Abstract

In light of possible spectroscopic applications, we examine the continuous frequency tuning characteristics of a nonresonant continuous-wave Raman laser in H2. We demonstrate a continuous tuning range for the Raman-shifted Stokes output of roughly 2.5 GHz, which is limited by spatial mode hops. Nearly constant output power across this range is predicted and observed by pumping the Raman laser cavity near four times threshold.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. P. A. Roos, J. K. Brasseur, and J. L. Carlsten, “Diode-pumped, nonresonant, continuous-wave Raman laser in H2 with resonant optical feedback stabilization,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1130–1132 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. K. Brasseur, P. A. Roos, K. S. Repasky, and J. L. Carlsten, “Characterization of a continuous-wave Raman laser in H2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 1305–1311 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. S. Repasky, J. K. Brasseur, L. Meng, and J. L. Carlsten, “Performance and design of an off-resonant continuous-wave Raman laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1667–1673 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, “Optimization of the stimulated Raman scattering threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203–206 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  5. To conserve energy, the areas for the pump and Stokes, used to calculate power, need to be identical and are normalized to the pump beam. The wavelength dependence of the area for the Stokes beam is included in the mode-filling parameter of Ref. 5.
  6. All the fits used the following parameters: λp(s)=532nm (683 nm), α=2.95×10−9 cm/W, 7 Rp(f)=Rp(b)= 0.99979, Rs(f)=Rs(b)=0.99977, Tp(f)=156ppm, Ts= 163 ppm, 8 l=7.68cm, b=18cm, Raman linewidth, Γ, is 610 MHz (FWHM), and the radius of curvature of the mirrors is 25 cm.
  7. W. K. Bischel and M. J. Dyer, “Temperature dependence of the Raman linewidth and the line shift of the Q(1) and Q(0) transitions in H2,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3113–3123 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. The values for the pump and Stokes mirror reflectivities were measured by a cavity ringdown. The values are Rp(s)=0.99979±0.00001 (0.99977±0.00001). The transmissions were Tp=(153±8)ppm and Ts=(150± 20)ppm.
  9. W. K. Bischel and M. J. Dyer, “Wavelength dependence of the absolute Raman gain coefficient for the Q(1) transition in H2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 677–682 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. L. Hall and T. W. Hänsch, “External dye-laser frequency stabilizer,” Opt. Lett. 9, 502–504 (1984).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Yariv, “Laser oscillation,” in Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 183–188.
  12. Effects such as dispersion and medium heating are ignored in this treatment. See P. A. Roos, J. K. Brasseur, and J. L. Carlsten, “Intensity-dependent refractive index in a nonresonant cw Raman laser that is due to thermal heating of the Raman-active gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 758–763 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. Yariv, “The propagation of optical beams in a homogeneous and lenslike media,” in Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 124–127.

2000

1999

1998

1986

W. K. Bischel and M. J. Dyer, “Temperature dependence of the Raman linewidth and the line shift of the Q(1) and Q(0) transitions in H2,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3113–3123 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Bischel and M. J. Dyer, “Wavelength dependence of the absolute Raman gain coefficient for the Q(1) transition in H2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 677–682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

1969

G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, “Optimization of the stimulated Raman scattering threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203–206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Bischel, W. K.

W. K. Bischel and M. J. Dyer, “Wavelength dependence of the absolute Raman gain coefficient for the Q(1) transition in H2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 677–682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. K. Bischel and M. J. Dyer, “Temperature dependence of the Raman linewidth and the line shift of the Q(1) and Q(0) transitions in H2,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3113–3123 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, “Optimization of the stimulated Raman scattering threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203–206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Brasseur, J. K.

Carlsten, J. L.

Dyer, M. J.

W. K. Bischel and M. J. Dyer, “Temperature dependence of the Raman linewidth and the line shift of the Q(1) and Q(0) transitions in H2,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3113–3123 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. K. Bischel and M. J. Dyer, “Wavelength dependence of the absolute Raman gain coefficient for the Q(1) transition in H2,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 677–682 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

Hänsch, T. W.

Johnston, W. D.

G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, “Optimization of the stimulated Raman scattering threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203–206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, “Optimization of the stimulated Raman scattering threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203–206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Meng, L.

Repasky, K. S.

Roos, P. A.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. D. Boyd, W. D. Johnston, and I. P. Kaminow, “Optimization of the stimulated Raman scattering threshold,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 203–206 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. A

W. K. Bischel and M. J. Dyer, “Temperature dependence of the Raman linewidth and the line shift of the Q(1) and Q(0) transitions in H2,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3113–3123 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

The values for the pump and Stokes mirror reflectivities were measured by a cavity ringdown. The values are Rp(s)=0.99979±0.00001 (0.99977±0.00001). The transmissions were Tp=(153±8)ppm and Ts=(150± 20)ppm.

A. Yariv, “Laser oscillation,” in Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 183–188.

To conserve energy, the areas for the pump and Stokes, used to calculate power, need to be identical and are normalized to the pump beam. The wavelength dependence of the area for the Stokes beam is included in the mode-filling parameter of Ref. 5.

All the fits used the following parameters: λp(s)=532nm (683 nm), α=2.95×10−9 cm/W, 7 Rp(f)=Rp(b)= 0.99979, Rs(f)=Rs(b)=0.99977, Tp(f)=156ppm, Ts= 163 ppm, 8 l=7.68cm, b=18cm, Raman linewidth, Γ, is 610 MHz (FWHM), and the radius of curvature of the mirrors is 25 cm.

A. Yariv, “The propagation of optical beams in a homogeneous and lenslike media,” in Quantum Electronics, 3rd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 124–127.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Predicted output Stokes power as a function of frequency tuning for various pump powers. Note that at four times threshold, the output is nearly constant over the center region.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental apparatus used to measure the Stokes laser tuning characteristics.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured Stokes output power as a function of frequency tuning for pump powers of 3.5 mW (diamonds), 4.7 mW (triangles), 6.5 mW (circles), and 7.7 mW (squares) with the predictions of Eqs. (4)–(7) overlaid. Note the deviation of the data from the theory for detunings past the arrows. In this region other spatial modes play a role.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Predicted dependence of the Raman gain on detuning and the resonant spatial mode. Note the increase in the gain for higher-order spatial modes for detunings larger than those marked by the arrows.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured normalized Raman gain as the Stokes laser experiences spatial mode hops. The mode numbers in parenthesis label the dominant mode with detuning.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spatial profiles of the Stokes laser measured at various positions labeled in Fig. 5. The images were recorded by a CCD camera.

Equations (10)

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G(Δ, Γ)=G0(Γ/2)2[Δ2+(Γ/2)2],
Epin,thres=lLpcLsTpG(Δ, Γ)1/2,
Epss=12TpLsG(Δ, Γ)1/2,
Esss=12Tsωs(K-LpEp)ωpG(Δ, Γ)Ep1/2,
=12ε0μ01/2|E|2A,
δν=δlclλ.
Δ=δνp(1-λp/λs).
Tuningrange=Γ(λs/λp-1)-1.
νm,n=cq2l+c2πl(m+n+1)2 tan-1lb,
G0n=1N00N0n-H002xω0p2H0n2xω0s2×exp-21ω0p+1ω0sx2dx,

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