Abstract

Systematic studies of cooperative upconversion and Yb3+Er3+ energy transfer in newly developed phosphate glasses were performed by a rate-equation formalism. The cooperative-upconversion coefficients of the  4I13/2 level for different Er3+ concentrations were determined from the luminescence-decay curves for high pump intensities. A small cooperative-upconversion coefficient of 1.1×10-18 cm3/s was obtained for a high Er3+ concentration of 4×1020ions/cm3. Yb3+Er3+ energy-transfer coefficients for an Er3+ concentration of 2×1020ions/cm3 codoped with different Yb3+ concentrations were calculated from the lifetime measurements of the  2F5/2 level of Yb3+ions. For Er3+ codoped with an Yb3+ concentration of 6×1020ions/cm3, an energy-transfer coefficient of 1.1×10-16 cm3/s and an energy-transfer efficiency higher than 95% were determined from our measurements under weak excitation. The cooperative-upconversion coefficients of Yb3+Er3+-doped samples were found to be consistent with that of an Er3+-doped sample with the same Er3+ concentration. The weak cooperative-upconversion effect of high Er3+ concentrations and efficient Yb3+Er3+ energy transfer indicate that these newly developed Er3+- and Yb3+Er3+-doped phosphate glasses are excellent for active device applications.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  33. J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, and D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
  36. W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  37. B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, “Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7,” Opt. Mater. 6, 267–274 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  38. V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (2)

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er–Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. I. Najafi, S. Safavi-Naeini, and H. Hatami-Hanza, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped waveguide amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3282–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Vienne, J. E. Caplen, L. Dong, J. D. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. Phys. 16, 1990–2001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, M. J. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 143–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (6)

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, N. J. Cockroft, T. R. Gosnell, G. N. A. J. Bruce, and J. Shmulovich, “Uniform upconversion in high-concentration Er3+-doped soda lime silicate and aluminosilicate glasses,” Opt. Lett. 22, 772–774 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, S. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Winick and G. L. Vossler, “Erbium:ytterbium planar waveguide laser in ion-exchanged glass,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 121–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, “Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7,” Opt. Mater. 6, 267–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. N. V. den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 425–436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (6)

W. L. Barnes, S. B. Poole, J. E. Townsend, L. Reekie, D. J. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, “Er3+-Yb3+ and Er3+ doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3621 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. V. den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Hendriksen, M. B. J. Diemeer, and F. Priolo, “Cooperative upconversion in erbium-implanted soda-lime silicate glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468–1474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

X. Zou and H. Toratani, “Evaluation of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 15889–15897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Lester, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, and P. G. Dinesen, “Modeling of Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica waveguide amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Techol. 13, 740–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roman, P. Camy, M. Hempstead, W. S. Brocklsby, S. Nouha, A. Beguin, C. Lerminiaux, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ion-exchanged Er/Yb waveguide laser at 1.5 m pumped by laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1345–1346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

J. Nilsson, P. Scheer, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of short Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 383–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

E. Snoeks, G. N. V. den Hoven, and A. Polman, “Optical doping of soda-lime silicate glass with erbium by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8179–8138 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, and D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

E. Townsend, W. L. Barnes, and K. P. Jedrezejewski, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica optical with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1958–1959 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

E. F. Artemev, A. G. Murzin, Y. K. Federov, and V. A. Fromzel, “Some characteristics of population inversion of the 4I13/2 level of erbium ions in ytterbium–erbium glasses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1266–1268 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. G. Edwards and J. N. Sandoe, “A theoretical study of the Nd:Yb:Er glass laser,” J. Phys. D 7, 1078–1095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, “Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminesence,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978–1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Afzal, R. S.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Artemev, E. F.

E. F. Artemev, A. G. Murzin, Y. K. Federov, and V. A. Fromzel, “Some characteristics of population inversion of the 4I13/2 level of erbium ions in ytterbium–erbium glasses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1266–1268 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Avanesov, A. G.

V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, S. B. Poole, J. E. Townsend, L. Reekie, D. J. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, “Er3+-Yb3+ and Er3+ doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Townsend, W. L. Barnes, and K. P. Jedrezejewski, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica optical with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1958–1959 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

Beguin, A.

J. E. Roman, P. Camy, M. Hempstead, W. S. Brocklsby, S. Nouha, A. Beguin, C. Lerminiaux, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ion-exchanged Er/Yb waveguide laser at 1.5 m pumped by laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1345–1346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Birnhaum, M.

Bjarklev, A.

C. Lester, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, and P. G. Dinesen, “Modeling of Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica waveguide amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Techol. 13, 740–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blixt, P.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brocklesby, W. S.

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, and D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brocklsby, W. S.

J. E. Roman, P. Camy, M. Hempstead, W. S. Brocklsby, S. Nouha, A. Beguin, C. Lerminiaux, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ion-exchanged Er/Yb waveguide laser at 1.5 m pumped by laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1345–1346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bruce, G. N. A. J.

Camy, P.

J. E. Roman, P. Camy, M. Hempstead, W. S. Brocklsby, S. Nouha, A. Beguin, C. Lerminiaux, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ion-exchanged Er/Yb waveguide laser at 1.5 m pumped by laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1345–1346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Caplen, J. E.

G. G. Vienne, J. E. Caplen, L. Dong, J. D. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. Phys. 16, 1990–2001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carlnas, T.

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chuev, Y. M.

V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cichosz, L.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Cockroft, N. J.

de Waal, H.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

den Hoven, G. N. V.

G. N. V. den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. V. den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Hendriksen, M. B. J. Diemeer, and F. Priolo, “Cooperative upconversion in erbium-implanted soda-lime silicate glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468–1474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. V. den Hoven, and A. Polman, “Optical doping of soda-lime silicate glass with erbium by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8179–8138 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M. B. J.

Dinesen, P. G.

C. Lester, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, and P. G. Dinesen, “Modeling of Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica waveguide amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Techol. 13, 740–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dong, L.

G. G. Vienne, J. E. Caplen, L. Dong, J. D. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. Phys. 16, 1990–2001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Edwards, J. G.

J. G. Edwards and J. N. Sandoe, “A theoretical study of the Nd:Yb:Er glass laser,” J. Phys. D 7, 1078–1095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Faber, A. J.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Federov, Y. K.

E. F. Artemev, A. G. Murzin, Y. K. Federov, and V. A. Fromzel, “Some characteristics of population inversion of the 4I13/2 level of erbium ions in ytterbium–erbium glasses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1266–1268 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Fromzel, V. A.

E. F. Artemev, A. G. Murzin, Y. K. Federov, and V. A. Fromzel, “Some characteristics of population inversion of the 4I13/2 level of erbium ions in ytterbium–erbium glasses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1266–1268 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gapontsev, V. P.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Golab, S.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gosnell, T. R.

Hatami-Hanza, H.

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. I. Najafi, S. Safavi-Naeini, and H. Hatami-Hanza, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped waveguide amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hehlen, M. P.

Hempstead, M.

J. E. Roman, P. Camy, M. Hempstead, W. S. Brocklsby, S. Nouha, A. Beguin, C. Lerminiaux, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ion-exchanged Er/Yb waveguide laser at 1.5 m pumped by laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1345–1346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hendriksen, B.

Hirayama, F.

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, “Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminesence,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978–1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Honkanen, S.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3282–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, S. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3621 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, B. C.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3282–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Inokuti, M.

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, “Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminesence,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978–1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Isineev, A. A.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jaskorzynska, B.

J. Nilsson, P. Scheer, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of short Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 383–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jedrezejewski, K. P.

E. Townsend, W. L. Barnes, and K. P. Jedrezejewski, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica optical with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1958–1959 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, B.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, S.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, M. J. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 143–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3282–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, S. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kik, P. G.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kravchenko, V. B.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er–Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 425–436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lebedev, V. A.

V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lejus, A. M.

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, “Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7,” Opt. Mater. 6, 267–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lerminiaux, C.

J. E. Roman, P. Camy, M. Hempstead, W. S. Brocklsby, S. Nouha, A. Beguin, C. Lerminiaux, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ion-exchanged Er/Yb waveguide laser at 1.5 m pumped by laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1345–1346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lester, C.

C. Lester, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, and P. G. Dinesen, “Modeling of Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica waveguide amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Techol. 13, 740–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lincoln, J. R.

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, and D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Longhi, S.

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er–Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 425–436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lucas, J.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Luo, T.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3282–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Matitsin, S. M.

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Minelly, J. D.

G. G. Vienne, J. E. Caplen, L. Dong, J. D. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. Phys. 16, 1990–2001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murzin, A. G.

E. F. Artemev, A. G. Murzin, Y. K. Federov, and V. A. Fromzel, “Some characteristics of population inversion of the 4I13/2 level of erbium ions in ytterbium–erbium glasses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1266–1268 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Myers, M.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3282–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Myers, M. J.

S. Jiang, M. J. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 143–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. I. Najafi, S. Safavi-Naeini, and H. Hatami-Hanza, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped waveguide amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, S. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3621 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

G. G. Vienne, J. E. Caplen, L. Dong, J. D. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. Phys. 16, 1990–2001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsson, P. Scheer, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of short Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 383–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nouha, S.

J. E. Roman, P. Camy, M. Hempstead, W. S. Brocklsby, S. Nouha, A. Beguin, C. Lerminiaux, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ion-exchanged Er/Yb waveguide laser at 1.5 m pumped by laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1345–1346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi-Conti, G.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3282–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuki, T.

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, S. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3621 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Okhrimchuk, A. G.

V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

G. G. Vienne, J. E. Caplen, L. Dong, J. D. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. Phys. 16, 1990–2001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, S. B. Poole, J. E. Townsend, L. Reekie, D. J. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, “Er3+-Yb3+ and Er3+ doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, and D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Perfilin, A. A.

V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, M. J. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 143–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3282–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, S. Honkanen, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “Cooperative upconversion effects on the performance of Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide amplifiers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1838–1845 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, S. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3621 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pisarenko, V. F.

V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Polman, A.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. N. V. den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. V. den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Hendriksen, M. B. J. Diemeer, and F. Priolo, “Cooperative upconversion in erbium-implanted soda-lime silicate glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468–1474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. V. den Hoven, and A. Polman, “Optical doping of soda-lime silicate glass with erbium by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8179–8138 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poole, S. B.

W. L. Barnes, S. B. Poole, J. E. Townsend, L. Reekie, D. J. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, “Er3+-Yb3+ and Er3+ doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Priolo, F.

Rasmussen, T.

C. Lester, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, and P. G. Dinesen, “Modeling of Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica waveguide amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Techol. 13, 740–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reekie, L.

W. L. Barnes, S. B. Poole, J. E. Townsend, L. Reekie, D. J. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, “Er3+-Yb3+ and Er3+ doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rhonehouse, D.

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3282–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Roman, J. E.

J. E. Roman, P. Camy, M. Hempstead, W. S. Brocklsby, S. Nouha, A. Beguin, C. Lerminiaux, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ion-exchanged Er/Yb waveguide laser at 1.5 m pumped by laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1345–1346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ryba-Romanowski, W.

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Safavi-Naeini, S.

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. I. Najafi, S. Safavi-Naeini, and H. Hatami-Hanza, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped waveguide amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sandoe, J. N.

J. G. Edwards and J. N. Sandoe, “A theoretical study of the Nd:Yb:Er glass laser,” J. Phys. D 7, 1078–1095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Scheer, P.

J. Nilsson, P. Scheer, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of short Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 383–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, I.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shestakov, A. V.

V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W. Q.

Shmulovich, J.

Shooshtari, A.

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. I. Najafi, S. Safavi-Naeini, and H. Hatami-Hanza, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped waveguide amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sibley, W. A.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Simondi-Teisseire, B.

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, “Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7,” Opt. Mater. 6, 267–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smektala, F.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

G. N. V. den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snoeks, E.

G. N. V. den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. V. den Hoven, A. Polman, B. Hendriksen, M. B. J. Diemeer, and F. Priolo, “Cooperative upconversion in erbium-implanted soda-lime silicate glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1468–1474 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. V. den Hoven, and A. Polman, “Optical doping of soda-lime silicate glass with erbium by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8179–8138 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sorbello, G.

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er–Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, C.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 425–436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 425–436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taccheo, S.

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er–Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 425–436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, D. J.

W. L. Barnes, S. B. Poole, J. E. Townsend, L. Reekie, D. J. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, “Er3+-Yb3+ and Er3+ doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Toratani, H.

X. Zou and H. Toratani, “Evaluation of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 15889–15897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Touam, T.

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. I. Najafi, S. Safavi-Naeini, and H. Hatami-Hanza, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped waveguide amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, E.

E. Townsend, W. L. Barnes, and K. P. Jedrezejewski, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica optical with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1958–1959 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, J. E.

W. L. Barnes, S. B. Poole, J. E. Townsend, L. Reekie, D. J. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, “Er3+-Yb3+ and Er3+ doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, and D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Dam, C.

G. N. V. den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

van Uffelen, J. W. M.

G. N. V. den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Viana, B.

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, “Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7,” Opt. Mater. 6, 267–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vienne, G. G.

G. G. Vienne, J. E. Caplen, L. Dong, J. D. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. Phys. 16, 1990–2001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, D.

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, “Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7,” Opt. Mater. 6, 267–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vossler, G. L.

K. A. Winick and G. L. Vossler, “Erbium:ytterbium planar waveguide laser in ion-exchanged glass,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 121–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, and D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Watson, J.

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wilkinson, J. S.

J. E. Roman, P. Camy, M. Hempstead, W. S. Brocklsby, S. Nouha, A. Beguin, C. Lerminiaux, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ion-exchanged Er/Yb waveguide laser at 1.5 m pumped by laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1345–1346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Winick, K. A.

K. A. Winick and G. L. Vossler, “Erbium:ytterbium planar waveguide laser in ion-exchanged glass,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 121–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Y. C.

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, D. C.

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zhorin, V. V.

V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zou, X.

X. Zou and H. Toratani, “Evaluation of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 15889–15897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

S. Taccheo, P. Laporta, S. Longhi, O. Svelto, and C. Svelto, “Diode-pumped bulk erbium–ytterbium lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 425–436 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. C. Yan, A. J. Faber, H. de Waal, P. G. Kik, and A. Polman, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass waveguide on silicon with 4.1 dB/cm gain at 1.535 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 2922–2924 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

E. Townsend, W. L. Barnes, and K. P. Jedrezejewski, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica optical with ultrahigh transfer efficiency and gain,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1958–1959 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Roman, P. Camy, M. Hempstead, W. S. Brocklsby, S. Nouha, A. Beguin, C. Lerminiaux, and J. S. Wilkinson, “Ion-exchanged Er/Yb waveguide laser at 1.5 m pumped by laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 31, 1345–1346 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Hwang, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Watson, S. Honkanen, Y. Hu, F. Smektala, J. Lucas, and N. Peyghambarian, “Erbium-doped phosphate glass fiber amplifiers with gain per unit length of 2.1 dB/cm,” Electron. Lett. 35, 1007–1008 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

J. Nilsson, P. Scheer, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Modeling and optimization of short Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 383–385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Blixt, J. Nilsson, T. Carlnas, and B. Jaskorzynska, “Concentration-dependent upconversion in Er3+-doped fiber amplifiers: experiments and modeling,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 3, 996–998 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

T. Ohtsuki, N. Peyghambarian, S. Honkanen, and S. I. Najafi, “Gain characteristics of a high concentration Er3+-doped phosphate glass waveguide,” J. Appl. Phys. 78, 3617–3621 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Yeh, W. A. Sibley, I. Schneider, R. S. Afzal, and I. Aggarwal, “Intensity-dependent upconversion efficiencies of Er3+ ions in heavy-metal fluoride glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 1648–1653 (1991).
[CrossRef]

E. Snoeks, G. N. V. den Hoven, and A. Polman, “Optical doping of soda-lime silicate glass with erbium by ion implantation,” J. Appl. Phys. 73, 8179–8138 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. N. V. den Hoven, E. Snoeks, A. Polman, C. van Dam, J. W. M. van Uffelen, and M. K. Smit, “Upconversion in Er-implanted Al2O3 waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys. 79, 1258–1266 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Inokuti and F. Hirayama, “Influence of energy transfer by the exchange mechanism on donor luminesence,” J. Chem. Phys. 43, 1978–1989 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

W. L. Barnes, S. B. Poole, J. E. Townsend, L. Reekie, D. J. Taylor, and D. N. Payne, “Er3+-Yb3+ and Er3+ doped fiber lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13, 275–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. Phys. (1)

G. G. Vienne, J. E. Caplen, L. Dong, J. D. Minelly, J. Nilsson, and D. N. Payne, “Fabrication and characterization of Yb3+:Er3+ phosphosilicate fibers for lasers,” J. Lightwave Technol. Phys. 16, 1990–2001 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Techol. (1)

C. Lester, A. Bjarklev, T. Rasmussen, and P. G. Dinesen, “Modeling of Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped silica waveguide amplifiers,” J. Lightwave Techol. 13, 740–743 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

V. A. Lebedev, V. F. Pisarenko, Y. M. Chuev, A. A. Perfilin, A. G. Avanesov, V. V. Zhorin, A. G. Okhrimchuk, and A. V. Shestakov, “Study of energy transfer from Yb3+ to Er3+ in rare-earth silicates and borates,” J. Lumin. 72–74, 942–944 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

W. Ryba-Romanowski, S. Golab, L. Cichosz, and B. Jezowska-Trzebiatowska, “Influence of temperature and acceptor concentration on energy transfer from Nd3+ to Yb3+ and from Yb3+ to Er3+ in tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 105, 295–302 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, W. S. Brocklesby, J. R. Lincoln, J. E. Townsend, and D. N. Payne, “Local structures of rare-earth ions in glasses: the ‘crystal-chemistry’ approach,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 163, 261–267 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Jiang, M. J. Myers, and N. Peyghambarian, “Er3+ doped phosphate glasses and lasers,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 239, 143–148 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

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J. G. Edwards and J. N. Sandoe, “A theoretical study of the Nd:Yb:Er glass laser,” J. Phys. D 7, 1078–1095 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Jiang, T. Luo, B. C. Hwang, G. Nunzi-Conti, M. Myers, D. Rhonehouse, S. Honkanen, and N. Peyghambarian, “New Er3+-doped phosphate glass for ion-exchanged waveguide amplifiers,” Opt. Eng. 37, 3282–3286 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

V. P. Gapontsev, S. M. Matitsin, A. A. Isineev, and V. B. Kravchenko, “Erbium glass lasers and their applications,” Opt. Laser Technol. 14, 189–196 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

B. Simondi-Teisseire, B. Viana, D. Vivien, and A. M. Lejus, “Yb3+ to Er3+ energy transfer and rate-equations formalism in the eye safe laser material Yb:Er:Ca2Al2SiO7,” Opt. Mater. 6, 267–274 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Shooshtari, T. Touam, S. I. Najafi, S. Safavi-Naeini, and H. Hatami-Hanza, “Yb3+-sensitized Er3+-doped waveguide amplifiers: a theoretical approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 30, 249–264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Taccheo, G. Sorbello, S. Longhi, and P. Laporta, “Measurement of the energy transfer and upconversion constants in Er–Yb-doped phosphate glass,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 31, 249–262 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

X. Zou and H. Toratani, “Evaluation of spectroscopic properties of Yb3+-doped glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 15889–15897 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (2)

S. Honkanen, T. Ohtsuki, S. Jiang, S. I. Najafi, and N. Peyghambarian, “High Er concentration phosphate glasses for planar waveguide amplifiers,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 32–40 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Winick and G. L. Vossler, “Erbium:ytterbium planar waveguide laser in ion-exchanged glass,” Proc. SPIE 2996, 121–134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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E. F. Artemev, A. G. Murzin, Y. K. Federov, and V. A. Fromzel, “Some characteristics of population inversion of the 4I13/2 level of erbium ions in ytterbium–erbium glasses,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 11, 1266–1268 (1981).
[CrossRef]

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D. Barbier, P. Bruno, C. Cassagnettes, M. Trouillon, R. L. Hyde, A. Kevorkian, and J. M. P. Delavaux, “Net gain of 27 dB with a 8.6-cm-long Er/Yb-doped glass-planar-amplifier,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC), Vol. 2 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 45–46.

J. C. Wright, in Radiationless Processes in Molecules and Condensed Phases, F. K. Fong, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1976), Chap. 4.

W. J. Miniscalco, in Rare Earth Doped Fiber Lasers and Amplifiers, M. J. F. Digonnet, ed. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1993), Chap. 2.

U. Griebner, R. Koch, H. Schonnagel, S. Jiang, M. J. Myer, D. Rhonehouse, S. J. Hamlin, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Laser performance of a new ytterbium doped phosphate laser glass,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. R. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 26–29.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram of Er ions with cooperative upconversion. Cooperative-upconversion energy-transfer processes are indicated by dashed arrows.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Energy-level diagram of the Yb3+Er3+-codoped system. Cooperative-upconversion and Yb3+Er3+ energy-transfer processes are shown by dashed arrows.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption cross-section spectra for Yb3+ and Er3+ at the 980-nm band.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Emission spectrum of Yb3+ ions measured from sample YE1. The schematic experiment setup is shown in the inset: C, computer; DO, digital oscilloscope; SD, spectrometer and detector; LD, laser diode; S, sample.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured 1/e lifetime of sample E4 and E1 as a function of pump power.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cooperative-upconversion coefficient and lifetime as a function of Er3+ concentrations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Energy-transfer coefficient and cooperative-upconversion coefficient as a function of Yb3+ concentrations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured lifetime of Yb3+ ions and effective-transfer rate.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Er3+ and Yb3+ Concentrations of the Samples Used in This Study

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of the Cooperative-Upconversion and Energy-Transfer Coefficients Measured in This Study and Earlier Experiments

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

dNE1dt=-RE13NE1-WE12NE1+WE21NE2+AE21RNE2+CNE22,
dNE2dt=WE12NE1-WE21NE2-AE21RNE2+AE32NRNE3-2CNE22,
dNE3dt=RE13NE1-AE32NRNE3+AE43NRNE4,
dNE4dt=-AE43NRNE4+CNE22,
NE1+NE2+NE3+NE4=NE,
dNE2dt=-dNE1dt=RE13NE1-AE21RNE2-CNE22,
NE1+NE2=NE.
NE2(t)=1τE01τE0NE2(0)+CexptτE0-C-1,
NE2(0)=RE13τE0+12CτE01+4CNERE13τE02(RE13τE0+1)2-1.
dNY2dt=-dNY1dt=RY12NY1-RY21NY2-AY21RNY2-KFNE1NY2-KCNE2NY2,
dNE2dt=-dNE1dt=RE13NE1-AE21RNE2+KFNE1NY2-CNE22,
NE1+NE2=NE,
NY1+NY2=NY,
dNY2dt=-dNY1dt=-NY2τY0-KFNE1NY2-KCNE2NY2=-NY2τY,
dNE2dt=-dNE1dt=-NE2τE0+KFNE1NY2-CNE22,
η=1-τYτY0.

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