Abstract

We use a frequency-shifted feedback technique with a high-gain fiber amplifier operating at λ=1083 nm to produce a multifrequency light beam that covers a controllable spectral range. It is ideal for optically pumping a gas of metastable He because it spans the Doppler width, and its high efficiency has implications for many applications. Measurements confirm that eight times fewer atoms are left in the unchosen states with multifrequency light.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. E. Chupp, R. J. Holt, and R. G. Milner, “Optically pumped polarized H, D and 3He targets,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 44, 373–411 (1994); T. Gentile and R. D. Mckeown, “Spin-polarizing 3He nuclei with an arc-lamp-pumped neodymium-doped lanthanum magnesium hexaluminate laser,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 456–467 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P.-J. Nacher and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 2057–2073 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).
  6. E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).
  7. S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Model 30dBm, 1μm, Optocomm, 22304 Lannion, France.
  11. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988). His γ=1 for a four-level system.
  12. R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. Model number 6702-H1 from Spectra Diode Labs, San Jose, Calif. 95134. We used optical feedback to narrow the spectrum to ~100 kHz wide.
  16. G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (4)

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

1995 (1)

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P.-J. Nacher and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 2057–2073 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1963 (1)

F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Balle, S.

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Barlow, M.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, K.

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bigelow, N.

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

Black, R. D.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonnet, G.

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caplen, J. E.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cates, G. D.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chernikov, S.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cofer, G. P.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Colegrove, F.

F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Colegrove, F. D.

G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Denatale, P.

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Elbel, M.

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Gapontsev, V. P.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guenther, R.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Happer, W.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hedlund, L. W.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inguscio, M.

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, G. A.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Juvan, K.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kraft, T.

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Laporta, P.

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Larat, C.

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leduc, M.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P.-J. Nacher and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 2057–2073 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhoff, M.

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

Middleton, H.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Modugno, G.

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nacher, P.-J.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

P.-J. Nacher and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 2057–2073 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Platonov, N. S.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Saam, B.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schearer, L. D.

F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Stoltz, E.

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

Swartz, J.

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tastevin, G.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
[CrossRef]

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

Taylor, J.

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villard, B.

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

Walters, G. K.

F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).
[CrossRef]

G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

E. Stoltz, M. Meyerhoff, N. Bigelow, M. Leduc, P.-J. Nacher, and G. Tastevin, “High nuclear polarization in 3He and 3He–4He gas mixtures by optical pumping with a laser diode,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 629–633 (1996).

E. Stoltz, B. Villard, M. Meyerhoff, and P.-J. Nacher, “Polarization analysis of the light emitted by an optically pumped 3He gas,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 635–640 (1996).

Electron. Lett. (1)

S. Chernikov, J. Taylor, N. S. Platonov, V. P. Gapontsev, P.-J. Nacher, G. Tastevin, M. Leduc, and M. Barlow, “1083 nm ytterbium doped fibre amplifier for optical pumping of helium,” Electron. Lett. 33, 787–788 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifiers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1049–1056 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. (Paris) (2)

P.-J. Nacher and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 2057–2073 (1985).
[CrossRef]

M. Elbel, C. Larat, P.-J. Nacher, and M. Leduc, “Optical pumping in 3He with a frequency electromodulated laser,” J. Phys. (Paris) 51, 39–46 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mag. Reson. Med. (1)

H. Middleton, R. D. Black, B. Saam, G. D. Cates, G. P. Cofer, R. Guenther, W. Happer, L. W. Hedlund, G. A. Johnson, K. Juvan, and J. Swartz, “MR-imaging with hyperpolarized 3He gas,” Mag. Reson. Med. 33, 271–275 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

G. Bonnet, S. Balle, T. Kraft, and K. Bergmann, “Dynamics and self-modelocking of a titanium–Sapphire laser with intracavity frequency shifted feedback,” Opt. Commun. 123, 790–800 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, D. C. Hanna, P. Denatale, G. Modugno, M. Inguscio, and P. Laporta, “Power amplifier for 1083 nm using ytterbium doped fibre,” Opt. Commun. 136, 243–246 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Paschotta, J. Nilsson, P. R. Barber, J. E. Caplen, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Lifetime quenching in Yb-doped fibres,” Opt. Commun. 136, 375–378 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

F. Colegrove, L. D. Schearer, and G. K. Walters, “Polarization of 3He gas by optical pumping,” Phys. Rev. 132, 2561–2572 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

G. K. Walters, F. D. Colegrove, and L. D. Schearer, “Nuclear polarization of 3He gas by metastability exchange with optically pumped metastable 3He atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 439–442 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

Model number 6702-H1 from Spectra Diode Labs, San Jose, Calif. 95134. We used optical feedback to narrow the spectrum to ~100 kHz wide.

Model 30dBm, 1μm, Optocomm, 22304 Lannion, France.

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988). His γ=1 for a four-level system.

T. E. Chupp, R. J. Holt, and R. G. Milner, “Optically pumped polarized H, D and 3He targets,” Annu. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 44, 373–411 (1994); T. Gentile and R. D. Mckeown, “Spin-polarizing 3He nuclei with an arc-lamp-pumped neodymium-doped lanthanum magnesium hexaluminate laser,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 456–467 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical schematic shows the production of multifrequency light with the fiber amplifier. The DBR output passes through an isolator and is then amplified by the fiber. Up to 50% of the fiber’s output is frequency shifted and deflected by the 90-MHz AOM, and this is fed back into the fiber with a beam splitter to merge it with the light from the DBR. Most of the output light goes to the experiment, but a small fraction is sent to a Fabry–Perot spectrum analyzer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectrum from the fiber amplifier when the frequency-shifted feedback is on, as measured by the scanned 800-MHz free-spectral-range Fabry–Perot analyzer (finesse, ∼100). The 16th peak corresponding to ∼1.5 GHz is readily visible in the second-order spectrum. Here the peaks are separated by 90 MHz, and the rf power to the AOM is 1 W.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Rf discharge in the few-hundred-millitorr cell produces He* throughout the volume, but the 1-cm-diameter laser beam pumps only a fraction of those. The 1×2 mm probe beam, whose absorption is measured, counterpropagates as shown. Typically 15 mW in the pump beam is enough to saturate the optical pumping, and for the data shown it is tuned on resonance for the J=11 transition, so the transition itself is also highly saturated. The weak probe has 15 µW of power so its saturation parameter is ∼4.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

When the probe-beam frequency is swept through the J=1(1, 2) transitions, its absorption depends on the population of the gs magnetic sublevels MJ. (a) With multifrequency (MF) pumping into the gs MJ=1 sublevel by use of circular polarization, ∼97% of the atoms have MJ=1 as a result of velocity-changing collisions that do not reorient the atoms. Thus absorption on J=11 is reduced and on J=12 is increased [because the (J, MJ)=(1, 1)(2, 2) is a cycling transition]. (b) With linearly polarized light, the J=11 peak is similarly reduced, but there is only a small increase in the J=12 peak because the (J, MJ)=(1, 0)(2, 0) is not cycling. For the single-frequency case the optical pumping leaves 25% of the atoms in MJ0, but only 3% remain for MF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) With optical pumping measurements such as shown in Fig. 4 the fraction of atoms in the MJ=0 sublevel is calculated from the area under the various curves as we vary the rf voltage to the AOM. The number of frequency peaks such as those of Fig. 2 increases monotonically with this rf drive level (see inset). This figure shows the effectiveness of the optical pumping as the rf power to the AOM is increased. The data also show that the optical pumping fraction is approaching saturation. (b) As the rf voltage driving the discharge increases, so does the density of  4He* as measured by absorption of the light. Thus there is more multiple scattering that depolarizes the He* over the entire velocity distribution, and the importance of the MF spectral broadening increases. The ratio of fraction of atoms pumped for MF and SF, as determined by the absorption of the probe beam, is plotted versus the integrated probe absorption. In both (a) and (b), only 8 mW of pump power was used, so 8% of the atoms remain in MJ0.

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