W. M. Robertson, “Transmission-line matrix modeling of superluminal electromagnetic-pulse tunneling through the forbidden gap in two-dimensional photonic band structures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1066–1073 (1997).

[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou and L. Dutriaux, “Dual optical tunneling times in frustrated total internal reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 851–854 (1997).

[CrossRef]

R. Pelster, V. Gasparian, and G. Nimtz, “Propagation of plane waves and of waveguide modes in quasiperiodic dielectric heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7645–7655 (1997).

[CrossRef]

M. Deutsch and J. E. Golub, “Optical Larmor clock: measurement of the photonic tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 434–439 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Diener, “Superluminal group velocities and information transfer,” Phys. Lett. A 223, 327–331 (1996).

[CrossRef]

E. L. Bolda, “Theory and simulation of superluminal optical pulses in gain media,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3514–3518 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Gasparian, M. Ortuño, J. Ruiz, and E. Cuevas, “Faraday rotation and complex-valued traversal time for classical light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2312–2315 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg and R. Y. Chiao, “Subfemtosecond determination of transmission delay times for a dielectric mirror (photonic band gap) as a function of the angle of incidence,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3525–3528 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. Landauer and Th. Martin, “Barrier interaction time in tunneling,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 66, 217–228 (1994).

[CrossRef]

R. Y. Chiao and J. Boyce, “Superluminality, paraelectricity, and Earnshaw’s theorem in media with inverted populations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3383–3386 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao, “Atomic coherence effects which produce superluminal (but causal) propagation of wavepackets,” Quantum Opt. 6, 359–369 (1994).

[CrossRef]

A. M. Steinberg and R. Y. Chiao, “Tunneling delay times in one and two dimensions,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3283–3295 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, “Measurement of the single-photon tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708–711 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. Enders and G. Nimtz, “Photonic-tunneling experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 9605–9609 (1993).

[CrossRef]

J. G. Muga, S. Brouard, and R. Sala, “Transmission and reflection tunneling times,” Phys. Lett. A 167, 24–28 (1992).

[CrossRef]

Th. Martin and R. Landauer, “Time delay of evanescent electromagnetic waves and the analogy to particle tunneling,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 2611–2617 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. L. Jensen and F. A. Buot, “The methodology of simulating particle trajectories through tunneling structures using a Wigner distribution approach,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 38, 2337–2347 (1991).

[CrossRef]

K. L. Jensen and F. A. Buot, “Numerical calculation of particle trajectories and tunneling times for resonant tunneling barrier structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 669–671 (1989).

[CrossRef]

E. H. Hauge and J. A. Støvneng, “Tunneling times: a critical review,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 917–936 (1989).

[CrossRef]

D. Sokolovski and L. M. Baskin, “Traversal time in quantum scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4604–4611 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Pollak and W. H. Miller, “New physical interpretation for time in scattering theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115–118 (1984).

[CrossRef]

M. Büttiker, “Larmor precession and the traversal time for tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 6178–6188 (1983).

[CrossRef]

M. Büttiker and R. Landauer, “Traversal time for tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1739–1742 (1982).

[CrossRef]

S. Chu and S. Wong, “Linear pulse propagation in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 738–741 (1982).

[CrossRef]

D. Mugnai, A. Ranfagni, and L. S. Schuman, “Delay time measurements in a diffraction experiment: a case of optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 3593–3597 (1977).

[CrossRef]

C. G. B. Garrett and D. E. McCumber, “Propagation of a Gaussian light pulse through an anomalous dispersion medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 305–313 (1970).

[CrossRef]

A. I. Baz’, “Life-time of intermediate states,” Yad. Fiz. 4, 252–260 (1966).

T. E. Hartman, “Tunneling of a wave packet,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3427–3433 (1962).

[CrossRef]

E. P. Wigner, “Lower limit for the energy derivative of the scattering phase shift,” Phys. Rev. 98, 145–147 (1955).

[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou and L. Dutriaux, “Dual optical tunneling times in frustrated total internal reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 851–854 (1997).

[CrossRef]

D. Sokolovski and L. M. Baskin, “Traversal time in quantum scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4604–4611 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. I. Baz’, “Life-time of intermediate states,” Yad. Fiz. 4, 252–260 (1966).

E. L. Bolda, “Theory and simulation of superluminal optical pulses in gain media,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3514–3518 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao and J. Boyce, “Superluminality, paraelectricity, and Earnshaw’s theorem in media with inverted populations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3383–3386 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. G. Muga, S. Brouard, and R. Sala, “Transmission and reflection tunneling times,” Phys. Lett. A 167, 24–28 (1992).

[CrossRef]

K. L. Jensen and F. A. Buot, “The methodology of simulating particle trajectories through tunneling structures using a Wigner distribution approach,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 38, 2337–2347 (1991).

[CrossRef]

K. L. Jensen and F. A. Buot, “Numerical calculation of particle trajectories and tunneling times for resonant tunneling barrier structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 669–671 (1989).

[CrossRef]

M. Büttiker, “Larmor precession and the traversal time for tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 6178–6188 (1983).

[CrossRef]

M. Büttiker and R. Landauer, “Traversal time for tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1739–1742 (1982).

[CrossRef]

A. M. Steinberg and R. Y. Chiao, “Subfemtosecond determination of transmission delay times for a dielectric mirror (photonic band gap) as a function of the angle of incidence,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3525–3528 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg and R. Y. Chiao, “Tunneling delay times in one and two dimensions,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3283–3295 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao and J. Boyce, “Superluminality, paraelectricity, and Earnshaw’s theorem in media with inverted populations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3383–3386 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. Y. Chiao, “Atomic coherence effects which produce superluminal (but causal) propagation of wavepackets,” Quantum Opt. 6, 359–369 (1994).

[CrossRef]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, “Measurement of the single-photon tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708–711 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Chu and S. Wong, “Linear pulse propagation in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 738–741 (1982).

[CrossRef]

V. Gasparian, M. Ortuño, J. Ruiz, and E. Cuevas, “Faraday rotation and complex-valued traversal time for classical light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2312–2315 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Deutsch and J. E. Golub, “Optical Larmor clock: measurement of the photonic tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 434–439 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Diener, “Superluminal group velocities and information transfer,” Phys. Lett. A 223, 327–331 (1996).

[CrossRef]

Ph. Balcou and L. Dutriaux, “Dual optical tunneling times in frustrated total internal reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 851–854 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. Enders and G. Nimtz, “Photonic-tunneling experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 9605–9609 (1993).

[CrossRef]

C. G. B. Garrett and D. E. McCumber, “Propagation of a Gaussian light pulse through an anomalous dispersion medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 305–313 (1970).

[CrossRef]

R. Pelster, V. Gasparian, and G. Nimtz, “Propagation of plane waves and of waveguide modes in quasiperiodic dielectric heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7645–7655 (1997).

[CrossRef]

V. Gasparian, M. Ortuño, J. Ruiz, and E. Cuevas, “Faraday rotation and complex-valued traversal time for classical light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2312–2315 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Deutsch and J. E. Golub, “Optical Larmor clock: measurement of the photonic tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 434–439 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

T. E. Hartman, “Tunneling of a wave packet,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3427–3433 (1962).

[CrossRef]

E. H. Hauge and J. A. Støvneng, “Tunneling times: a critical review,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 917–936 (1989).

[CrossRef]

K. L. Jensen and F. A. Buot, “The methodology of simulating particle trajectories through tunneling structures using a Wigner distribution approach,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 38, 2337–2347 (1991).

[CrossRef]

K. L. Jensen and F. A. Buot, “Numerical calculation of particle trajectories and tunneling times for resonant tunneling barrier structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 669–671 (1989).

[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, “Measurement of the single-photon tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708–711 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. Landauer and Th. Martin, “Barrier interaction time in tunneling,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 66, 217–228 (1994).

[CrossRef]

Th. Martin and R. Landauer, “Time delay of evanescent electromagnetic waves and the analogy to particle tunneling,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 2611–2617 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Büttiker and R. Landauer, “Traversal time for tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1739–1742 (1982).

[CrossRef]

R. Landauer and Th. Martin, “Barrier interaction time in tunneling,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 66, 217–228 (1994).

[CrossRef]

Th. Martin and R. Landauer, “Time delay of evanescent electromagnetic waves and the analogy to particle tunneling,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 2611–2617 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. G. B. Garrett and D. E. McCumber, “Propagation of a Gaussian light pulse through an anomalous dispersion medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 305–313 (1970).

[CrossRef]

E. Pollak and W. H. Miller, “New physical interpretation for time in scattering theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115–118 (1984).

[CrossRef]

J. G. Muga, S. Brouard, and R. Sala, “Transmission and reflection tunneling times,” Phys. Lett. A 167, 24–28 (1992).

[CrossRef]

D. Mugnai, A. Ranfagni, and L. S. Schuman, “Delay time measurements in a diffraction experiment: a case of optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 3593–3597 (1977).

[CrossRef]

R. Pelster, V. Gasparian, and G. Nimtz, “Propagation of plane waves and of waveguide modes in quasiperiodic dielectric heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7645–7655 (1997).

[CrossRef]

A. Enders and G. Nimtz, “Photonic-tunneling experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 9605–9609 (1993).

[CrossRef]

V. Gasparian, M. Ortuño, J. Ruiz, and E. Cuevas, “Faraday rotation and complex-valued traversal time for classical light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2312–2315 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. Pelster, V. Gasparian, and G. Nimtz, “Propagation of plane waves and of waveguide modes in quasiperiodic dielectric heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7645–7655 (1997).

[CrossRef]

E. Pollak and W. H. Miller, “New physical interpretation for time in scattering theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115–118 (1984).

[CrossRef]

D. Mugnai, A. Ranfagni, and L. S. Schuman, “Delay time measurements in a diffraction experiment: a case of optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 3593–3597 (1977).

[CrossRef]

V. Gasparian, M. Ortuño, J. Ruiz, and E. Cuevas, “Faraday rotation and complex-valued traversal time for classical light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2312–2315 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. G. Muga, S. Brouard, and R. Sala, “Transmission and reflection tunneling times,” Phys. Lett. A 167, 24–28 (1992).

[CrossRef]

D. Mugnai, A. Ranfagni, and L. S. Schuman, “Delay time measurements in a diffraction experiment: a case of optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 3593–3597 (1977).

[CrossRef]

D. Sokolovski and L. M. Baskin, “Traversal time in quantum scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4604–4611 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg and R. Y. Chiao, “Subfemtosecond determination of transmission delay times for a dielectric mirror (photonic band gap) as a function of the angle of incidence,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3525–3528 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg and R. Y. Chiao, “Tunneling delay times in one and two dimensions,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3283–3295 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, “Measurement of the single-photon tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708–711 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. H. Hauge and J. A. Støvneng, “Tunneling times: a critical review,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 917–936 (1989).

[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. P. Wigner, “Lower limit for the energy derivative of the scattering phase shift,” Phys. Rev. 98, 145–147 (1955).

[CrossRef]

S. Chu and S. Wong, “Linear pulse propagation in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 738–741 (1982).

[CrossRef]

K. L. Jensen and F. A. Buot, “Numerical calculation of particle trajectories and tunneling times for resonant tunneling barrier structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 669–671 (1989).

[CrossRef]

K. L. Jensen and F. A. Buot, “The methodology of simulating particle trajectories through tunneling structures using a Wigner distribution approach,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 38, 2337–2347 (1991).

[CrossRef]

T. E. Hartman, “Tunneling of a wave packet,” J. Appl. Phys. 33, 3427–3433 (1962).

[CrossRef]

G. Diener, “Superluminal group velocities and information transfer,” Phys. Lett. A 223, 327–331 (1996).

[CrossRef]

J. G. Muga, S. Brouard, and R. Sala, “Transmission and reflection tunneling times,” Phys. Lett. A 167, 24–28 (1992).

[CrossRef]

E. P. Wigner, “Lower limit for the energy derivative of the scattering phase shift,” Phys. Rev. 98, 145–147 (1955).

[CrossRef]

E. L. Bolda, “Theory and simulation of superluminal optical pulses in gain media,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 3514–3518 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. G. B. Garrett and D. E. McCumber, “Propagation of a Gaussian light pulse through an anomalous dispersion medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 305–313 (1970).

[CrossRef]

Th. Martin and R. Landauer, “Time delay of evanescent electromagnetic waves and the analogy to particle tunneling,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 2611–2617 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg and R. Y. Chiao, “Tunneling delay times in one and two dimensions,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 3283–3295 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

D. Sokolovski and L. M. Baskin, “Traversal time in quantum scattering,” Phys. Rev. A 36, 4604–4611 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg and R. Y. Chiao, “Subfemtosecond determination of transmission delay times for a dielectric mirror (photonic band gap) as a function of the angle of incidence,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3525–3528 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Deutsch and J. E. Golub, “Optical Larmor clock: measurement of the photonic tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 434–439 (1996).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Büttiker, “Larmor precession and the traversal time for tunneling,” Phys. Rev. B 27, 6178–6188 (1983).

[CrossRef]

A. Enders and G. Nimtz, “Photonic-tunneling experiments,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 9605–9609 (1993).

[CrossRef]

R. Pelster, V. Gasparian, and G. Nimtz, “Propagation of plane waves and of waveguide modes in quasiperiodic dielectric heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 7645–7655 (1997).

[CrossRef]

D. Mugnai, A. Ranfagni, and L. S. Schuman, “Delay time measurements in a diffraction experiment: a case of optical tunneling,” Phys. Rev. E 55, 3593–3597 (1977).

[CrossRef]

S. Chu and S. Wong, “Linear pulse propagation in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 738–741 (1982).

[CrossRef]

R. Y. Chiao and J. Boyce, “Superluminality, paraelectricity, and Earnshaw’s theorem in media with inverted populations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3383–3386 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwiat, and R. Y. Chiao, “Measurement of the single-photon tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708–711 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipöcs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

V. Gasparian, M. Ortuño, J. Ruiz, and E. Cuevas, “Faraday rotation and complex-valued traversal time for classical light waves,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2312–2315 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ph. Balcou and L. Dutriaux, “Dual optical tunneling times in frustrated total internal reflection,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 851–854 (1997).

[CrossRef]

E. Pollak and W. H. Miller, “New physical interpretation for time in scattering theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 53, 115–118 (1984).

[CrossRef]

M. Büttiker and R. Landauer, “Traversal time for tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1739–1742 (1982).

[CrossRef]

R. Y. Chiao, “Atomic coherence effects which produce superluminal (but causal) propagation of wavepackets,” Quantum Opt. 6, 359–369 (1994).

[CrossRef]

E. H. Hauge and J. A. Støvneng, “Tunneling times: a critical review,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 917–936 (1989).

[CrossRef]

R. Landauer and Th. Martin, “Barrier interaction time in tunneling,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 66, 217–228 (1994).

[CrossRef]

A. I. Baz’, “Life-time of intermediate states,” Yad. Fiz. 4, 252–260 (1966).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1986).