Abstract

We use a frequency-shifted feedback technique with a high-gain fiber amplifier operating at λ=1083 nm to produce a multifrequency light beam that covers a controllable spectral range. It is ideal for optically pumping a gas of metastable He because it spans the Doppler width, and its high efficiency has implications for many applications. Measurements confirm that eight times fewer atoms are left in the unchosen states with multifrequency light.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. E. Chupp, R. J. Holt, and R. G. Milner, “Optically pumped polarized H, D and 3He targets,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 44, 373–411 (1994); T. Gentile and R. D. Mckeown, “Spin-polarizing 3He nuclei with an arc-lamp-pumped neodymium-doped lanthanum magnesium hexaluminate laser,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 456–467 (1993).
  2. H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
  3. P.-J. Nacher and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 2057–2073 (1985).
  4. M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).
  5. E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).
  6. E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).
  7. S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
  8. G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).
  9. F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).
  10. Model 30dBm, 1μm, Optocomm, 22304 Lannion, France.
  11. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988). His γ=1 for a four-level system.
  12. R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).
  13. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
  14. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).
  15. Model number 6702-H1 from Spectra Diode Labs, San Jose, Calif. 95134. We used optical feedback to narrow the spectrum to ~100 kHz wide.
  16. G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).

1997 (4)

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).

1996 (3)

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

1995 (1)

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

1990 (1)

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).

1985 (1)

P.-J. Nacher and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 2057–2073 (1985).

1963 (1)

F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).

1962 (1)

G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).

Balle, S.

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).

Barber, P. R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).

Barlow, M.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).

Bergmann, K.

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).

Bigelow, N.

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

Black, R. D.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Bonnet, G.

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).

Caplen, J. E.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).

Cates, G. D.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Chernikov, S.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).

Cofer, G. P.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Colegrove, F.

F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).

Colegrove, F. D.

G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).

Denatale, P.

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).

Elbel, M.

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).

Gapontsev, V. P.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).

Guenther, R.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).

Happer, W.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Hedlund, L. W.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Inguscio, M.

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).

Johnson, G. A.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Juvan, K.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Kraft, T.

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).

Laporta, P.

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).

Larat, C.

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).

Leduc, M.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).

P.-J. Nacher and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 2057–2073 (1985).

Meyerhoff, M.

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

Middleton, H.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Modugno, G.

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).

Nacher, P.-J.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).

P.-J. Nacher and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 2057–2073 (1985).

Nilsson, J.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).

Platonov, N. S.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).

Saam, B.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Schearer, L. D.

F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).

G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).

Stoltz, E.

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

Swartz, J.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Tastevin, G.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

Taylor, J.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).

Tropper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).

Villard, B.

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

Walters, G. K.

F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).

G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).

Appl. Phys. B (2)

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).

J. Phys. (Paris) (2)

P.-J. Nacher and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 2057–2073 (1985).

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).

Mag. Reson. Med. (1)

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).

Opt. Commun. (3)

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).

Phys. Rev. (1)

F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).

Other (4)

Model number 6702-H1 from Spectra Diode Labs, San Jose, Calif. 95134. We used optical feedback to narrow the spectrum to ~100 kHz wide.

Model 30dBm, 1μm, Optocomm, 22304 Lannion, France.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988). His γ=1 for a four-level system.

T. E. Chupp, R. J. Holt, and R. G. Milner, “Optically pumped polarized H, D and 3He targets,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 44, 373–411 (1994); T. Gentile and R. D. Mckeown, “Spin-polarizing 3He nuclei with an arc-lamp-pumped neodymium-doped lanthanum magnesium hexaluminate laser,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 456–467 (1993).

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