Abstract

Stable polarization-locked temporal vector solitons are found in a saturable absorber mode-locked fiber laser with weak cavity birefringence. The system is theoretically modeled with two coupled complex Ginzburg–Landau equations that include fiber birefringence, spectral filtering, saturable gain, and slow saturable absorption. The solutions to this system are similar to those for elliptically polarized vector solitons in a lossless birefringent fiber. Numerical simulations show qualitative agreement with experimental results.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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2000 (1)

1999 (2)

C. Hönninger, R. Paschota, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “Q-switching stability limits of continuous-wave passive mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 16, 46–56 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

1997 (5)

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and W. H. Knox, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. Weinstein, “Mode-locking pulse dynamics in a fiber laser with a saturable Bragg reflector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681–2690 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization locking in an isotropic, modelocked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser,” Opt. Express 1, 12–20 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. N. Akhmediev, and V. V. Afanasjev, “Stability of the pulselike solutions of the quintic complex Ginzburg–Landau equation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1439–1449 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. W. Liou and G. P. Agarwal, “Solitons in fiber amplifiers beyond the parabolic-gain and rate-equation approximations,” Opt. Commun. 124, 500–504 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

1994 (4)

N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Elliptically polarised solitons in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 278–282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C.-J. Chen, P. K. A. Wai, and C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of passively mode-locked fiber lasers with fast saturable absorption,” Opt. Lett. 19, 198–200 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse modelocking in fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200–208 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5742–5754 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

D. U. Noske, N. Pandit, and J. R. Taylor, “Subpicosecond soliton pulse formation from self-mode-locked erbium fibre laser using intensity dependent polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2185–2186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

1989 (2)

N. N. Akhmediev, V. M. Eleonskii, N. E. Kulagin, and L. P. Shil’nikov, “Steady-state pulses in a birefringent nonlinear optical fiber: soliton multiplication processes,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 587–588 (1989).

C. R. Menyuk, “Pulse propagation in an elliptically birefringent Kerr medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 2674–2682 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, “Vector solitons in birefringent nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Lett. 13, 53–55 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, “Bound solitary waves in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2011–2017 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (3)

Afanasjev, V. V.

Agarwal, G. P.

L. W. Liou and G. P. Agarwal, “Solitons in fiber amplifiers beyond the parabolic-gain and rate-equation approximations,” Opt. Commun. 124, 500–504 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 354–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. Ankiewicz, M. J. Lederer, and B. Luther-Davies, “Ultrashort pulses generated by mode-locked lasers with either a slow or a fast saturable-absorber response,” Opt. Lett. 23, 280–282 (1998).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Phase locking and periodic evolution of solitons in passively mode-locked fiber lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 23, 852–854 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. N. Akhmediev, and V. V. Afanasjev, “Stability of the pulselike solutions of the quintic complex Ginzburg–Landau equation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1439–1449 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and D. R. Andersen, “Phase-locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 434–439 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5742–5754 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Elliptically polarised solitons in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 278–282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, V. M. Eleonskii, N. E. Kulagin, and L. P. Shil’nikov, “Steady-state pulses in a birefringent nonlinear optical fiber: soliton multiplication processes,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 587–588 (1989).

Andersen, D. R.

Ankiewicz, A.

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bélanger, P. A.

C. Paré and P. A. Bélanger, “Optical solitary waves in the presence of a Lorentzian gain line: limitations of the Ginzburg–Landau model,” Opt. Commun. 145, 385–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Bélanger, “Coupled-cavity mode locking: a nonlinear model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2077–2081 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bergano, N. S.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bergman, K.

B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: experiment,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 354–365 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988–3991 (1999).
[CrossRef]

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and W. H. Knox, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. T. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. Weinstein, “Mode-locking pulse dynamics in a fiber laser with a saturable Bragg reflector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681–2690 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Blow, K. J.

Buryak, A. V.

N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and D. R. Andersen, “Phase-locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 434–439 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Elliptically polarised solitons in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 278–282 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C.-J.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Collings, B. C.

Cundiff, S. T.

Cunningham, J. E.

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and W. H. Knox, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doran, N. J.

Duling, I. N.

Eleonskii, V. M.

N. N. Akhmediev, V. M. Eleonskii, N. E. Kulagin, and L. P. Shil’nikov, “Steady-state pulses in a birefringent nonlinear optical fiber: soliton multiplication processes,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 587–588 (1989).

Evangelides, S. G.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fermann, M. E.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gordon, J. P.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haberl, F.

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse modelocking in fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200–208 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Structures for additive pulse mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2068–2076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hofer, M.

Holmes, P.

Hönninger, C.

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse modelocking in fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200–208 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Structures for additive pulse mode locking,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2068–2076 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and W. H. Knox, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Joseph, R. I.

Kärtner, F. X.

Keller, U.

Knox, W. H.

Kulagin, N. E.

N. N. Akhmediev, V. M. Eleonskii, N. E. Kulagin, and L. P. Shil’nikov, “Steady-state pulses in a birefringent nonlinear optical fiber: soliton multiplication processes,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 587–588 (1989).

Kutz, J. N.

Kutz, N.

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, N. Kutz, J. E. Cunningham, W. Y. Jan, and W. H. Knox, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lederer, M. J.

Liou, L. W.

L. W. Liou and G. P. Agarwal, “Solitons in fiber amplifiers beyond the parabolic-gain and rate-equation approximations,” Opt. Commun. 124, 500–504 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

Matsas, V. J.

Menyuk, C. R.

C.-J. Chen, P. K. A. Wai, and C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of passively mode-locked fiber lasers with fast saturable absorption,” Opt. Lett. 19, 198–200 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Menyuk, “Pulse propagation in an elliptically birefringent Kerr medium,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-25, 2674–2682 (1989).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Menyuk, “Nonlinear pulse-propagation in birefringent optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 23, 174–176 (1987).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of soliton in birefringent optical fibers. I. Equal propagation amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 12, 614–616 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mollenauer, L. F.

S. G. Evangelides, L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

Noske, D. U.

D. U. Noske, N. Pandit, and J. R. Taylor, “Subpicosecond soliton pulse formation from self-mode-locked erbium fibre laser using intensity dependent polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2185–2186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ober, M. H.

Pandit, N.

D. U. Noske, N. Pandit, and J. R. Taylor, “Subpicosecond soliton pulse formation from self-mode-locked erbium fibre laser using intensity dependent polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2185–2186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Paré, C.

C. Paré and P. A. Bélanger, “Optical solitary waves in the presence of a Lorentzian gain line: limitations of the Ginzburg–Landau model,” Opt. Commun. 145, 385–392 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Paschota, R.

Payne, D. N.

Richardson, D. J.

Schmidt, A. J.

Shil’nikov, L. P.

N. N. Akhmediev, V. M. Eleonskii, N. E. Kulagin, and L. P. Shil’nikov, “Steady-state pulses in a birefringent nonlinear optical fiber: soliton multiplication processes,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 15, 587–588 (1989).

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, “Bound solitary waves in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2011–2017 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, E. P. Ippen, and K. Tamura, “Additive-pulse modelocking in fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 200–208 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, J. R.

D. U. Noske, N. Pandit, and J. R. Taylor, “Subpicosecond soliton pulse formation from self-mode-locked erbium fibre laser using intensity dependent polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett. 28, 2185–2186 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tratnik, M. V.

M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, “Bound solitary waves in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2011–2017 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsuda, S.

Wai, P. K. A.

Weinstein, M.

Wood, D.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Total pulse energy versus birefringence for the stable elliptically polarized solitons. (b) Normalized energy difference between components versus birefringence. The curves end where the elliptically polarized solitons become unstable. The four curves correspond to four different sets of gain–loss parameters. See text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as in Fig. 1 but with isotropic gain and loss.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Comparison between the energy difference versus birefringence for the solutions of the conservative case (solid circles) and our laser system with gain and loss by use of the anisotropic (continuous curve) and isotropic (dotted curve) models with the proper gain to keep Q=2. The dashed curve shows the same for Q=1.3 for the conservative solutions. The solid triangles and squares are the experimental data for both handednesses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Intensity and (b) phase profiles of each component of the elliptically polarized solitons. (a) The solution of Eqs. (1) (dashed curve) is compared with that from the conservative case (dotted curve), which are almost indistinguishable.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Total spectrum of the solution shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The FWHM of the spectra of each component versus birefringence γ. Circles are calculated for elliptically polarized solitons in lossless fiber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

The region of existence (shaded) of elliptically polarized soliton.

Equations (20)

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iϕz+γϕ+D2ϕtt+|ϕ|2ϕ+A|ψ|2ϕ+Bψ2ϕ*=i[g(Q1)-δl-δs(|ϕ|2)]ϕ+iβϕtt,
iψz-γψ+D2ψtt+|ψ|2ψ+A|ϕ|2ψ+Bϕ2ψ*
=i[g(Q2)-δl-δs(|ψ|2)]ψ+iβψtt,
g(Qi)=g01+Qi/EL,
δst=-δs-δ0T1-|Y|2EAδs,
(1)EL=0.5,δ0=0.12,T1=0.5,EA=0.4,
β=0.02,andg0=0.327,
(2)EL=0.4,δ0=0.07,
T1=0.5,EA=0.04,
β=0.04,andg0=0.145,
(3)EL=0.5,δ0=0.08,
T1=0.3,EA=0.018,
β=0.1,andg0=0.137,
(4)EL=0.5,δ0=0.08,
T1=0.5,EA=0.04,
β=0.02,andg0=0.115.
t0=(z0|β2|)340fs.
E=Qt0K,
K=2πn2t02λAeff|β2|=2πn2Z0λAeff=0.005W-1.
E=67.6QpJ;

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