient of nonlinear optical polymer using liquid contact poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 538–540 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G.-M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhards-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear-optical polymer-films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Charra, F. Kajzar, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, and E. Idiart, “Light-induced second harmonic generation in azo-dye polymers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 941–943 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. W. Chalupczak, C. Fiorini, F. Chara, J.-M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Efficient all-optical poling of an azo-dye copolymer using a low power laser,” Opt. Commun. 126, 103–107 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Pyroelectric investigation of the dipole orientation in nonlinear-optical polymers during and after poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2627–2635 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, “Modal dispersion phase-matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, “Key trade-offs for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  15. For example, many articles appeared in Electrical Conduction in Polymers, D. Seaner, ed. (Academic, New York, 1982).
  16. H. C. Ling, W. R. Holland, and H. M. Gordon, “Dc electrical behavior of polymers used in electrooptic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 6669–6673 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. Blum, M. Sprave, J. Sablotny, and M. Eich, “High-electric-field poling of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 318–328 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. C. C. Teng, M. A. Mortazavi, and G. K. Boudoughian, “Origin of the poling-induced optical loss in a nonlinear-optical polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 667–669 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. Williams and D. C. Watts, “Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behavior arising from a simple empirical decay function,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80–85 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. Koike and R. Tanaka, “Dielectric properties above the glass-transition for a series of epoxide prepolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 42, 1333–1340 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Lei, J. Runt, A. Safari, and R. E. Newnham, “Dielectric properties of azo dye poly(methyl) methacrylate mixtures,” Macromolecules 20, 1797–1801 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Singh, V. S. Panwar, R. P. Tandon, and N. P. Gupta, “Low-frequency ac conduction and dielectric relaxation in vinyl chloride:vinyl acetate copolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3410–3416 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. F. Ghebremichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and C. W. Dirk, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of low temperature transitions in dye-doped polymers,” Nonlinear Opt. 6, 123–129 (1993).

1999

D. Hofmann, G. Schreiber, C. Haase, H. Herrmann, W. Grundkötter, R. Ricken, and W. Sohler, “Quasi-phase-matched difference-frequency generation in periodically poled Ti:LiNbO3 channel waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 24, 896–889 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength converter based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, “Modal dispersion phase-matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Tang, J. M. Taboada, G. Cao, L. Li, and R. T. Chen, “Enhanced electro-optic coefficient of nonlinear optical polymer using liquid contact poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 538–540 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. 8, 592–601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, “χ(2)-cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, “Key trade-offs for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Chalupczak, C. Fiorini, F. Chara, J.-M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Efficient all-optical poling of an azo-dye copolymer using a low power laser,” Opt. Commun. 126, 103–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

C. C. Teng, M. A. Mortazavi, and G. K. Boudoughian, “Origin of the poling-induced optical loss in a nonlinear-optical polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 667–669 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Pyroelectric investigation of the dipole orientation in nonlinear-optical polymers during and after poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2627–2635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G.-M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhards-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear-optical polymer-films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

F. Charra, F. Kajzar, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, and E. Idiart, “Light-induced second harmonic generation in azo-dye polymers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 941–943 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Ghebremichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and C. W. Dirk, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of low temperature transitions in dye-doped polymers,” Nonlinear Opt. 6, 123–129 (1993).

1992

R. Singh, V. S. Panwar, R. P. Tandon, and N. P. Gupta, “Low-frequency ac conduction and dielectric relaxation in vinyl chloride:vinyl acetate copolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3410–3416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

H. C. Ling, W. R. Holland, and H. M. Gordon, “Dc electrical behavior of polymers used in electrooptic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 6669–6673 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Koike and R. Tanaka, “Dielectric properties above the glass-transition for a series of epoxide prepolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 42, 1333–1340 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

1988

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

D. Lei, J. Runt, A. Safari, and R. E. Newnham, “Dielectric properties of azo dye poly(methyl) methacrylate mixtures,” Macromolecules 20, 1797–1801 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1970

G. Williams and D. C. Watts, “Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behavior arising from a simple empirical decay function,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80–85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Arbore, M. A.

Bauer, S.

G.-M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhards-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear-optical polymer-films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Pyroelectric investigation of the dipole orientation in nonlinear-optical polymers during and after poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2627–2635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bauer-Gogonea, S.

S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Pyroelectric investigation of the dipole orientation in nonlinear-optical polymers during and after poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2627–2635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G.-M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhards-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear-optical polymer-films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beuhler, A. J.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blum, R.

Bosshard, C.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. 8, 592–601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boudoughian, G. K.

C. C. Teng, M. A. Mortazavi, and G. K. Boudoughian, “Origin of the poling-induced optical loss in a nonlinear-optical polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 667–669 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength converter based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, P. A.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cao, G.

H. Tang, J. M. Taboada, G. Cao, L. Li, and R. T. Chen, “Enhanced electro-optic coefficient of nonlinear optical polymer using liquid contact poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 538–540 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chaban, E. E.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength converter based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chalupczak, W.

W. Chalupczak, C. Fiorini, F. Chara, J.-M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Efficient all-optical poling of an azo-dye copolymer using a low power laser,” Opt. Commun. 126, 103–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chara, F.

W. Chalupczak, C. Fiorini, F. Chara, J.-M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Efficient all-optical poling of an azo-dye copolymer using a low power laser,” Opt. Commun. 126, 103–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Charra, F.

Chen, R. T.

H. Tang, J. M. Taboada, G. Cao, L. Li, and R. T. Chen, “Enhanced electro-optic coefficient of nonlinear optical polymer using liquid contact poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 538–540 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chou, M. H.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength converter based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, J. Hauden, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on difference-frequency generation in LiNbO3 waveguides with integrated coupling structures,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1004–1006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Christman, S. B.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength converter based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Comizzoli, R. B.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M.

M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, “Modal dispersion phase-matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, “Key trade-offs for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dirk, C. W.

F. Ghebremichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and C. W. Dirk, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of low temperature transitions in dye-doped polymers,” Nonlinear Opt. 6, 123–129 (1993).

Eich, M.

Ermer, S.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength converter based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Chou, J. Hauden, M. A. Arbore, and M. M. Fejer, “1.5-μm-band wavelength conversion based on difference-frequency generation in LiNbO3 waveguides with integrated coupling structures,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1004–1006 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fiorini, C.

W. Chalupczak, C. Fiorini, F. Chara, J.-M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Efficient all-optical poling of an azo-dye copolymer using a low power laser,” Opt. Commun. 126, 103–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Flipse, M. C.

M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, “Modal dispersion phase-matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, “Key trade-offs for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gerhard-Multhaupt, R.

S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Pyroelectric investigation of the dipole orientation in nonlinear-optical polymers during and after poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2627–2635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gerhards-Multhaupt, R.

G.-M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhards-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear-optical polymer-films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ghebremichael, F.

F. Ghebremichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and C. W. Dirk, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of low temperature transitions in dye-doped polymers,” Nonlinear Opt. 6, 123–129 (1993).

Gordon, H. M.

H. C. Ling, W. R. Holland, and H. M. Gordon, “Dc electrical behavior of polymers used in electrooptic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 6669–6673 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Grundkötter, W.

Gunter, P.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. 8, 592–601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, N. P.

R. Singh, V. S. Panwar, R. P. Tandon, and N. P. Gupta, “Low-frequency ac conduction and dielectric relaxation in vinyl chloride:vinyl acetate copolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3410–3416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haase, C.

Hagan, D. J.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, “χ(2)-cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hauden, J.

Herrmann, H.

Hofmann, D.

Holland, W. R.

H. C. Ling, W. R. Holland, and H. M. Gordon, “Dc electrical behavior of polymers used in electrooptic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 6669–6673 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Idiart, E.

Jäger, M.

M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, “Modal dispersion phase-matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, “Key trade-offs for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kajzar, F.

Koike, T.

T. Koike and R. Tanaka, “Dielectric properties above the glass-transition for a series of epoxide prepolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 42, 1333–1340 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kosc, T. Z.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, T. C.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kuzyk, M. G.

F. Ghebremichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and C. W. Dirk, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of low temperature transitions in dye-doped polymers,” Nonlinear Opt. 6, 123–129 (1993).

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lei, D.

D. Lei, J. Runt, A. Safari, and R. E. Newnham, “Dielectric properties of azo dye poly(methyl) methacrylate mixtures,” Macromolecules 20, 1797–1801 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Li, L.

H. Tang, J. M. Taboada, G. Cao, L. Li, and R. T. Chen, “Enhanced electro-optic coefficient of nonlinear optical polymer using liquid contact poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 538–540 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ling, H. C.

H. C. Ling, W. R. Holland, and H. M. Gordon, “Dc electrical behavior of polymers used in electrooptic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 6669–6673 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Meinhardt, M. B.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Möhlmann, G.

M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, “Modal dispersion phase-matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M. A.

C. C. Teng, M. A. Mortazavi, and G. K. Boudoughian, “Origin of the poling-induced optical loss in a nonlinear-optical polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 667–669 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Newnham, R. E.

D. Lei, J. Runt, A. Safari, and R. E. Newnham, “Dielectric properties of azo dye poly(methyl) methacrylate mixtures,” Macromolecules 20, 1797–1801 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J. M.

Nunzi, J.-M.

W. Chalupczak, C. Fiorini, F. Chara, J.-M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Efficient all-optical poling of an azo-dye copolymer using a low power laser,” Opt. Commun. 126, 103–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Otomo, A.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, “Key trade-offs for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pan, F.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. 8, 592–601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Panwar, V. S.

R. Singh, V. S. Panwar, R. P. Tandon, and N. P. Gupta, “Low-frequency ac conduction and dielectric relaxation in vinyl chloride:vinyl acetate copolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3410–3416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, P.

W. Chalupczak, C. Fiorini, F. Chara, J.-M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Efficient all-optical poling of an azo-dye copolymer using a low power laser,” Opt. Commun. 126, 103–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Charra, F. Kajzar, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, and E. Idiart, “Light-induced second harmonic generation in azo-dye polymers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 941–943 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ren, W.

G.-M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhards-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear-optical polymer-films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ricken, R.

Runt, J.

D. Lei, J. Runt, A. Safari, and R. E. Newnham, “Dielectric properties of azo dye poly(methyl) methacrylate mixtures,” Macromolecules 20, 1797–1801 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Sablotny, J.

Safari, A.

D. Lei, J. Runt, A. Safari, and R. E. Newnham, “Dielectric properties of azo dye poly(methyl) methacrylate mixtures,” Macromolecules 20, 1797–1801 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M. L.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, G.

Seager, C. H.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sessier, G. M.

G.-M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhards-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear-optical polymer-films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Singh, R.

R. Singh, V. S. Panwar, R. P. Tandon, and N. P. Gupta, “Low-frequency ac conduction and dielectric relaxation in vinyl chloride:vinyl acetate copolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3410–3416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sohler, W.

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sprave, M.

Stegeman, G.

M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, “Modal dispersion phase-matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, “Key trade-offs for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, “χ(2)-cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and R. H. Stolen, “Waveguides and fibers for nonlinear optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Taboada, J. M.

H. Tang, J. M. Taboada, G. Cao, L. Li, and R. T. Chen, “Enhanced electro-optic coefficient of nonlinear optical polymer using liquid contact poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 538–540 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, R.

T. Koike and R. Tanaka, “Dielectric properties above the glass-transition for a series of epoxide prepolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 42, 1333–1340 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tandon, R. P.

R. Singh, V. S. Panwar, R. P. Tandon, and N. P. Gupta, “Low-frequency ac conduction and dielectric relaxation in vinyl chloride:vinyl acetate copolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3410–3416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tang, H.

H. Tang, J. M. Taboada, G. Cao, L. Li, and R. T. Chen, “Enhanced electro-optic coefficient of nonlinear optical polymer using liquid contact poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 538–540 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng, M. A. Mortazavi, and G. K. Boudoughian, “Origin of the poling-induced optical loss in a nonlinear-optical polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 667–669 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, “χ(2)-cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wargowski, D. A.

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Watts, D. C.

G. Williams and D. C. Watts, “Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behavior arising from a simple empirical decay function,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80–85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Williams, G.

G. Williams and D. C. Watts, “Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behavior arising from a simple empirical decay function,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80–85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Wirges, W.

G.-M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhards-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear-optical polymer-films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Pyroelectric investigation of the dipole orientation in nonlinear-optical polymers during and after poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2627–2635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wong, M. S.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. 8, 592–601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.-M.

G.-M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhards-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear-optical polymer-films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

F. Pan, M. S. Wong, C. Bosshard, and P. Gunter, “Crystal growth and characterization of the organic salt 4-N, N-dimethylamino-4′-N-methyl-stilbazolium tosylate (DAST),” Adv. Mater. 8, 592–601 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, S. J. Lalama, R. B. Comizzoli, and M. L. Schilling, “Electro-optic phase modulation and optical second harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Tang, J. M. Taboada, G. Cao, L. Li, and R. T. Chen, “Enhanced electro-optic coefficient of nonlinear optical polymer using liquid contact poling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 538–540 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G.-M. Yang, S. Bauer-Gogonea, G. M. Sessier, S. Bauer, W. Ren, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhards-Multhaupt, “Selective poling of nonlinear-optical polymer-films by means of a monoenergetic electron beam,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 22–24 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Jäger, G. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Möhlmann, “Modal dispersion phase-matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Otomo, M. Jäger, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, and M. Diemeer, “Key trade-offs for second harmonic generation in poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1991–1993 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Teng, M. A. Mortazavi, and G. K. Boudoughian, “Origin of the poling-induced optical loss in a nonlinear-optical polymeric waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 667–669 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

M. H. Chou, I. Brener, M. M. Fejer, E. E. Chaban, and S. B. Christman, “1.5-μm-band wavelength converter based on cascaded second-order nonlinearity in LiNbO3 waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11, 653–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. C. Ling, W. R. Holland, and H. M. Gordon, “Dc electrical behavior of polymers used in electrooptic devices,” J. Appl. Phys. 70, 6669–6673 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Kowalczyk, T. Z. Kosc, K. D. Singer, A. J. Beuhler, D. A. Wargowski, P. A. Cahill, C. H. Seager, M. B. Meinhardt, and S. Ermer, “Cross-linked polyimide electrooptic materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 5876–5883 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, W. Wirges, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Pyroelectric investigation of the dipole orientation in nonlinear-optical polymers during and after poling,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2627–2635 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Singh, V. S. Panwar, R. P. Tandon, and N. P. Gupta, “Low-frequency ac conduction and dielectric relaxation in vinyl chloride:vinyl acetate copolymers,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 3410–3416 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Polym. Sci.

T. Koike and R. Tanaka, “Dielectric properties above the glass-transition for a series of epoxide prepolymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 42, 1333–1340 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Macromolecules

D. Lei, J. Runt, A. Safari, and R. E. Newnham, “Dielectric properties of azo dye poly(methyl) methacrylate mixtures,” Macromolecules 20, 1797–1801 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt.

F. Ghebremichael, M. G. Kuzyk, and C. W. Dirk, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of low temperature transitions in dye-doped polymers,” Nonlinear Opt. 6, 123–129 (1993).

Opt. Commun.

W. Chalupczak, C. Fiorini, F. Chara, J.-M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Efficient all-optical poling of an azo-dye copolymer using a low power laser,” Opt. Commun. 126, 103–107 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

G. I. Stegeman, D. J. Hagan, and L. Torner, “χ(2)-cascading phenomena and their applications to all-optical signal processing, mode-locking, pulse compression and solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28, 1691–1740 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc.

G. Williams and D. C. Watts, “Non-symmetrical dielectric relaxation behavior arising from a simple empirical decay function,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 66, 80–85 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Other

For example, many articles appeared in Electrical Conduction in Polymers, D. Seaner, ed. (Academic, New York, 1982).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagrams of the two multilayer sample geometries investigated. The main difference between these structures is the glass-transition temperature and the thickness of the transparent linear high-index core material, PEI-HM (left) and PEI-X (right).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Evolution of poling current (filled points) and corresponding poling temperature (filled triangles) as a function of time (hr:mn, hours:minutes).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Evolution of poling current as a function of time, for various poling voltages and different temperature conditions. For 300, 400, and 500 V, the temperature was almost constant during the measurement.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the poling current as a function of voltage at T=134 °C.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

SHG Maker-fringe measurements of a parallel-plate poled DANS structure with a PEI-HM linear layer for two polarization combinations. The oscillations are due to Fabry–Perot resonances of the fundamental in the PC and the PEI-HM layers.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Electric and Optical Properties of Poled Samples

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

j(E, T)=A*T2 exp-eΦ-βsEkBT,
βs=e34πε0εr1/2.
exp-tτβ=0+ exp-tτρ(τ)dτ,

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