Abstract

Near-UV excited-state absorption spectra obtained with a pulsed pump–probe technique were recorded in LiYF4:Pr3+ at 77 and at 8 K and revealed a detailed structure of the 4f2 1D24f5d and 4f2(3P0+1I6)4f5d optical transitions. These experimental results, together with those previously obtained at room temperature, are compared with the numerical predictions of a full calculation of the 4f5d sublevels and of the electric dipole transitions toward these sublevels from different states of the 4f2 configuration. The agreement is good, provided that the four adjustable parameters of the theory are taken as B20(5d)=7290 cm-1, B40(5d)=-14 900 cm-1, F0=60 557 cm-1, and rfd=0.245 Å. The level structure of the 4f5d configuration of LiYF4:Pr3+ is shown to be dominated, as expected, by the crystal field coupling of the 5d electron but also, to a noticeable extent, by the spin–orbit coupling of the 4f electron and the Coulomb repulsion of both electrons. The former of these two interactions is somewhat more efficient than the latter in the low-energy part of the 4f5d configuration, i.e., in the spectral region where the largest amount of experimental data is currently available.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

1998 (3)

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4f25d→4f3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, and A. Meijerink, “Spin-allowed and spin-forbidden fd emission from Er3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 57, R2025–R2028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Apaev, M. V. Eremin, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Interconfiguration 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ion in a LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Spectrosc. 84, 735–737 (1998).

1995 (1)

1994 (3)

E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “VUV and UV fluorescence and absorption studies of Pr3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 499–501 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. M. Cheung and S. K. Gayen, “Excited-state absorption in Pr3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14827–14835 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Hooker and C. E. Webb, “Progress in vacuum ultraviolet lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 18, 227–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, “Excited-state absorption of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals,” Opt. Mater. 2, 225–232 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kaminskii, K. I. Ueda, and N. Uehara, “New laser-diode-pumped cw laser based on Nd3+-ion-doped tetragonal LiLuF4 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 32, L586–L588 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. Garcia and R. R. Ryan, “Structure of the laser host material LiYF4,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C: Cryst. Struct. Commun. 49, 2053–2054 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet laser emission from Nd3+:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14–16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and T. V. Uvarova, “5d14fN−1–4fN absorption and luminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ ions in BaY2F8 single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169–K172 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

L. Esterowitz, F. J. Bartoli, R. E. Allen, D. E. Wortmann, C. A. Morrison, and R. P. Leavitt, “Energy levels and line in-tensities of Pr3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 6442–6455 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

1965 (2)

J. Sugar, “Analysis of the spectrum of triply ionized praseodymium (Pr IV),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1058–1061 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar, “Energy levels of Pr3+ in the vapor state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 731–732 (1965).
[CrossRef]

1962 (3)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

K. Rajnak, “Approximate excited eigenfunctions for Pr3+ and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 2440–2444 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1951 (1)

R. E. Trees, “Configuration interaction in Mn II,” Phys. Rev. 83, 756–760 (1951).
[CrossRef]

1948 (1)

K. H. Hellwege, “Elektronenterme und Strahlung von Atomen in Kristallen. I. Termaufspaltung und elektrische Dipolstrahlung,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 4, 95–126 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Abdulsabirov, R. Y.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4f25d→4f3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nicolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4f3→4f25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Abdulsabirov, R. Yu.

R. A. Apaev, M. V. Eremin, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Interconfiguration 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ion in a LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Spectrosc. 84, 735–737 (1998).

E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “VUV and UV fluorescence and absorption studies of Pr3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 499–501 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, R. E.

L. Esterowitz, F. J. Bartoli, R. E. Allen, D. E. Wortmann, C. A. Morrison, and R. P. Leavitt, “Energy levels and line in-tensities of Pr3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 6442–6455 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Apaev, R. A.

R. A. Apaev, M. V. Eremin, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Interconfiguration 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ion in a LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Spectrosc. 84, 735–737 (1998).

Bartoli, F. J.

L. Esterowitz, F. J. Bartoli, R. E. Allen, D. E. Wortmann, C. A. Morrison, and R. P. Leavitt, “Energy levels and line in-tensities of Pr3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 6442–6455 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Braud, A.

Castleberry, D. E.

Cefalas, A. C.

Chernov, S. P.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and T. V. Uvarova, “5d14fN−1–4fN absorption and luminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ ions in BaY2F8 single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169–K172 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Cheung, Y. M.

Y. M. Cheung and S. K. Gayen, “Excited-state absorption in Pr3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14827–14835 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Devyatkova, L. I.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and T. V. Uvarova, “5d14fN−1–4fN absorption and luminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ ions in BaY2F8 single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169–K172 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Donker, H.

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, and A. Meijerink, “Spin-allowed and spin-forbidden fd emission from Er3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 57, R2025–R2028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Doualan, J. L.

Dubinskii, M. A.

Eremin, M. V.

R. A. Apaev, M. V. Eremin, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Interconfiguration 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ion in a LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Spectrosc. 84, 735–737 (1998).

Esterowitz, L.

L. Esterowitz, F. J. Bartoli, R. E. Allen, D. E. Wortmann, C. A. Morrison, and R. P. Leavitt, “Energy levels and line in-tensities of Pr3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 6442–6455 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, E.

E. Garcia and R. R. Ryan, “Structure of the laser host material LiYF4,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C: Cryst. Struct. Commun. 49, 2053–2054 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gayen, S. K.

Y. M. Cheung and S. K. Gayen, “Excited-state absorption in Pr3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14827–14835 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Girard, S.

Hellwege, K. H.

K. H. Hellwege, “Elektronenterme und Strahlung von Atomen in Kristallen. I. Termaufspaltung und elektrische Dipolstrahlung,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 4, 95–126 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Hooker, S. M.

S. M. Hooker and C. E. Webb, “Progress in vacuum ultraviolet lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 18, 227–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ivanova, O. N.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and T. V. Uvarova, “5d14fN−1–4fN absorption and luminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ ions in BaY2F8 single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169–K172 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Kaminskii, A. A.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. I. Ueda, and N. Uehara, “New laser-diode-pumped cw laser based on Nd3+-ion-doped tetragonal LiLuF4 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 32, L586–L588 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and T. V. Uvarova, “5d14fN−1–4fN absorption and luminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ ions in BaY2F8 single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169–K172 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Klein, P. H.

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet laser emission from Nd3+:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14–16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kollia, Z.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4f25d→4f3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nicolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4f3→4f25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Korableva, S. L.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4f25d→4f3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Apaev, M. V. Eremin, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Interconfiguration 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ion in a LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Spectrosc. 84, 735–737 (1998).

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nicolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4f3→4f25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “VUV and UV fluorescence and absorption studies of Pr3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 499–501 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laroche, M.

Lawson, J. K.

J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, “Excited-state absorption of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals,” Opt. Mater. 2, 225–232 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Leavitt, R. P.

L. Esterowitz, F. J. Bartoli, R. E. Allen, D. E. Wortmann, C. A. Morrison, and R. P. Leavitt, “Energy levels and line in-tensities of Pr3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 6442–6455 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Linz, A.

Meijerink, A.

R. T. Wegh and A. Meijerink, “Spin-allowed and spin-forbidden 4fn↔4fn−15d transitions for heavy lanthanides in fluoride hosts,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 10820–10830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, and A. Meijerink, “Spin-allowed and spin-forbidden fd emission from Er3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 57, R2025–R2028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Merkle, L. D.

Mikhailin, V. V.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and T. V. Uvarova, “5d14fN−1–4fN absorption and luminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ ions in BaY2F8 single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169–K172 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Moncorgé, R.

Morrison, C. A.

L. Esterowitz, F. J. Bartoli, R. E. Allen, D. E. Wortmann, C. A. Morrison, and R. P. Leavitt, “Energy levels and line in-tensities of Pr3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 6442–6455 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Naumov, A. K.

R. A. Apaev, M. V. Eremin, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Interconfiguration 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ion in a LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Spectrosc. 84, 735–737 (1998).

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4f25d→4f3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nicolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4f3→4f25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “VUV and UV fluorescence and absorption studies of Pr3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 499–501 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nicolaides, C. A.

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, “Excited-state absorption of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals,” Opt. Mater. 2, 225–232 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rajnak, K.

K. Rajnak, “Approximate excited eigenfunctions for Pr3+ and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 2440–2444 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rudnev, S. N.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and T. V. Uvarova, “5d14fN−1–4fN absorption and luminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ ions in BaY2F8 single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169–K172 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, R. R.

E. Garcia and R. R. Ryan, “Structure of the laser host material LiYF4,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C: Cryst. Struct. Commun. 49, 2053–2054 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sarantopoulou, E.

Semashko, V. V.

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4f25d→4f3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Apaev, M. V. Eremin, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Interconfiguration 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ion in a LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Spectrosc. 84, 735–737 (1998).

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, C. A. Nicolaides, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, and M. A. Dubinskii, “Vacuum-ultraviolet interconfigurational 4f3→4f25d absorption and emission studies of the Nd3+ ion in KYF, YF, and YLF crystal hosts,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 782–785 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, M. A. Dubinskii, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, S. L. Korableva, A. K. Naumov, and V. V. Semashko, “VUV and UV fluorescence and absorption studies of Pr3+-doped LiLuF4 single crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 499–501 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugar, J.

J. Sugar, “Analysis of the spectrum of triply ionized praseodymium (Pr IV),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 55, 1058–1061 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Sugar, “Energy levels of Pr3+ in the vapor state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 731–732 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Thuau, M.

Trees, R. E.

R. E. Trees, “Configuration interaction in Mn II,” Phys. Rev. 83, 756–760 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, K. I.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. I. Ueda, and N. Uehara, “New laser-diode-pumped cw laser based on Nd3+-ion-doped tetragonal LiLuF4 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 32, L586–L588 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uehara, N.

A. A. Kaminskii, K. I. Ueda, and N. Uehara, “New laser-diode-pumped cw laser based on Nd3+-ion-doped tetragonal LiLuF4 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 32, L586–L588 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Uvarova, T. V.

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and T. V. Uvarova, “5d14fN−1–4fN absorption and luminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ ions in BaY2F8 single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169–K172 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet laser emission from Nd3+:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14–16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Webb, C. E.

S. M. Hooker and C. E. Webb, “Progress in vacuum ultraviolet lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 18, 227–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wegh, R. T.

R. T. Wegh and A. Meijerink, “Spin-allowed and spin-forbidden 4fn↔4fn−15d transitions for heavy lanthanides in fluoride hosts,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 10820–10830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, and A. Meijerink, “Spin-allowed and spin-forbidden fd emission from Er3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 57, R2025–R2028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, D. E.

L. Esterowitz, F. J. Bartoli, R. E. Allen, D. E. Wortmann, C. A. Morrison, and R. P. Leavitt, “Energy levels and line in-tensities of Pr3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 6442–6455 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C: Cryst. Struct. Commun. (1)

E. Garcia and R. R. Ryan, “Structure of the laser host material LiYF4,” Acta Crystallogr., Sect. C: Cryst. Struct. Commun. 49, 2053–2054 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) (1)

K. H. Hellwege, “Elektronenterme und Strahlung von Atomen in Kristallen. I. Termaufspaltung und elektrische Dipolstrahlung,” Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 4, 95–126 (1948).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. W. Waynant and P. H. Klein, “Vacuum ultraviolet laser emission from Nd3+:LaF3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 14–16 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (2)

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 511–520 (1962).
[CrossRef]

K. Rajnak, “Approximate excited eigenfunctions for Pr3+ and Tm3+,” J. Chem. Phys. 37, 2440–2444 (1962).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 (1)

A. A. Kaminskii, K. I. Ueda, and N. Uehara, “New laser-diode-pumped cw laser based on Nd3+-ion-doped tetragonal LiLuF4 crystal,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 32, L586–L588 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Z. Kollia, E. Sarantopoulou, A. C. Cefalas, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Y. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “On the 4f25d→4f3 interconfigurational transitions of Nd3+ ions in K2YF5 and LiYF4 crystal hosts,” Opt. Commun. 149, 386–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

J. K. Lawson and S. A. Payne, “Excited-state absorption of Pr3+-doped fluoride crystals,” Opt. Mater. 2, 225–232 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

R. A. Apaev, M. V. Eremin, A. K. Naumov, V. V. Semashko, R. Yu. Abdulsabirov, and S. L. Korableva, “Interconfiguration 4f–5d transitions of the Ce3+ ion in a LiLuF4 crystal,” Opt. Spectrosc. 84, 735–737 (1998).

Phys. Rev. (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127, 750–761 (1962).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Trees, “Configuration interaction in Mn II,” Phys. Rev. 83, 756–760 (1951).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

R. T. Wegh, H. Donker, and A. Meijerink, “Spin-allowed and spin-forbidden fd emission from Er3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 57, R2025–R2028 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Wegh and A. Meijerink, “Spin-allowed and spin-forbidden 4fn↔4fn−15d transitions for heavy lanthanides in fluoride hosts,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 10820–10830 (1999).
[CrossRef]

L. Esterowitz, F. J. Bartoli, R. E. Allen, D. E. Wortmann, C. A. Morrison, and R. P. Leavitt, “Energy levels and line in-tensities of Pr3+ in LiYF4,” Phys. Rev. B 19, 6442–6455 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Y. M. Cheung and S. K. Gayen, “Excited-state absorption in Pr3+:Y3Al5O12,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 14827–14835 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

J. Sugar, “Energy levels of Pr3+ in the vapor state,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 731–732 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

S. P. Chernov, L. I. Devyatkova, O. N. Ivanova, A. A. Kaminskii, V. V. Mikhailin, S. N. Rudnev, and T. V. Uvarova, “5d14fN−1–4fN absorption and luminescence of Ce3+, Pr3+ and Nd3+ ions in BaY2F8 single crystals,” Phys. Status Solidi A 88, K169–K172 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. M. Hooker and C. E. Webb, “Progress in vacuum ultraviolet lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 18, 227–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (6)

C. W. Nielson and G. F. Koster, Spectroscopic Coefficients for the pn, dn and fn Configurations (MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass., 1963).

C. A. Morrison and R. P. Leavitt, “Spectroscopic properties of triply ionized lanthanides in transparent host crystals,” in Handbook on the Physics and Chemistry of Rare Earths, K. A. Gschneidner, Jr., and L. Eyring, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982), Chap. 46, pp. 461–692.

E. U. Condon and G. H. Shortley, The Theory of Atomic Spectra (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1970).

B. R. Judd, Operator Techniques in Atomic Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963).

B. Henderson and G. F. Imbusch, Optical Spectroscopy of Inorganic Solids (Clarendon, Oxford, 1989).

A. C. Cefalas, National Hellenic Research Foundation, Theoretical and Physical Chemistry Institute, 48 Vassileos Constantinou Avenue, Athens 11635, Greece (personal communication, 1999).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

ESA at 295 K from 4f2 1D2 of LiYF4:Pr3+. (a) Observed spectra according to Ref. 10 after correction of a vertical scale error in that reference. (b) Spectra calculated with the parameters of Table 3 below; vertical short-dashed lines show the locations of the lowest and highest 4f5d sublevels, with the origin at the lowest 4f2 1D2 sublevel.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

ESA at 295 K from 4f2 (3P0+1I6) of LiYF4:Pr3+. (a) Observed spectra according to Ref. 10. (b) Spectra calculated with the parameters of Table 3 below; vertical short-dashed lines show the locations of the lowest and highest 4f5d sublevels, with the origin at the 4f2 3P0 level.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

GSA at 295 K of LiLuF4:Pr3+. (a) Observed unpolarized spectrum according to Ref. 4. (b) Spectra calculated with the parameters of Table 3 below. (c) Spectra calculated with the same parameters, except F0=61 919 cm-1, B20(5d)=4430 cm-1, B40(5d)=-19 780 cm-1, and B44(5d)=23 554cm-1. In (b) and (c) vertical short-dashed lines show the locations of the lowest and highest 4f5d sublevels, with the origin at the lowest 4f2 3H4 sublevel.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ESA at 77 K from 4f2 1D2 of LiYF4:Pr3+. Continuous curves, observed, this work (asterisks mark zero-phonon lines). Vertical lines, predicted transitions with the parameters of Table 3 below. Vertical scales are arbitrary: They are the same for observed σ and π spectra and the same (but different from the previous ones) for computed σ and π spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

ESA at 8 K from 4f2 1D2 of LiYF4:Pr3+. Similar to Fig. 4, except that the vertical unit for observed spectra is 10-18 cm2 (it remains arbitrary for calculated spectra).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

ESA at 8 K from 4f2 3P0 of LiYF4:Pr3+. Similar to Fig. 4, except that the vertical unit for observed spectra is 10-18 cm2 (it remains arbitrary for calculated spectra).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Configuration coordinate model.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Density of states in the 4f5d configuration. Heavy curve, total density of states ρ (ν). Thin curves, partial densities of states ρj1μd(ν); values of the couple (j1, μd) are (5/2, 2a) for curve 1, (7/2, 2a) for curve 2, (5/2, 0) for curve 3, (7/2, 0) for curve 4, (5/2, ±1) for curve 5, (7/2, ±1) for curve 6, (5/2, 2s) for curve 7, and (7/2, 2s) for curve 8.

Tables (6)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Energies of Some Stark Sublevels of the LiYF4:Pr3+ 4f2 Configurationa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Low Stark Sublevels of the 4f5d Configuration of LiYF4:Pr3+a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters for the Calculationa

Tables Icon

Table 4 Calculated and Observed ESA Spectra at 295 K from the  1D2 and (3P0+1I6) Levels of LiYF4:Pr3+a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Calculated and Observed GSA Spectra of LiLuF4:Pr3+ at 295 Ka

Tables Icon

Table 6 Percentages of Pure jj Coupling States in Pure LS Ones for an f2 Configuration

Equations (17)

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H=Hee+VSO+Vcrys,
|ψci=S,L,J,MaciSLJM|c,SLJM,
fd,SLJM|Dp|f2,SLJM
=δSS(-1)M+S+L+L×[2(2l1+1)(2l2+1)]1/2×[(2J+1)(2J+1)(2L+1)(2L+1)]1/2×J1J-MpM213000J1JLSL×L1L332erfd,
Iiip σiip(ν)dν=2π2hε0cνii(n2+2)29n|ψfd,i|Dp|ψf2,i|2,
σp(ν)=i,iω¯iIiipexp-ν-νiiδ2πδ,
Bkq=Akqrk(1-σk),
B44(5d)=B44(4f)×B40(5d)B40(4f).
119(νcal-νobs)2(19-3)
Eμd=2a=F0-27B20+121B40-1037|B44|=49 852 cm-1,
Eμd=0=F0+27B20+27B40=57 539 cm-1,
Eμd=±1=F0+17B20-421B40=63 593 cm-1,
Eμd=2s=F0-27B20+121B40+1037|B44|=63 990 cm-1,
F0=F0-32G1-6G3-33G5=59 714 cm-1
|ψfd i=j1,mj1,μd,ms2bfd ij1mj1μdms2|fd, j1mj1μdms2,
Afd ij1μd=mj1,ms2|bfd ij1mj1μdms2|2,
Bkq(5d)/Bkq(4f)dependsonlyonk,notonq.

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