Abstract

We report an experimental investigation of the gain anomaly of lithiumlike 3d4f and 3d5f lasers in a recombining silicon plasma. We examined the spatial distribution of gain coefficients of the two lasing lines and found that the peak gain of the 3d5f laser occurs closer to the target surface than that of the 3d4f laser, which is contrary to the results predicted by simulation. This discrepancy, which to our knowledge was not pointed out before, was found to be relevant to the gain anomaly of lithiumlike-ion 3d4f and 3d5f lasers. A small prepulse was introduced to modify the state of a silicon plasma column with which the spontaneous-emission amplification of lithiumlike silicon ion 3d4f and 3d5f transitions was observed. The prepulse-induced behaviors were quite different for the two lines. These results suggest that the sensitivity of the gain of the 3d4f laser to the plasma density and the population of the 3d level tends to reduce the difference in laser gain between the 3d4f and 3d5f transitions predicted by standard atomic physics codes.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  2. For recent reviews see D. C. Eder and D. L. Matthews, eds., X-ray Lasers 94 (AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 1–607, 1994); S. Svanberg and C.-G. Wahlstrom, eds., X-Ray Lasers 1996 (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 1–541.
  3. C. H. Skinner, D. Dicicco, D. Kim, L. Meixler, C. H. Nam, W. Tighe, and S. Suckewer, “Toward shorter wavelength lasers and soft x-ray laser microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 512–519 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  4. A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Moller, and J. Virmont, “Effective rates for Li-like ions: calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 153–164 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, and J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Kawachi, K. Ando, Y. Aoyagi, M. Aoyama, T. Hara, and A. Sasaki, “Observation of amplified spontaneous emission in the soft-x-ray region from a recombining lithiumlike aluminum plasma pumped by multipulse irradiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1863–1869 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. Li, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “Understanding of the gain-decrease over long plasma medium for recombination x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 56, 472–476 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, G. J. Pert, M. H. Key, and J. Zhang, “Recombination x-ray lasers driven by short pulses,” J. Phys. B 28, 2745–2756 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  11. A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. T. Kawachi and T. Fujimoto, “Deexcitation and recombination of excited ions through doubly excited levels in a dense recombining plasma: lithiumlike recombining plasma laser,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1836–1842 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Wagner, E. Eberl, K. Frank, W. Hartmann, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and R. Tkotz, “XUV amplification in a recombining Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3124–3127 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. Steingruber and E. E. Fill, “Space- and time-resolved investigation of gain lines in Na-like copper,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 29 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Fan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhou, R. Jin, Z. Xu, and X. Guo, “Stigmatic grazing-incidence flat-field grating spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6720–6723 (1992).
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  16. P. Lu, P. Fan, Z. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “A simple in-situ calibration technique for soft-x-ray film,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2879–2882 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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  18. R. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fan, S. Han, and P. Lu, “Effect of prepulse on line-shaped laser-produced plasma x-ray radiation,” Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 311–315 (1996).
  19. R. Li, P. Fan, Z. Xu, P. Lu, and Z. Zhang, “Spot-focused laser produced plasma toward large-scale, line-shaped, uniform soft-x-ray monochromatic source,” Phys. Scr. 50, 271–274 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Weber and J. E. Balmer, “Soft x-ray emission from double-pulse laser produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1880–1884 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Li, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, L. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “On the gain media uniformity in controlled expansion cooled high gain recombination x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2611–2617 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

R. Li, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, L. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “On the gain media uniformity in controlled expansion cooled high gain recombination x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2611–2617 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

T. Kawachi and T. Fujimoto, “Deexcitation and recombination of excited ions through doubly excited levels in a dense recombining plasma: lithiumlike recombining plasma laser,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1836–1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “Understanding of the gain-decrease over long plasma medium for recombination x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 56, 472–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi, K. Ando, Y. Aoyagi, M. Aoyama, T. Hara, and A. Sasaki, “Observation of amplified spontaneous emission in the soft-x-ray region from a recombining lithiumlike aluminum plasma pumped by multipulse irradiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1863–1869 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Wagner, E. Eberl, K. Frank, W. Hartmann, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and R. Tkotz, “XUV amplification in a recombining Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3124–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fan, S. Han, and P. Lu, “Effect of prepulse on line-shaped laser-produced plasma x-ray radiation,” Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 311–315 (1996).

1995 (1)

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, G. J. Pert, M. H. Key, and J. Zhang, “Recombination x-ray lasers driven by short pulses,” J. Phys. B 28, 2745–2756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, P. Fan, Z. Xu, P. Lu, and Z. Zhang, “Spot-focused laser produced plasma toward large-scale, line-shaped, uniform soft-x-ray monochromatic source,” Phys. Scr. 50, 271–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Steingruber and E. E. Fill, “Space- and time-resolved investigation of gain lines in Na-like copper,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 29 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

P. Lu, P. Fan, Z. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “A simple in-situ calibration technique for soft-x-ray film,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2879–2882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

P. B. Holden and G. J. Pert, “The derivation of scaling laws for the lithiumlike aluminum recombination laser,” J. Phys. B 25, 3085–3092 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Fan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhou, R. Jin, Z. Xu, and X. Guo, “Stigmatic grazing-incidence flat-field grating spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6720–6723 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Moller, and J. Virmont, “Effective rates for Li-like ions: calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, and J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Weber and J. E. Balmer, “Soft x-ray emission from double-pulse laser produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1880–1884 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C. H. Skinner, D. Dicicco, D. Kim, L. Meixler, C. H. Nam, W. Tighe, and S. Suckewer, “Toward shorter wavelength lasers and soft x-ray laser microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 512–519 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ando, K.

Aoyagi, Y.

Aoyama, M.

Back, C. A.

A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, J. E.

R. Weber and J. E. Balmer, “Soft x-ray emission from double-pulse laser produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1880–1884 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

P. Lu, P. Fan, Z. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “A simple in-situ calibration technique for soft-x-ray film,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2879–2882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chenais-Popovics, C.

A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, Y.

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “Understanding of the gain-decrease over long plasma medium for recombination x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 56, 472–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dicicco, D.

C. H. Skinner, D. Dicicco, D. Kim, L. Meixler, C. H. Nam, W. Tighe, and S. Suckewer, “Toward shorter wavelength lasers and soft x-ray laser microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 512–519 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Eberl, E.

T. Wagner, E. Eberl, K. Frank, W. Hartmann, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and R. Tkotz, “XUV amplification in a recombining Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3124–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fan, P.

R. Li, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, L. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “On the gain media uniformity in controlled expansion cooled high gain recombination x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2611–2617 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fan, S. Han, and P. Lu, “Effect of prepulse on line-shaped laser-produced plasma x-ray radiation,” Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 311–315 (1996).

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, P. Fan, Z. Xu, P. Lu, and Z. Zhang, “Spot-focused laser produced plasma toward large-scale, line-shaped, uniform soft-x-ray monochromatic source,” Phys. Scr. 50, 271–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, P. Fan, Z. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “A simple in-situ calibration technique for soft-x-ray film,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2879–2882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Fan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhou, R. Jin, Z. Xu, and X. Guo, “Stigmatic grazing-incidence flat-field grating spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6720–6723 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, X.

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fill, E. E.

J. Steingruber and E. E. Fill, “Space- and time-resolved investigation of gain lines in Na-like copper,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 29 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Frank, K.

T. Wagner, E. Eberl, K. Frank, W. Hartmann, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and R. Tkotz, “XUV amplification in a recombining Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3124–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, T.

T. Kawachi and T. Fujimoto, “Deexcitation and recombination of excited ions through doubly excited levels in a dense recombining plasma: lithiumlike recombining plasma laser,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1836–1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Goldsmith, S.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, and J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griem, H. R.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, and J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guennou, H.

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Moller, and J. Virmont, “Effective rates for Li-like ions: calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Guo, X.

Han, S.

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fan, S. Han, and P. Lu, “Effect of prepulse on line-shaped laser-produced plasma x-ray radiation,” Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 311–315 (1996).

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hara, T.

Hartmann, W.

T. Wagner, E. Eberl, K. Frank, W. Hartmann, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and R. Tkotz, “XUV amplification in a recombining Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3124–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Healy, S. B.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, G. J. Pert, M. H. Key, and J. Zhang, “Recombination x-ray lasers driven by short pulses,” J. Phys. B 28, 2745–2756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hoffmann, D. H. H.

T. Wagner, E. Eberl, K. Frank, W. Hartmann, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and R. Tkotz, “XUV amplification in a recombining Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3124–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Holden, P. B.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, G. J. Pert, M. H. Key, and J. Zhang, “Recombination x-ray lasers driven by short pulses,” J. Phys. B 28, 2745–2756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden and G. J. Pert, “The derivation of scaling laws for the lithiumlike aluminum recombination laser,” J. Phys. B 25, 3085–3092 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jaegle, P.

A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, C.

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R.

Kawachi, T.

T. Kawachi, K. Ando, Y. Aoyagi, M. Aoyama, T. Hara, and A. Sasaki, “Observation of amplified spontaneous emission in the soft-x-ray region from a recombining lithiumlike aluminum plasma pumped by multipulse irradiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1863–1869 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi and T. Fujimoto, “Deexcitation and recombination of excited ions through doubly excited levels in a dense recombining plasma: lithiumlike recombining plasma laser,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1836–1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Key, M. H.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, G. J. Pert, M. H. Key, and J. Zhang, “Recombination x-ray lasers driven by short pulses,” J. Phys. B 28, 2745–2756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.

C. H. Skinner, D. Dicicco, D. Kim, L. Meixler, C. H. Nam, W. Tighe, and S. Suckewer, “Toward shorter wavelength lasers and soft x-ray laser microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 512–519 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Moller, and J. Virmont, “Effective rates for Li-like ions: calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Knauer, J.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, and J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, R.

R. Li, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, L. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “On the gain media uniformity in controlled expansion cooled high gain recombination x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2611–2617 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “Understanding of the gain-decrease over long plasma medium for recombination x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 56, 472–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fan, S. Han, and P. Lu, “Effect of prepulse on line-shaped laser-produced plasma x-ray radiation,” Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 311–315 (1996).

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, P. Fan, Z. Xu, P. Lu, and Z. Zhang, “Spot-focused laser produced plasma toward large-scale, line-shaped, uniform soft-x-ray monochromatic source,” Phys. Scr. 50, 271–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, P. Fan, Z. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “A simple in-situ calibration technique for soft-x-ray film,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2879–2882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

P. Lu, P. Fan, Z. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “A simple in-situ calibration technique for soft-x-ray film,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2879–2882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “Understanding of the gain-decrease over long plasma medium for recombination x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 56, 472–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, P.

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fan, S. Han, and P. Lu, “Effect of prepulse on line-shaped laser-produced plasma x-ray radiation,” Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 311–315 (1996).

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, P. Fan, Z. Xu, P. Lu, and Z. Zhang, “Spot-focused laser produced plasma toward large-scale, line-shaped, uniform soft-x-ray monochromatic source,” Phys. Scr. 50, 271–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, P. Fan, Z. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “A simple in-situ calibration technique for soft-x-ray film,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2879–2882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meixler, L.

C. H. Skinner, D. Dicicco, D. Kim, L. Meixler, C. H. Nam, W. Tighe, and S. Suckewer, “Toward shorter wavelength lasers and soft x-ray laser microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 512–519 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Moller, C.

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Moller, and J. Virmont, “Effective rates for Li-like ions: calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, J. C.

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, and J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, C. H.

C. H. Skinner, D. Dicicco, D. Kim, L. Meixler, C. H. Nam, W. Tighe, and S. Suckewer, “Toward shorter wavelength lasers and soft x-ray laser microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 512–519 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Pert, G. J.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, G. J. Pert, M. H. Key, and J. Zhang, “Recombination x-ray lasers driven by short pulses,” J. Phys. B 28, 2745–2756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden and G. J. Pert, “The derivation of scaling laws for the lithiumlike aluminum recombination laser,” J. Phys. B 25, 3085–3092 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Qian, A.

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rancu, O.

A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Renaudin, P.

A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, A.

Shen, B.

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Skinner, C. H.

C. H. Skinner, D. Dicicco, D. Kim, L. Meixler, C. H. Nam, W. Tighe, and S. Suckewer, “Toward shorter wavelength lasers and soft x-ray laser microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 512–519 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Steingruber, J.

J. Steingruber and E. E. Fill, “Space- and time-resolved investigation of gain lines in Na-like copper,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 29 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Suckewer, S.

C. H. Skinner, D. Dicicco, D. Kim, L. Meixler, C. H. Nam, W. Tighe, and S. Suckewer, “Toward shorter wavelength lasers and soft x-ray laser microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 512–519 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sureau, A.

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Moller, and J. Virmont, “Effective rates for Li-like ions: calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tighe, W.

C. H. Skinner, D. Dicicco, D. Kim, L. Meixler, C. H. Nam, W. Tighe, and S. Suckewer, “Toward shorter wavelength lasers and soft x-ray laser microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 512–519 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tkotz, R.

T. Wagner, E. Eberl, K. Frank, W. Hartmann, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and R. Tkotz, “XUV amplification in a recombining Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3124–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Virmont, J.

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Moller, and J. Virmont, “Effective rates for Li-like ions: calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, T.

T. Wagner, E. Eberl, K. Frank, W. Hartmann, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and R. Tkotz, “XUV amplification in a recombining Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3124–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, P. Fan, Z. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “A simple in-situ calibration technique for soft-x-ray film,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2879–2882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

R. Weber and J. E. Balmer, “Soft x-ray emission from double-pulse laser produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1880–1884 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Z.

R. Li, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, L. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “On the gain media uniformity in controlled expansion cooled high gain recombination x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2611–2617 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “Understanding of the gain-decrease over long plasma medium for recombination x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 56, 472–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fan, S. Han, and P. Lu, “Effect of prepulse on line-shaped laser-produced plasma x-ray radiation,” Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 311–315 (1996).

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, P. Fan, Z. Xu, P. Lu, and Z. Zhang, “Spot-focused laser produced plasma toward large-scale, line-shaped, uniform soft-x-ray monochromatic source,” Phys. Scr. 50, 271–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, P. Fan, Z. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “A simple in-situ calibration technique for soft-x-ray film,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2879–2882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Fan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhou, R. Jin, Z. Xu, and X. Guo, “Stigmatic grazing-incidence flat-field grating spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6720–6723 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitoun, P.

A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, G. J. Pert, M. H. Key, and J. Zhang, “Recombination x-ray lasers driven by short pulses,” J. Phys. B 28, 2745–2756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

R. Li, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, L. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “On the gain media uniformity in controlled expansion cooled high gain recombination x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2611–2617 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Z.

R. Li, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, L. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “On the gain media uniformity in controlled expansion cooled high gain recombination x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2611–2617 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “Understanding of the gain-decrease over long plasma medium for recombination x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 56, 472–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fan, S. Han, and P. Lu, “Effect of prepulse on line-shaped laser-produced plasma x-ray radiation,” Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 311–315 (1996).

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, P. Fan, Z. Xu, P. Lu, and Z. Zhang, “Spot-focused laser produced plasma toward large-scale, line-shaped, uniform soft-x-ray monochromatic source,” Phys. Scr. 50, 271–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Fan, Z. Zhang, J. Zhou, R. Jin, Z. Xu, and X. Guo, “Stigmatic grazing-incidence flat-field grating spectrograph,” Appl. Opt. 31, 6720–6723 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhou, J.

Acta Opt. Sin. (1)

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Xu, P. Fan, S. Han, and P. Lu, “Effect of prepulse on line-shaped laser-produced plasma x-ray radiation,” Acta Opt. Sin. 16, 311–315 (1996).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

J. Steingruber and E. E. Fill, “Space- and time-resolved investigation of gain lines in Na-like copper,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 29 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Z. Xu, P. Fan, X. Wang, R. Li, P. Lu, Z. Zhang, A. Qian, C. Jiang, S. Han, and X. Feng, “Studies of recombination x-ray laser gain and gain-medium uniformity,” Appl. Phys. B 57, 319–323 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

A. Klisnick, A. Sureau, H. Guennou, C. Moller, and J. Virmont, “Effective rates for Li-like ions: calculated XUV gains in Al10+,” Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 50, 153–164 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

C. H. Skinner, D. Dicicco, D. Kim, L. Meixler, C. H. Nam, W. Tighe, and S. Suckewer, “Toward shorter wavelength lasers and soft x-ray laser microscopy,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 16, 512–519 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Weber and J. E. Balmer, “Soft x-ray emission from double-pulse laser produced plasma,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 1880–1884 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. B (2)

P. B. Holden and G. J. Pert, “The derivation of scaling laws for the lithiumlike aluminum recombination laser,” J. Phys. B 25, 3085–3092 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, G. J. Pert, M. H. Key, and J. Zhang, “Recombination x-ray lasers driven by short pulses,” J. Phys. B 28, 2745–2756 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

X. Wang, Z. Xu, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, B. Shen, S. Han, L. Zhang, P. Lu, R. Li, X. Feng, and A. Qian, “An alternative method for gain determination of recombination x-ray lasers,” Opt. Commun. 113, 85–90 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

J. C. Moreno, H. R. Griem, S. Goldsmith, and J. Knauer, “Measurements of gain and line broadening in lithiumlike aluminum,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 6033–6036 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

A. Klisnick, C. Chenais-Popovics, C. A. Back, P. Zeitoun, P. Renaudin, O. Rancu, J. C. Gauthier, and P. Jaegle, “Space- and time-resolved ion distribution in a recombining aluminum x-ray laser plasma,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 5315–5322 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Kawachi and T. Fujimoto, “Deexcitation and recombination of excited ions through doubly excited levels in a dense recombining plasma: lithiumlike recombining plasma laser,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 1836–1842 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. Wagner, E. Eberl, K. Frank, W. Hartmann, D. H. H. Hoffmann, and R. Tkotz, “XUV amplification in a recombining Z-pinch plasma,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3124–3127 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Scr. (2)

R. Li, P. Fan, Z. Xu, P. Lu, and Z. Zhang, “Spot-focused laser produced plasma toward large-scale, line-shaped, uniform soft-x-ray monochromatic source,” Phys. Scr. 50, 271–274 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Li, Z. Zhang, Y. Liu, Z. Xu, and Y. Cheng, “Understanding of the gain-decrease over long plasma medium for recombination x-ray laser,” Phys. Scr. 56, 472–476 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

R. Li, Z. Zhang, P. Fan, L. Zhang, and Z. Xu, “On the gain media uniformity in controlled expansion cooled high gain recombination x-ray lasers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2611–2617 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, P. Fan, Z. Xu, R. Li, X. Wang, Y. Li, and S. Chen, “A simple in-situ calibration technique for soft-x-ray film,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2879–2882 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

H. G. Ahlstrom, in Laser Plasma Interaction, R. Balian and J. C. Adam, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1982), p. 172.

R. C. Elton, X-Ray Lasers (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1990).

For recent reviews see D. C. Eder and D. L. Matthews, eds., X-ray Lasers 94 (AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 1–607, 1994); S. Svanberg and C.-G. Wahlstrom, eds., X-Ray Lasers 1996 (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1996), pp. 1–541.

H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964), p. 284.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

1-D spatial distribution of the on-axis emission of the lithiumlike silicon 3d4f transition from the plasma columns produced with and without the aid of a prepulse. Also shown is the distribution of the intensity ratio between the two cases (with prepulse/without prepulse).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

1-D spatial distribution of the on-axis emission of the lithiumlike silicon 3d5f transition from the plasma columns produced with and without the aid of a prepulse. Also shown is the distribution of the intensity ratio between the two cases (with prepulse/without prepulse).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

1-D spatial distribution of the electron density for the plasma columns generated with and without the aid of a prepulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

1-D spatial distribution of the on-axis emission of the lithiumlike silicon 2p3d transition from the plasma columns produced with and without the aid of a prepulse. Also shown is the distribution of the intensity ratio between the two cases (with prepulse/without prepulse).

Equations (2)

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INuNl[1-exp(-δabsNll)]
I2p3dN3dN2p.

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