Abstract

Saturated operation of a tabletop x-ray laser at 19 nm is demonstrated with a laser-irradiated Mo slab target. The output energy, the intensity, the near-field beam pattern, and the beam divergence are characterized. The wavelength scalability and the high brightness make it a potential tool for x-ray laser applications.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, S. J. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray lasers” Proc. SPIE 3776, 2–8 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).
  15. J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self-photopumped nickel-like 4f1P1→4d1P1 X-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–R2680 (1999).
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    [CrossRef]

1999 (5)

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, S. J. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray lasers” Proc. SPIE 3776, 2–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self-photopumped nickel-like 4f1P1→4d1P1 X-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–R2680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Macchietto, B. R. Benware, and J. J. Rocca, “Generation of millijoule-level soft x-ray laser pulses at a 4-Hz repetition rate in a highly saturated tabletop capillary discharge amplifier,” Opt. Lett. 24, 1115–1117 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of X-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0→4p1P1 X-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse X-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, E. E. Fill, W. Theobald, and C. Wulker, “Travelling-wave excitation of an X-ray laser medium,” Proc. SPIE 2012, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

J. Nilsen, “Radiative hydro modeling and atomic data bases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 168, 51–58 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

G. B. Zimmermann and W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser-initiated fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 11, 51–61 (1975).

1974 (1)

Albert, F.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Anderson, E.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Balhorn, R.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbee Jr., T. W.

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benware, B. R.

Brase, J.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carillon, A.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Cauble, R.

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celliers, P.

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chanteloup, J.-C.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Churilov, S.

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0→4p1P1 X-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Corzett, M.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danson, C.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Decker, C.

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, J.

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self-photopumped nickel-like 4f1P1→4d1P1 X-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–R2680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, S. J. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray lasers” Proc. SPIE 3776, 2–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0→4p1P1 X-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of X-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Fill, E. E.

J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, E. E. Fill, W. Theobald, and C. Wulker, “Travelling-wave excitation of an X-ray laser medium,” Proc. SPIE 2012, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fourcade, P.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Gray, J.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hubert, S.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Jaeglé, P.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Jamelot, G.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Janulewicz, K.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Joyeaux, D.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Kalachnikov, M.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse X-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, M.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Keenan, R.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Kern, D.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Key, M. H.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Koch, J. A.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kruer, W. L.

G. B. Zimmermann and W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser-initiated fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 11, 51–61 (1975).

Lee, C.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, C. L. S.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, S. J. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray lasers” Proc. SPIE 3776, 2–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. L.

J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self-photopumped nickel-like 4f1P1→4d1P1 X-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–R2680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0→4p1P1 X-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Linford, G. L.

London, R. A.

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lopez-Urrutia, J. R. Crespo

J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, E. E. Fill, W. Theobald, and C. Wulker, “Travelling-wave excitation of an X-ray laser medium,” Proc. SPIE 2012, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Macchietto, C. D.

MacGowan, B. J.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

MacPhee, A. G.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D. L.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moon, S. J.

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, S. J. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray lasers” Proc. SPIE 3776, 2–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mrowka, S.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neely, D.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Nickles, P. V.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse X-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self-photopumped nickel-like 4f1P1→4d1P1 X-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–R2680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, S. J. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray lasers” Proc. SPIE 3776, 2–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0→4p1P1 X-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, “Radiative hydro modeling and atomic data bases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 168, 51–58 (1988).
[CrossRef]

O’Rourke, R.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Osterheld, A. L.

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self-photopumped nickel-like 4f1P1→4d1P1 X-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–R2680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, S. J. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray lasers” Proc. SPIE 3776, 2–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0→4p1P1 X-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of X-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peressini, E. R.

Pert, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phalippou, D.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Rocca, J. J.

Ros, D.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Ryabtsev, A.

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0→4p1P1 X-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Sandner, W.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse X-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Schnürer, M.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse X-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, R.

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of X-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

J. Dunn, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheld, Y. Li, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Demonstration of transient gain x-ray lasers near 20 nm for nickellike yttrium, zirconium, niobium, and molybdenum,” Opt. Lett. 24, 101–103 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, S. J. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray lasers” Proc. SPIE 3776, 2–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of X-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse X-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sooy, W. R.

Spaeth, M. L.

Stewart, R. E.

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of X-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G.

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tallents, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Theobald, W.

J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, E. E. Fill, W. Theobald, and C. Wulker, “Travelling-wave excitation of an X-ray laser medium,” Proc. SPIE 2012, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wan, A. S.

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wark, J. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, J.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Weber, F.

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

White, W. E.

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of X-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Will, I.

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse X-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, E.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wulker, C.

J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, E. E. Fill, W. Theobald, and C. Wulker, “Travelling-wave excitation of an X-ray laser medium,” Proc. SPIE 2012, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zeitoun, P.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, G. B.

G. B. Zimmermann and W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser-initiated fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 11, 51–61 (1975).

Zou, J. P.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

J. Nilsen, “Radiative hydro modeling and atomic data bases,” AIP Conf. Proc. 168, 51–58 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion (1)

G. B. Zimmermann and W. L. Kruer, “Numerical simulation of laser-initiated fusion,” Comments Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 11, 51–61 (1975).

Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, R. O’Rourke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zou, D. Joyeaux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like X-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Int. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, and Y. L. Li, “Lasing on the self-photopumped nickel-like 4f1P1→4d1P1 X-ray transition,” Phys. Rev. A 60, R2677–R2680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. L. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S0→4p1P1 X-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

P. V. Nickles, V. N. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, I. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse X-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, R. Shepherd, W. E. White, V. N. Shlyaptsev, and R. E. Stewart, “Demonstration of X-ray amplification in transient gain nickel-like palladium scheme,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2825 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, E. E. Fill, W. Theobald, and C. Wulker, “Travelling-wave excitation of an X-ray laser medium,” Proc. SPIE 2012, 258–264 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Dunn, Y. Li, A. L. Osterheld, J. Nilsen, S. J. Moon, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Table-top transient collisional excitation x-ray lasers” Proc. SPIE 3776, 2–8 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Science (3)

L. B. Da Silva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhorn, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “X-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in X-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093 (1996), and references therein.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated X-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1098 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

R. Tommasini, F. Lowenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 1577–1581 (1999); F. Lowenthal, R. Tommasini, and J. E. Balmer, “Observation of saturated lasing on the 3p–3s, J= 0–1 transition at 25.5 nm in neon-like iron using a double-prepulse technique,” Opt. Commun. 154, 325 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnurer, W. Sandner, V. N. Shlyaptsev, C. Danson, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, P. J. Warwick, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Saturated operation of a transient collisional x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 4778 (1998); P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, M. P. Kalachnikov, P. V. Nickles, M. Schnurer, A. Behjat, A. Demir, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, J. Zhang, and G. J. Pert, “Observation of high transient gain in the germanium x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1808–1814 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Elton, X-Ray Lasers (Academic, New York, 1990).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top view of the schematic setup for the x-ray laser experiment. The three multilayer x-ray mirrors M1 (spherical), M2 (planar), and M3 (planar) are used to image the output aperture of the x-ray laser onto the CCD with magnification of 14. The x-ray laser can be sent to the flat-field spectrometer with M1 translated out of its way.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Comparison of the total output of the Ni-like 3d94d1S03d94p1P1 in Mo at 18.9 nm as a function of delay between the long and the short pulses obtained from the imaging system with (TWE) and without the traveling wave (No TWE). The target length was 6 mm, with the long-pulse and short-pulse energy fixed at 0.8 J and 5 J.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) On-axis spectrum of the Ni-like Mo x-ray laser from a 10-mm-long target showing the Ni-like 4d1S04p1P1 and 4f1P14d1P1 lines at 18.9 and 22.6 nm, respectively. (b) The Ni-like Mo 18.9-nm x-ray laser output as a function of the target length with an overall gain–length product of 16.6. The long-pulse and short-pulse energies were 1.13 J and 5.02 J, respectively, with a delay of 0.7 ns. The error bars are due to fluctuations between shots.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical near-field image of the 18.9-nm Ni-like Mo x-ray laser for a 10-mm target. The target surface is at z=0, and the pump laser is incident from the top. The energies in the long and short pulses are 3.94 J and 4.93 J, with a delay of 0.7 ns. The intensity is displayed in a unit of 103CCD counts. 5300 counts per pixel correspond to an intensity of 1 GW cm-2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

18.9-nm x-ray laser intensity at the output aperture as a function of the long-pulse energy at a delay of 0.7 ns and a constant short-pulse energy of 5 J. The target length is 1 cm. The dotted lines indicate the range of the theoretical saturation intensities.

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