Abstract

We report on a series of tricyanovinylaniline chromophores for use as dopants in poled poly(methyl methacrylate) waveguides for anomalous-dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation. Second-harmonic-generation measurements as a function of mode index confirmed anomalous-dispersion phase-matching efficiencies as large as 245%/W cm2 over a propagation length of ∼35 µm. The waveguide coupling technique limited the interaction length. The photostability of the chromophores was measured directly and found to agree qualitatively with second-harmonic measurements over time and was found to be improved over previously reported materials. Prospects for obtaining efficient conversion by combining anomalous dispersion with Čerenkov phase matching are discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Yamamoto, T. Sugiyama, J. Jung, T. Kinoshita, and K. Sasaki, “Čerenkov-radiation and guided-mode blue second-harmonic generation in four-layer waveguides using organic thin-film crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1831–1837 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, and P. A. Cahill, “Guest-host polymers for nonlinear optics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 189, 123–136 (1990).
  4. T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature 367, 49–51 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  7. O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, and M. Okabe, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957–2960 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Mohlmann, “Modal dispersion phase matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. G. Huang and M. R. Wang, “A novel quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling technique,” Opt. Commun. 150, 235–238 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. V. Taggi, F. Michelotti, M. Bertolotti, G. Petrocco, V. Foglietti, A. Donval, E. Toussaere, and J. Zyss, “Domain inversion by pulse poling in polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2794–2796 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. A. Mortazavi and G. Khanarian, “Quasi-phase-matched frequency-doubling in bulk periodic polymeric structures,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1290–1292 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Theoretical analysis of Cerenkov-type optical second-harmonic generation in slab waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798–1815 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Cerenkov-type phase-matched second harmonic generation in polymeric channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 101, 231–234 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. K. Lim, M. Y. Jeong, S. N. Cha, E. K. Koh, and D. Y. Han, “Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation with a nonlinear organic polymer waveguide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 30, 544–549 (1997).
  15. P. A. Cahill and K. D. Singer, “Chemistry of anomalous dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” ACS Symp. Ser. 455, 200–213 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  16. T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2273–2275 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. R. Dietrich, K. Meerholz, C. Brauchle, J. Wichern, and P. Boldt, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation due to anomalous dispersion: tailoring of the refractive indices in three-component systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 119–126 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. R. Yankelevich, P. Pretre, A. Knoesen, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. J. Twieg, “Molecular engineering of polymer films for amplitude and phase measurements of Ti:sapphire femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1487–1489 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561–6563 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  21. T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed. Proc. SPIE 2025, 332–343 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  22. B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. C. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry. VI. Tricyanovinylanilines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806–2815 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Electro-optic effects and second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, “Theory of prism-film coupler and thin-film light guides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325–1337 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  25. J. Jerphagnon, and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667–1681 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second-harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, “Photostability of dye molecules trapped in solid matrices,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3193–3199 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  28. R. B. Prime, G. Y. Chiou, and R. J. Twieg, “Evaluation of the thermal stability of some nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Therm. Anal. 46, 1133–1150 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. C. Kowalczyk, R. J. Twieg, and H. L. Lackritz, “Photochemical stability of electro-optic chromophores,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 1015 (1998).

1998

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

X. G. Huang and M. R. Wang, “A novel quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling technique,” Opt. Commun. 150, 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Taggi, F. Michelotti, M. Bertolotti, G. Petrocco, V. Foglietti, A. Donval, E. Toussaere, and J. Zyss, “Domain inversion by pulse poling in polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2794–2796 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Kowalczyk, R. J. Twieg, and H. L. Lackritz, “Photochemical stability of electro-optic chromophores,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 1015 (1998).

1997

R. Dietrich, K. Meerholz, C. Brauchle, J. Wichern, and P. Boldt, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation due to anomalous dispersion: tailoring of the refractive indices in three-component systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 119–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. K. Lim, M. Y. Jeong, S. N. Cha, E. K. Koh, and D. Y. Han, “Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation with a nonlinear organic polymer waveguide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 30, 544–549 (1997).

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Yamamoto, T. Sugiyama, J. Jung, T. Kinoshita, and K. Sasaki, “Čerenkov-radiation and guided-mode blue second-harmonic generation in four-layer waveguides using organic thin-film crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1831–1837 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Mohlmann, “Modal dispersion phase matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. R. Yankelevich, P. Pretre, A. Knoesen, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. J. Twieg, “Molecular engineering of polymer films for amplitude and phase measurements of Ti:sapphire femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1487–1489 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Dubois, M. Canva, A. Brun, F. Chaput, and J.-P. Boilot, “Photostability of dye molecules trapped in solid matrices,” Appl. Opt. 35, 3193–3199 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Prime, G. Y. Chiou, and R. J. Twieg, “Evaluation of the thermal stability of some nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Therm. Anal. 46, 1133–1150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

1994

M. A. Mortazavi and G. Khanarian, “Quasi-phase-matched frequency-doubling in bulk periodic polymeric structures,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1290–1292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature 367, 49–51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Cerenkov-type phase-matched second harmonic generation in polymeric channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 101, 231–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed. Proc. SPIE 2025, 332–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Theoretical analysis of Cerenkov-type optical second-harmonic generation in slab waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798–1815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. A. Cahill and K. D. Singer, “Chemistry of anomalous dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” ACS Symp. Ser. 455, 200–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

O. Sugihara, T. Kinoshita, and M. Okabe, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in poled dye/polymer waveguide,” Appl. Opt. 30, 2957–2960 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, and P. A. Cahill, “Guest-host polymers for nonlinear optics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 189, 123–136 (1990).

1988

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Electro-optic effects and second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561–6563 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second-harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1970

P. K. Tien and R. Ulrich, “Theory of prism-film coupler and thin-film light guides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 60, 1325–1337 (1970).
[CrossRef]

J. Jerphagnon, and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667–1681 (1970).
[CrossRef]

1958

B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. C. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry. VI. Tricyanovinylanilines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806–2815 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Ahleheim, M.

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ahlheim, M.

Armstrong, N. J.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature 367, 49–51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bauer-Gogonea, S.

Bauer-Gogonea, W.

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bertolotti, M.

V. Taggi, F. Michelotti, M. Bertolotti, G. Petrocco, V. Foglietti, A. Donval, E. Toussaere, and J. Zyss, “Domain inversion by pulse poling in polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2794–2796 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Boilot, J.-P.

Boldt, P.

R. Dietrich, K. Meerholz, C. Brauchle, J. Wichern, and P. Boldt, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation due to anomalous dispersion: tailoring of the refractive indices in three-component systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 119–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brauchle, C.

R. Dietrich, K. Meerholz, C. Brauchle, J. Wichern, and P. Boldt, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation due to anomalous dispersion: tailoring of the refractive indices in three-component systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 119–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brinker, W.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brun, A.

Buckley, A.

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, P. A.

T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2273–2275 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed. Proc. SPIE 2025, 332–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Cahill and K. D. Singer, “Chemistry of anomalous dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” ACS Symp. Ser. 455, 200–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, and P. A. Cahill, “Guest-host polymers for nonlinear optics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 189, 123–136 (1990).

Cairns, T. C.

B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. C. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry. VI. Tricyanovinylanilines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806–2815 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Calundann, G.

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Canva, M.

Cha, S. N.

T. K. Lim, M. Y. Jeong, S. N. Cha, E. K. Koh, and D. Y. Han, “Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation with a nonlinear organic polymer waveguide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 30, 544–549 (1997).

Chaput, F.

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Cerenkov-type phase-matched second harmonic generation in polymeric channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 101, 231–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, G. Y.

R. B. Prime, G. Y. Chiou, and R. J. Twieg, “Evaluation of the thermal stability of some nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Therm. Anal. 46, 1133–1150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Choe, E. W.

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Coffman, D. D.

B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. C. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry. VI. Tricyanovinylanilines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806–2815 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Comizzoli, R. B.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Electro-optic effects and second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

DeMartino, R.

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Diemeer, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Mohlmann, “Modal dispersion phase matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dietrich, R.

R. Dietrich, K. Meerholz, C. Brauchle, J. Wichern, and P. Boldt, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation due to anomalous dispersion: tailoring of the refractive indices in three-component systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 119–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dirk, C. W.

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561–6563 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Donval, A.

V. Taggi, F. Michelotti, M. Bertolotti, G. Petrocco, V. Foglietti, A. Donval, E. Toussaere, and J. Zyss, “Domain inversion by pulse poling in polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2794–2796 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dubois, A.

Ezenyilimba, M. C.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature 367, 49–51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Feuer, B.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Flipse, M. C.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Mohlmann, “Modal dispersion phase matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Foglietti, V.

V. Taggi, F. Michelotti, M. Bertolotti, G. Petrocco, V. Foglietti, A. Donval, E. Toussaere, and J. Zyss, “Domain inversion by pulse poling in polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2794–2796 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, H. M.

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561–6563 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Haas, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Han, D. Y.

T. K. Lim, M. Y. Jeong, S. N. Cha, E. K. Koh, and D. Y. Han, “Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation with a nonlinear organic polymer waveguide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 30, 544–549 (1997).

Hashizume, N.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Theoretical analysis of Cerenkov-type optical second-harmonic generation in slab waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798–1815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heckert, R. E.

B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. C. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry. VI. Tricyanovinylanilines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806–2815 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Holland, W. R.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, and P. A. Cahill, “Guest-host polymers for nonlinear optics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 189, 123–136 (1990).

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Electro-optic effects and second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Huang, X. G.

X. G. Huang and M. R. Wang, “A novel quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling technique,” Opt. Commun. 150, 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ito, R.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Theoretical analysis of Cerenkov-type optical second-harmonic generation in slab waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798–1815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jager, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Mohlmann, “Modal dispersion phase matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jain, A.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Cerenkov-type phase-matched second harmonic generation in polymeric channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 101, 231–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M. Y.

T. K. Lim, M. Y. Jeong, S. N. Cha, E. K. Koh, and D. Y. Han, “Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation with a nonlinear organic polymer waveguide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 30, 544–549 (1997).

Jerphagnon, J.

J. Jerphagnon, and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667–1681 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Jung, J.

Kamath, M.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Cerenkov-type phase-matched second harmonic generation in polymeric channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 101, 231–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Karim, D.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Electro-optic effects and second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561–6563 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Khanarian, G.

M. A. Mortazavi and G. Khanarian, “Quasi-phase-matched frequency-doubling in bulk periodic polymeric structures,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1290–1292 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

King, L. A.

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561–6563 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kinoshita, T.

Knoesen, A.

Koh, E. K.

T. K. Lim, M. Y. Jeong, S. N. Cha, E. K. Koh, and D. Y. Han, “Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation with a nonlinear organic polymer waveguide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 30, 544–549 (1997).

Kondo, T.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Theoretical analysis of Cerenkov-type optical second-harmonic generation in slab waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798–1815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kowalczyk, T. C.

T. C. Kowalczyk, R. J. Twieg, and H. L. Lackritz, “Photochemical stability of electro-optic chromophores,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 1015 (1998).

T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2273–2275 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed. Proc. SPIE 2025, 332–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Cerenkov-type phase-matched second harmonic generation in polymeric channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 101, 231–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kurtz, S. K.

J. Jerphagnon, and S. K. Kurtz, “Maker fringes: a detailed comparison of theory and experiment for isotropic and uniaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 41, 1667–1681 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Kuzyk, M. G.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, and P. A. Cahill, “Guest-host polymers for nonlinear optics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 189, 123–136 (1990).

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Electro-optic effects and second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lackritz, H. L.

T. C. Kowalczyk, R. J. Twieg, and H. L. Lackritz, “Photochemical stability of electro-optic chromophores,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 1015 (1998).

Lalama, S. J.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Electro-optic effects and second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second-harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lehr, F.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Leslie, T.

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lim, T. K.

T. K. Lim, M. Y. Jeong, S. N. Cha, E. K. Koh, and D. Y. Han, “Cerenkov-type second harmonic generation with a nonlinear organic polymer waveguide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 30, 544–549 (1997).

McKusick, B. C.

B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. C. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry. VI. Tricyanovinylanilines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806–2815 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

R. Dietrich, K. Meerholz, C. Brauchle, J. Wichern, and P. Boldt, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation due to anomalous dispersion: tailoring of the refractive indices in three-component systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 119–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Michelotti, F.

V. Taggi, F. Michelotti, M. Bertolotti, G. Petrocco, V. Foglietti, A. Donval, E. Toussaere, and J. Zyss, “Domain inversion by pulse poling in polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2794–2796 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mohlmann, G.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Mohlmann, “Modal dispersion phase matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M. A.

Motschann, H. R.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature 367, 49–51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mower, H. F.

B. C. McKusick, R. E. Heckert, T. C. Cairns, D. D. Coffman, and H. F. Mower, “Cyanocarbon chemistry. VI. Tricyanovinylanilines,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 80, 2806–2815 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Nelson, G.

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

G. Khanarian, R. A. Norwood, D. Haas, B. Feuer, and D. Karim, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 977–979 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ogasawara, N.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Theoretical analysis of Cerenkov-type optical second-harmonic generation in slab waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798–1815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okabe, M.

Onda, T.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Theoretical analysis of Cerenkov-type optical second-harmonic generation in slab waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798–1815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Penner, T. L.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature 367, 49–51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petrocco, G.

V. Taggi, F. Michelotti, M. Bertolotti, G. Petrocco, V. Foglietti, A. Donval, E. Toussaere, and J. Zyss, “Domain inversion by pulse poling in polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2794–2796 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Pretre, P.

Prime, R. B.

R. B. Prime, G. Y. Chiou, and R. J. Twieg, “Evaluation of the thermal stability of some nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Therm. Anal. 46, 1133–1150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, K.

Schilling, M. L.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Electro-optic effects and second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a polymer waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2273–2275 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. C. Kowalczyk, K. D. Singer, and P. A. Cahill, “Anomalous-dispersion enhanced Cerenkov phase-matching,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed. Proc. SPIE 2025, 332–343 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Cahill and K. D. Singer, “Chemistry of anomalous dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” ACS Symp. Ser. 455, 200–213 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, and P. A. Cahill, “Guest-host polymers for nonlinear optics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 189, 123–136 (1990).

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Electro-optic effects and second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561–6563 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second-harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, R. B. Comizzoli, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, W. R. Holland, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Electro-optic effects and second-harmonic generation in corona-poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 1800–1802 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Katz, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, C. W. Dirk, L. A. King, and H. M. Gordon, “Greatly enhanced second-order nonlinear optical susceptibilities in donor-acceptor organic molecules,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 6561–6563 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, and S. J. Lalama, “Second-harmonic generation in poled polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 248–250 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stahelin, M.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Stamatoff, J. B.

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. C. Flipse, M. Diemeer, and G. Mohlmann, “Modal dispersion phase matching over 7 mm length in overdamped polymeric channel waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4139–4141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stuetz, D.

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sugihara, O.

Sugiyama, T.

Taft, G.

Taggi, V.

V. Taggi, F. Michelotti, M. Bertolotti, G. Petrocco, V. Foglietti, A. Donval, E. Toussaere, and J. Zyss, “Domain inversion by pulse poling in polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2794–2796 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Teng, C. C.

J. B. Stamatoff, A. Buckley, G. Calundann, E. W. Choe, R. DeMartino, G. Khanarian, T. Leslie, G. Nelson, D. Stuetz, C. C. Teng, and H. N. Yoon, “Development of polymeric nonlinear optical materials,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 85–96 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tien, P. K.

Toussaere, E.

V. Taggi, F. Michelotti, M. Bertolotti, G. Petrocco, V. Foglietti, A. Donval, E. Toussaere, and J. Zyss, “Domain inversion by pulse poling in polymer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2794–2796 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

Y. Chen, M. Kamath, A. Jain, J. Kumar, and S. Tripathy, “Cerenkov-type phase-matched second harmonic generation in polymeric channel waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 101, 231–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

T. C. Kowalczyk, R. J. Twieg, and H. L. Lackritz, “Photochemical stability of electro-optic chromophores,” Polym. Prepr. Am. Chem. Soc. Div. Polym. Chem. 39, 1015 (1998).

D. R. Yankelevich, P. Pretre, A. Knoesen, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and R. J. Twieg, “Molecular engineering of polymer films for amplitude and phase measurements of Ti:sapphire femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1487–1489 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. B. Prime, G. Y. Chiou, and R. J. Twieg, “Evaluation of the thermal stability of some nonlinear optical chromophores,” J. Therm. Anal. 46, 1133–1150 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ulrich, R.

Umegaki, S.

N. Hashizume, T. Kondo, T. Onda, N. Ogasawara, S. Umegaki, and R. Ito, “Theoretical analysis of Cerenkov-type optical second-harmonic generation in slab waveguides,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1798–1815 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, M. R.

X. G. Huang and M. R. Wang, “A novel quasi-phase-matching frequency doubling technique,” Opt. Commun. 150, 235–238 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wichern, J.

R. Dietrich, K. Meerholz, C. Brauchle, J. Wichern, and P. Boldt, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation due to anomalous dispersion: tailoring of the refractive indices in three-component systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 280, 119–126 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

T. L. Penner, H. R. Motschann, N. J. Armstrong, M. C. Ezenyilimba, and D. J. Williams, “Efficient phase-matched second-harmonic generation of blue light in an organic waveguide,” Nature 367, 49–51 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wirges, W.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wolk, G. L.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, and P. A. Cahill, “Guest-host polymers for nonlinear optics,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 189, 123–136 (1990).

Yamamoto, H.

Yankelevich, D. R.

Yilmaz, S.

M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, S. Yilmaz, W. Wirges, W. Brinker, S. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Ahlheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Poling and characterization of polymer waveguide for modal dispersion phase-matched second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 781–788 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. Wirges, S. Yilmaz, W. Brinker, W. Bauer-Gogonea, S. Bauer, M. Jager, G. I. Stegeman, M. Ahleheim, M. Stahelin, B. Zysset, F. Lehr, M. Diemeer, and M. C. Flipse, “Polymer waveguides with optimized overlap integral for modal dispersion phase-matching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 3347–3349 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, H. N.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nonlinear optical dyes used in this study.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

UV–visible absorption of the studied dyes as dissolved in PMMA films with maxima normalized to unity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refractive-index dispersion of 10% weight fraction 1 in PMMA, 8% weight fraction 2 in PMMA, 8% weight fraction 3 in PMMA, and 8% weight fraction TBA in PMMA. Solid curves are fits to a three-parameter Sellmeier equation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mode indices of the fundamental and the second-harmonic TM0 modes versus thickness as calculated from index of refraction data.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase-matching curves for guided-wave second-harmonic generation. Solid curves are fits to Eq. (2) with the amplitude and phase mismatch as fitted parameters.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Conversion efficiency as a function of time (a) at maximum conversion efficiency and (b) at 25%/W cm2 conversion efficiency.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

UV photobleaching of dyes.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Photobleaching experimental setup. B.S., beam splitter; NLO, nonlinear optical; Det., detector.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

TBA/PMMA pump–probe photostability experimental data and resulting fit to Eq. (3) with B=0.3×106.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Theoretical conversion efficiency for Čerenkov phase matching versus bulk refractive-index difference. Curves are parameterized by various absorption levels in the waveguide at the second-harmonic wavelength.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Absorptivity Parameters for the Studied Dyesa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fit Parameters to the Sellmeier Equation

Tables Icon

Table 3 Results of Second-Harmonic-Generation Measurements in Poled Polymer Waveguides at the Anomalous-Dispersion Phase-Matching Peaka

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Table 4 Results of Pump–Probe Photostability Experimentsa

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n=1+A0λ2λ2-λ02+A1λ2λ2-λ12+A2λ2λ2-λ22.
I=C sinc2(ΔkL)
T(E)=T/[1+(T/T0-1)exp(-βE)],
T0=exp(-σ1J0),T=exp(-σ2J0),
andβ=σ1/hνB,

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