Abstract

Transient differential absorption spectra of solgel glasses that contain copper selenide nanoparticles (NP’s) have been studied with a picosecond pump–probe technique. Oxidation of copper selenide NP’s results in the appearance of an additional absorption band peaked at ∼1 µm, which can be transiently bleached under laser excitation. Excited-state absorption related to mid-gap surface trap states was observed. The absorption recovery time was found to be ∼300 ps. The intensity-dependent transmission of oxidized copper selenide NP’s in solgel glass at 1.08 µm has been measured. Permanent laser-induced absorption changes in the glasses were studied with nanosecond pulses as a function of laser exposure. Passive Q switching of 1.06-µm Nd3+:Y3Al5O12, 1.34-µm Nd3+:YAlO3, and 1.54-µm Er3+: glass lasers has been realized with the glasses containing copper selenide NP’s used as saturable absorbers. Q-switched pulses with 100-ns (1.06 µm), 90-ns (1.34 µm), and 60-ns (1.54 µm) pulse widths were obtained.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1999 (2)

A. M. Malyarevich, N. N. Posnov, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Ultrafast optical processes in new Cu-Fe-S nanoparticles,” in ICONO’98: Ultrafast Phenomena and Interaction of Super-Strong Laser Fields with Matter: Nonlinear Optics and High-Field Physics, M. V. Fedorov, V. M. Gordienko, V. V. Shuvalov, and V. D. Taranukhin, eds., Proc. SPIE 3735, 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, A. A. Alexeenko, I. M. Melnichenko, V. P. Mikhailov, K. V. Yumashev, and M. A. Malyarevich, “Formation and optical characteristics of copper chalcogenide nanocrystals in amorphous matrices,” Funct. Mater. 6, 464–468 (1999).

1998 (1)

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, I. M. Melnichenko, E. N. Poddenezhny, A. A. Alexeenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Formation of ultrafine particles of copper and copper sulfide in silica films and glasses prepared by sol-gel technique,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232–234, 162–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, V. S. Gurin, and M. V. Artemyev, “Optical transient bleaching/absorption of surface-oxidized CuInS2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 545–548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, V. P. Mikhailov, M. V. Artemyev, and V. S. Gurin, “Optical transient bleaching and induced absorption of surface-modified copper sulfide nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 73–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov and V. A. Karavanskii, “Mechanisms for optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in CuxS nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8087–8094 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, P. Haring-Bolivar, H. Kurz, and V. A. Karavanskii, “Optical nonlinearities and carrier trapping dynamics in CdS and CuxS nanocrystals,” Superlattices Microstruct. 20, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

J. Butty, Y. Z. Hu, N. Peyghambarian, Y. H. Kao, and J. D. Mackenzie, “Quasicontinuous gain in sol-gel derived CdS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2672–2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, and M. Bass, “Broad band, tunable passive Q-switching with semiconductor doped glass filters,” Opt. Commun. 108, 278–282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, P. V. Prokoshin, S. P. Jmako, and I. V. Bodnar, “CuInSSe-doped glass saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of neodymium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2768–2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

Y. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 42, 173–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Yanagawa, H. Nakano, Y. Ishida, and K. Kubodera, “Host glass dependence of photodarkening in colored filter glasses,” Opt. Commun. 100, 118–123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

M. C. Schanne-Klein, F. Hache, D. Ricard, and C. Flytzanis, “Optical phase conjugation in Schott CdSSe-doped glasses: origin of the nonlinear response,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2234–2239 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Spanhel, E. Arpac, and H. Schmidt, “Semiconductor clusters in the sol-gel process: synthesis and properties of CdS nanocomposites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147/148, 657–662 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

M. Nogami, S. Suzuki, and K. Nagasaka, “Sol-gel processing of small-sized CdSe crystal-doped silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 135, 182–188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Malhotra, D. J. Hagan, and B. G. Potter, “Laser-induced darkening in semiconductor-doped glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1531–1536 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All-solid-state cw passively mode locked Ti:sapphire laser using a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

T. Rajh, M. I. Vucemilovic, N. M. Dimitrijevic, O. I. Micic, and A. J. Nozik, “Size quantization of colloidal semiconductor particles in silicate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 305–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitsunaga, H. Shinojima, and K. Kubodera, “Laser annealing effect on carrier recombination time in CdSxSe1−x-doped glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1448–1454 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

P. Roussignol, D. Ricard, J. Lukasik, and C. Flytzanis, “New results on optical phase conjugation in semiconductor-doped glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 5–13 (1987).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Borelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement effects of semiconducting microcrystallites in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399–5409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Z. Vucic, O. Milat, V. Horvatic, and Z. Ogorelec, “Composition-induced phase transition splitting in cuprous selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5398–5401 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

W. Rudolph and H. Weber, “Analysis of saturable absorbers, interacting with gaussian pulses,” Opt. Commun. 34, 491–496 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

R. D. Heyding and R. M. Murray, “The crystal structure of Cu1.8Se, Cu3Se2, alpha- and gamma-CuSe, CuSe2 and CuSe2-II,” Can. J. Chem. 54, 841–848 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1964 (1)

G. Bret and F. Gires, “Giant pulse laser and light amplifier using variable transmission coefficient glasses as light switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 175–179 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Alexeenko, A. A.

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, A. A. Alexeenko, I. M. Melnichenko, V. P. Mikhailov, K. V. Yumashev, and M. A. Malyarevich, “Formation and optical characteristics of copper chalcogenide nanocrystals in amorphous matrices,” Funct. Mater. 6, 464–468 (1999).

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, I. M. Melnichenko, E. N. Poddenezhny, A. A. Alexeenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Formation of ultrafine particles of copper and copper sulfide in silica films and glasses prepared by sol-gel technique,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232–234, 162–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Arpac, E.

L. Spanhel, E. Arpac, and H. Schmidt, “Semiconductor clusters in the sol-gel process: synthesis and properties of CdS nanocomposites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147/148, 657–662 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Artemyev, M. V.

K. V. Yumashev, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, V. S. Gurin, and M. V. Artemyev, “Optical transient bleaching/absorption of surface-oxidized CuInS2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 545–548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, V. P. Mikhailov, M. V. Artemyev, and V. S. Gurin, “Optical transient bleaching and induced absorption of surface-modified copper sulfide nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 73–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bass, M.

E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, and M. Bass, “Broad band, tunable passive Q-switching with semiconductor doped glass filters,” Opt. Commun. 108, 278–282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bodnar, I. V.

K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, P. V. Prokoshin, S. P. Jmako, and I. V. Bodnar, “CuInSSe-doped glass saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of neodymium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2768–2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Borelli, N. F.

N. F. Borelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement effects of semiconducting microcrystallites in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399–5409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Borrelli, N. F.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bret, G.

G. Bret and F. Gires, “Giant pulse laser and light amplifier using variable transmission coefficient glasses as light switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 175–179 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Butty, J.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Butty, Y. Z. Hu, N. Peyghambarian, Y. H. Kao, and J. D. Mackenzie, “Quasicontinuous gain in sol-gel derived CdS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2672–2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Denisov, I. A.

A. M. Malyarevich, N. N. Posnov, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Ultrafast optical processes in new Cu-Fe-S nanoparticles,” in ICONO’98: Ultrafast Phenomena and Interaction of Super-Strong Laser Fields with Matter: Nonlinear Optics and High-Field Physics, M. V. Fedorov, V. M. Gordienko, V. V. Shuvalov, and V. D. Taranukhin, eds., Proc. SPIE 3735, 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

der Au, J. A.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrijevic, N. M.

T. Rajh, M. I. Vucemilovic, N. M. Dimitrijevic, O. I. Micic, and A. J. Nozik, “Size quantization of colloidal semiconductor particles in silicate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 305–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fluegel, B.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

Gires, F.

G. Bret and F. Gires, “Giant pulse laser and light amplifier using variable transmission coefficient glasses as light switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 175–179 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Guerreiro, P. T.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gurin, V. S.

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, A. A. Alexeenko, I. M. Melnichenko, V. P. Mikhailov, K. V. Yumashev, and M. A. Malyarevich, “Formation and optical characteristics of copper chalcogenide nanocrystals in amorphous matrices,” Funct. Mater. 6, 464–468 (1999).

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, I. M. Melnichenko, E. N. Poddenezhny, A. A. Alexeenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Formation of ultrafine particles of copper and copper sulfide in silica films and glasses prepared by sol-gel technique,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232–234, 162–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, V. P. Mikhailov, M. V. Artemyev, and V. S. Gurin, “Optical transient bleaching and induced absorption of surface-modified copper sulfide nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 73–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, V. S. Gurin, and M. V. Artemyev, “Optical transient bleaching/absorption of surface-oxidized CuInS2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 545–548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Hagan, D. J.

Hall, D. W.

N. F. Borelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement effects of semiconducting microcrystallites in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399–5409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Haring-Bolivar, P.

V. I. Klimov, P. Haring-Bolivar, H. Kurz, and V. A. Karavanskii, “Optical nonlinearities and carrier trapping dynamics in CdS and CuxS nanocrystals,” Superlattices Microstruct. 20, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Heyding, R. D.

R. D. Heyding and R. M. Murray, “The crystal structure of Cu1.8Se, Cu3Se2, alpha- and gamma-CuSe, CuSe2 and CuSe2-II,” Can. J. Chem. 54, 841–848 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Holland, H. J.

N. F. Borelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement effects of semiconducting microcrystallites in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399–5409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Honninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Horvatic, V.

Z. Vucic, O. Milat, V. Horvatic, and Z. Ogorelec, “Composition-induced phase transition splitting in cuprous selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5398–5401 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Y. Z.

J. Butty, Y. Z. Hu, N. Peyghambarian, Y. H. Kao, and J. D. Mackenzie, “Quasicontinuous gain in sol-gel derived CdS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2672–2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ishida, Y.

T. Yanagawa, H. Nakano, Y. Ishida, and K. Kubodera, “Host glass dependence of photodarkening in colored filter glasses,” Opt. Commun. 100, 118–123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All-solid-state cw passively mode locked Ti:sapphire laser using a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jabbour, G. E.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jmako, S. P.

K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, P. V. Prokoshin, S. P. Jmako, and I. V. Bodnar, “CuInSSe-doped glass saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of neodymium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2768–2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Joffre, M.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kao, Y. H.

J. Butty, Y. Z. Hu, N. Peyghambarian, Y. H. Kao, and J. D. Mackenzie, “Quasicontinuous gain in sol-gel derived CdS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2672–2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Karavanskii, V. A.

V. I. Klimov and V. A. Karavanskii, “Mechanisms for optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in CuxS nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8087–8094 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, P. Haring-Bolivar, H. Kurz, and V. A. Karavanskii, “Optical nonlinearities and carrier trapping dynamics in CdS and CuxS nanocrystals,” Superlattices Microstruct. 20, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kartner, F. X.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klimov, V. I.

V. I. Klimov and V. A. Karavanskii, “Mechanisms for optical nonlinearities and ultrafast carrier dynamics in CuxS nanocrystals,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 8087–8094 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Klimov, P. Haring-Bolivar, H. Kurz, and V. A. Karavanskii, “Optical nonlinearities and carrier trapping dynamics in CdS and CuxS nanocrystals,” Superlattices Microstruct. 20, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

T. Yanagawa, H. Nakano, Y. Ishida, and K. Kubodera, “Host glass dependence of photodarkening in colored filter glasses,” Opt. Commun. 100, 118–123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Mitsunaga, H. Shinojima, and K. Kubodera, “Laser annealing effect on carrier recombination time in CdSxSe1−x-doped glasses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1448–1454 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

V. I. Klimov, P. Haring-Bolivar, H. Kurz, and V. A. Karavanskii, “Optical nonlinearities and carrier trapping dynamics in CdS and CuxS nanocrystals,” Superlattices Microstruct. 20, 395–404 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, M.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lukasik, J.

Mackenzie, J. D.

J. Butty, Y. Z. Hu, N. Peyghambarian, Y. H. Kao, and J. D. Mackenzie, “Quasicontinuous gain in sol-gel derived CdS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2672–2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malhotra, J.

Malyarevich, A. M.

A. M. Malyarevich, N. N. Posnov, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Ultrafast optical processes in new Cu-Fe-S nanoparticles,” in ICONO’98: Ultrafast Phenomena and Interaction of Super-Strong Laser Fields with Matter: Nonlinear Optics and High-Field Physics, M. V. Fedorov, V. M. Gordienko, V. V. Shuvalov, and V. D. Taranukhin, eds., Proc. SPIE 3735, 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, V. S. Gurin, and M. V. Artemyev, “Optical transient bleaching/absorption of surface-oxidized CuInS2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 545–548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, V. P. Mikhailov, M. V. Artemyev, and V. S. Gurin, “Optical transient bleaching and induced absorption of surface-modified copper sulfide nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 73–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Malyarevich, M. A.

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, A. A. Alexeenko, I. M. Melnichenko, V. P. Mikhailov, K. V. Yumashev, and M. A. Malyarevich, “Formation and optical characteristics of copper chalcogenide nanocrystals in amorphous matrices,” Funct. Mater. 6, 464–468 (1999).

Matuschek, N.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Melnichenko, I. M.

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, A. A. Alexeenko, I. M. Melnichenko, V. P. Mikhailov, K. V. Yumashev, and M. A. Malyarevich, “Formation and optical characteristics of copper chalcogenide nanocrystals in amorphous matrices,” Funct. Mater. 6, 464–468 (1999).

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, I. M. Melnichenko, E. N. Poddenezhny, A. A. Alexeenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Formation of ultrafine particles of copper and copper sulfide in silica films and glasses prepared by sol-gel technique,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232–234, 162–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Micic, O. I.

T. Rajh, M. I. Vucemilovic, N. M. Dimitrijevic, O. I. Micic, and A. J. Nozik, “Size quantization of colloidal semiconductor particles in silicate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 305–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, V. P.

A. M. Malyarevich, N. N. Posnov, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Ultrafast optical processes in new Cu-Fe-S nanoparticles,” in ICONO’98: Ultrafast Phenomena and Interaction of Super-Strong Laser Fields with Matter: Nonlinear Optics and High-Field Physics, M. V. Fedorov, V. M. Gordienko, V. V. Shuvalov, and V. D. Taranukhin, eds., Proc. SPIE 3735, 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, A. A. Alexeenko, I. M. Melnichenko, V. P. Mikhailov, K. V. Yumashev, and M. A. Malyarevich, “Formation and optical characteristics of copper chalcogenide nanocrystals in amorphous matrices,” Funct. Mater. 6, 464–468 (1999).

K. V. Yumashev, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, V. P. Mikhailov, M. V. Artemyev, and V. S. Gurin, “Optical transient bleaching and induced absorption of surface-modified copper sulfide nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 73–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, P. V. Prokoshin, S. P. Jmako, and I. V. Bodnar, “CuInSSe-doped glass saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of neodymium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2768–2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Milat, O.

Z. Vucic, O. Milat, V. Horvatic, and Z. Ogorelec, “Composition-induced phase transition splitting in cuprous selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5398–5401 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Mitsunaga, M.

Munin, E.

E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, and M. Bass, “Broad band, tunable passive Q-switching with semiconductor doped glass filters,” Opt. Commun. 108, 278–282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Murray, R. M.

R. D. Heyding and R. M. Murray, “The crystal structure of Cu1.8Se, Cu3Se2, alpha- and gamma-CuSe, CuSe2 and CuSe2-II,” Can. J. Chem. 54, 841–848 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Nagasaka, K.

M. Nogami, S. Suzuki, and K. Nagasaka, “Sol-gel processing of small-sized CdSe crystal-doped silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 135, 182–188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, H.

T. Yanagawa, H. Nakano, Y. Ishida, and K. Kubodera, “Host glass dependence of photodarkening in colored filter glasses,” Opt. Commun. 100, 118–123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All-solid-state cw passively mode locked Ti:sapphire laser using a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nogami, M.

M. Nogami, S. Suzuki, and K. Nagasaka, “Sol-gel processing of small-sized CdSe crystal-doped silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 135, 182–188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nozik, A. J.

T. Rajh, M. I. Vucemilovic, N. M. Dimitrijevic, O. I. Micic, and A. J. Nozik, “Size quantization of colloidal semiconductor particles in silicate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 305–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ogorelec, Z.

Z. Vucic, O. Milat, V. Horvatic, and Z. Ogorelec, “Composition-induced phase transition splitting in cuprous selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5398–5401 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Butty, Y. Z. Hu, N. Peyghambarian, Y. H. Kao, and J. D. Mackenzie, “Quasicontinuous gain in sol-gel derived CdS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2672–2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Poddenezhny, E. N.

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, I. M. Melnichenko, E. N. Poddenezhny, A. A. Alexeenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Formation of ultrafine particles of copper and copper sulfide in silica films and glasses prepared by sol-gel technique,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232–234, 162–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Posnov, N. N.

A. M. Malyarevich, N. N. Posnov, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Ultrafast optical processes in new Cu-Fe-S nanoparticles,” in ICONO’98: Ultrafast Phenomena and Interaction of Super-Strong Laser Fields with Matter: Nonlinear Optics and High-Field Physics, M. V. Fedorov, V. M. Gordienko, V. V. Shuvalov, and V. D. Taranukhin, eds., Proc. SPIE 3735, 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, V. S. Gurin, and M. V. Artemyev, “Optical transient bleaching/absorption of surface-oxidized CuInS2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 545–548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Potter, B. G.

Prokopenko, V. B.

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, A. A. Alexeenko, I. M. Melnichenko, V. P. Mikhailov, K. V. Yumashev, and M. A. Malyarevich, “Formation and optical characteristics of copper chalcogenide nanocrystals in amorphous matrices,” Funct. Mater. 6, 464–468 (1999).

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, I. M. Melnichenko, E. N. Poddenezhny, A. A. Alexeenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Formation of ultrafine particles of copper and copper sulfide in silica films and glasses prepared by sol-gel technique,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232–234, 162–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Prokoshin, P. V.

K. V. Yumashev, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, V. P. Mikhailov, M. V. Artemyev, and V. S. Gurin, “Optical transient bleaching and induced absorption of surface-modified copper sulfide nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 73–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, V. S. Gurin, and M. V. Artemyev, “Optical transient bleaching/absorption of surface-oxidized CuInS2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 545–548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, P. V. Prokoshin, S. P. Jmako, and I. V. Bodnar, “CuInSSe-doped glass saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of neodymium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2768–2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rajh, T.

T. Rajh, M. I. Vucemilovic, N. M. Dimitrijevic, O. I. Micic, and A. J. Nozik, “Size quantization of colloidal semiconductor particles in silicate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 305–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ricard, D.

Roussignol, P.

Rudolph, W.

W. Rudolph and H. Weber, “Analysis of saturable absorbers, interacting with gaussian pulses,” Opt. Commun. 34, 491–496 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Sarukura, N.

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All-solid-state cw passively mode locked Ti:sapphire laser using a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schanne-Klein, M. C.

Schmidt, H.

L. Spanhel, E. Arpac, and H. Schmidt, “Semiconductor clusters in the sol-gel process: synthesis and properties of CdS nanocomposites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147/148, 657–662 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shinojima, H.

Smith, D. W.

N. F. Borelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement effects of semiconducting microcrystallites in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399–5409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Spanhel, L.

L. Spanhel, E. Arpac, and H. Schmidt, “Semiconductor clusters in the sol-gel process: synthesis and properties of CdS nanocomposites,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 147/148, 657–662 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, S.

M. Nogami, S. Suzuki, and K. Nagasaka, “Sol-gel processing of small-sized CdSe crystal-doped silica glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 135, 182–188 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ten, S.

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villaverde, A. B.

E. Munin, A. B. Villaverde, and M. Bass, “Broad band, tunable passive Q-switching with semiconductor doped glass filters,” Opt. Commun. 108, 278–282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vucemilovic, M. I.

T. Rajh, M. I. Vucemilovic, N. M. Dimitrijevic, O. I. Micic, and A. J. Nozik, “Size quantization of colloidal semiconductor particles in silicate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 305–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vucic, Z.

Z. Vucic, O. Milat, V. Horvatic, and Z. Ogorelec, “Composition-induced phase transition splitting in cuprous selenide,” Phys. Rev. B 24, 5398–5401 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H.

W. Rudolph and H. Weber, “Analysis of saturable absorbers, interacting with gaussian pulses,” Opt. Commun. 34, 491–496 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yanagawa, T.

T. Yanagawa, H. Nakano, Y. Ishida, and K. Kubodera, “Host glass dependence of photodarkening in colored filter glasses,” Opt. Commun. 100, 118–123 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All-solid-state cw passively mode locked Ti:sapphire laser using a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yoffe, Y. D.

Y. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 42, 173–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yumashev, K. V.

A. M. Malyarevich, N. N. Posnov, I. A. Denisov, K. V. Yumashev, and V. P. Mikhailov, “Ultrafast optical processes in new Cu-Fe-S nanoparticles,” in ICONO’98: Ultrafast Phenomena and Interaction of Super-Strong Laser Fields with Matter: Nonlinear Optics and High-Field Physics, M. V. Fedorov, V. M. Gordienko, V. V. Shuvalov, and V. D. Taranukhin, eds., Proc. SPIE 3735, 121–128 (1999).
[CrossRef]

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, A. A. Alexeenko, I. M. Melnichenko, V. P. Mikhailov, K. V. Yumashev, and M. A. Malyarevich, “Formation and optical characteristics of copper chalcogenide nanocrystals in amorphous matrices,” Funct. Mater. 6, 464–468 (1999).

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, I. M. Melnichenko, E. N. Poddenezhny, A. A. Alexeenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Formation of ultrafine particles of copper and copper sulfide in silica films and glasses prepared by sol-gel technique,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232–234, 162–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, V. P. Mikhailov, M. V. Artemyev, and V. S. Gurin, “Optical transient bleaching and induced absorption of surface-modified copper sulfide nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 73–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, V. S. Gurin, and M. V. Artemyev, “Optical transient bleaching/absorption of surface-oxidized CuInS2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 545–548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, P. V. Prokoshin, S. P. Jmako, and I. V. Bodnar, “CuInSSe-doped glass saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of neodymium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2768–2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Phys. (1)

Y. D. Yoffe, “Low-dimensional systems: quantum size effects and electronic properties of semiconductor microcrystallites (zero-dimensional systems) and some quasi-two-dimensional systems,” Adv. Phys. 42, 173–266 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

K. V. Yumashev, A. M. Malyarevich, P. V. Prokoshin, N. N. Posnov, V. S. Gurin, and M. V. Artemyev, “Optical transient bleaching/absorption of surface-oxidized CuInS2 nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 545–548 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, P. V. Prokoshin, A. M. Malyarevich, V. P. Mikhailov, M. V. Artemyev, and V. S. Gurin, “Optical transient bleaching and induced absorption of surface-modified copper sulfide nanocrystals,” Appl. Phys. B 64, 73–78 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

N. Sarukura, Y. Ishida, T. Yanagawa, and H. Nakano, “All-solid-state cw passively mode locked Ti:sapphire laser using a colored glass filter,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 229–230 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. V. Yumashev, V. P. Mikhailov, P. V. Prokoshin, S. P. Jmako, and I. V. Bodnar, “CuInSSe-doped glass saturable absorbers for passive mode-locking of neodymium lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 2768–2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Guerreiro, S. Ten, N. F. Borrelli, J. Butty, G. E. Jabbour, and N. Peyghambarian, “PbS quantum-dot doped glasses as saturable absorbers for mode-locking of a Cr:forsterite laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 1595–1597 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Butty, Y. Z. Hu, N. Peyghambarian, Y. H. Kao, and J. D. Mackenzie, “Quasicontinuous gain in sol-gel derived CdS quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2672–2674 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Bret and F. Gires, “Giant pulse laser and light amplifier using variable transmission coefficient glasses as light switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 175–179 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Can. J. Chem. (1)

R. D. Heyding and R. M. Murray, “The crystal structure of Cu1.8Se, Cu3Se2, alpha- and gamma-CuSe, CuSe2 and CuSe2-II,” Can. J. Chem. 54, 841–848 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Rajh, M. I. Vucemilovic, N. M. Dimitrijevic, O. I. Micic, and A. J. Nozik, “Size quantization of colloidal semiconductor particles in silicate glasses,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 143, 305–308 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Funct. Mater. (1)

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, A. A. Alexeenko, I. M. Melnichenko, V. P. Mikhailov, K. V. Yumashev, and M. A. Malyarevich, “Formation and optical characteristics of copper chalcogenide nanocrystals in amorphous matrices,” Funct. Mater. 6, 464–468 (1999).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

N. Peyghambarian, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, A. Migus, M. Joffre, A. Antonetti, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, “Femtosecond optical nonlinearities of CdSe quantum dots,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2516–2522 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kartner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Honninger, N. Matuschek, and J. A. der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–451 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. F. Borelli, D. W. Hall, H. J. Holland, and D. W. Smith, “Quantum confinement effects of semiconducting microcrystallites in glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 5399–5409 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (3)

V. S. Gurin, V. B. Prokopenko, I. M. Melnichenko, E. N. Poddenezhny, A. A. Alexeenko, and K. V. Yumashev, “Formation of ultrafine particles of copper and copper sulfide in silica films and glasses prepared by sol-gel technique,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 232–234, 162–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption spectra of the two types of glass sample containing copper selenide NP’s fabricated by the solgel technique: (a) type I, (b) type II. The inset in (b) shows the absorption spectrum of the silica film containing Cu2Se NP’s fabricated by a solgel technique similar to that used for preparation of glass sample type II. OD, optical density.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity-dependent transmission of the copper selenide-doped glass sample of type II measured for (a) pulses of 60-ns duration with a photon energy of 0.92 eV and (b) pulses of 20-ns duration with a photon energy of 1.17 eV. The thickness of the glass sample is 0.3 mm. Solid curves are the result of fitting with the aid of Eq. (1).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absorption spectra of the copper selenide-doped glass sample of type II 1, before and 2, 3, after irradiation by 12 ns-duration pulses with photon energies of (a) 3.5 eV and (b) 1.17 eV at fluences of (a) 30mJ/cm2 and (b) 0.48mJ/cm2. The numbers of laser shots were (a) 3.4×104(2) and (b) 2, 104 and 3, 1.5×104.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Spectra and (b), (c) time evolution of the transient absorption change ΔOD=-lg(T/T0) of the copper selenide–doped glass sample of type II. 15-ps pulses with a photon energy of 1.15 eV were used as the pump. (a) The delay times between pump and probe pulses are 1, 90 ps and 2, 220 ps. The probe photon energies selected are (b) hωPR=2.1 eV and (c) hωPR=1.38 eV.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Spectra and (b), (c) time evolution of the transient absorption change ΔOD=-lg(T/T0) of the copper selenide-doped glass sample of type II. 15-ps pulses with a photon energy of 3.44 eV were used as the pump. (a) The delay time between pump and probe pulses is 93 ps. The probe photon energies selected are (b) hωPR=2.07 eV and (c) hωPR=1.33 eV.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematics of the passively Q-switched (a) 1.06-µm Nd3+:YAG laser, (b) 1.34-µm Nd3+:YAP laser, and (c) 1.54-µm Er3+:glass laser and (d) mode-locked 1.34-µm Nd3+:YAP laser cavities with the solgel-derived copper selenide-doped glasses (of type II) as saturable absorbers and typical output from the corresponding lasers. Abbreviations are defined in text.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Output Parameters of 1.06-, 1.34-, and 1.54-µm Solid-State Lasers with Solgel-Derived Copper Selenide-Doped Glasses (of Type II) as Saturable Absorbers

Equations (2)

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ln[T(I0)/T0]=(σ/σE-1)×ln{[1+(σE/σ)(I0/IS)]/
[1+(σE/σ)T(I0)(I0/IS)]},

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