Abstract

We experimentally observe polarization-locked vector solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser. The vector soliton pulse is composed of components along both principal polarization axes of the linearly birefringent laser cavity. For certain values of birefringence and pulse energy these components propagate with a constant relative optical phase of ±π/2, and hence the pulse has a fixed elliptical polarization state. The linear birefringence of the cavity is canceled by the nonlinear birefringence created by the unequal amplitudes of the two polarization components. This dynamic equalization of the phase velocities of the components results in the stable propagation of an elliptically polarized vector soliton pulse. Under different conditions we also observe the nonlinear instability of the fast principal axis as an intracavity pulse linearly polarized along the slow axis of the cavity. We present the experimental characterization of both the polarization-locked vector soliton and the fast axis instability and discuss the nonlinear mechanism creating both phenomena.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).
  2. N. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Solitons, Nonlinear Pulses and Beams (Chapman & Hall, London, 1997).
  3. A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, “Transmission of stationary nonlinear pulses in dispersive dielectric fiber. I. Anomalous dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142–144 (1973).
  4. L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).
  5. I. P. Kaminow, “Polarization in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).
  6. C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, “Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185–1190 (1988).
  7. C. R. Menyuk, “Nonlinear pulse-propagation in birefringent optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174–176 (1987).
  8. C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of soliton in birefringent optical fibers. 1. Equal propagation amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 12, 614–616 (1988).
  9. C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of soliton in birefringent optical fibers. 2. Arbitrary amplitudes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 392–402 (1988).
  10. M. N. Islam, C. D. Poole, and J. P. Gordon, “Soliton trapping in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1011–1013 (1989).
  11. D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, “Vector solitons in birefringent nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Lett. 13, 53–55 (1988).
  12. S. G. Evangelides, Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).
  13. M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, “Bound solitary waves in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2011–2017 (1988).
  14. N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 278–282 (1994).
  15. N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5742–5754 (1994).
  16. N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and D. R. Andersen, “Phase-locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 434–439 (1995).
  17. J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in biefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 3547–3555 (1995).
  18. Y. Chen and J. Atai, “Femtosecond soliton pulses in birefringent optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2365–2372 (1997).
  19. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988–3991 (1999).
  20. J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. N. Akhmediev, B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 366–372 (2000).
  21. B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).
  22. H. G. Winful, “Polarization instabilities in birefringent nonlinear media: application to fiber-optic devices,” Opt. Lett. 11, 33–35 (1986).
  23. K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, and D. Wood, “Polarization instabilities for solitons in birefringent fibers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 202–204 (1987).
  24. Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).
  25. S. V. Manakov, “On the theory of two-dimensional self-focusing of electromagnetic waves,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 248–253 (1974).
  26. J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).
  27. L. F. Mollenauer, K. Smith, J. P. Gordon, and C. R. Menyuk, “Resistance of solitons to the effects of polarization dispersion in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1219–1221 (1989).
  28. S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).
  29. J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. I. Weinstein, “Mode-locking pulse dynamics in a fiber laser with a saturable Bragg reflector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681–2690 (1997).
  30. N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Phase locking and periodic evolution of solitons in passively mode-locked fiber lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 23, 852–854 (1998).
  31. S. M. J. Kelley, “Characteristic side-band instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806–807 (1992).
  32. J. P. Gordon, “Dispersive perturbation of solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger-equation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 91–97 (1992).
  33. H. C. Lefevre, “Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers,” Electron. Lett. 16, 778–780 (1980).
  34. S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization locking in an isotropic, mode-locked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser,” Opt. Express 1, 12–20 (1997); http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress.

2000 (1)

1999 (1)

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988–3991 (1999).

1998 (1)

1997 (5)

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization locking in an isotropic, mode-locked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser,” Opt. Express 1, 12–20 (1997); http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress.

Y. Chen and J. Atai, “Femtosecond soliton pulses in birefringent optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2365–2372 (1997).

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. I. Weinstein, “Mode-locking pulse dynamics in a fiber laser with a saturable Bragg reflector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681–2690 (1997).

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).

1996 (2)

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).

1995 (2)

N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and D. R. Andersen, “Phase-locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 434–439 (1995).

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in biefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 3547–3555 (1995).

1994 (2)

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 278–282 (1994).

N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5742–5754 (1994).

1992 (3)

S. G. Evangelides, Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).

S. M. J. Kelley, “Characteristic side-band instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806–807 (1992).

J. P. Gordon, “Dispersive perturbation of solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger-equation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 91–97 (1992).

1989 (2)

1988 (5)

C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of soliton in birefringent optical fibers. 1. Equal propagation amplitudes,” Opt. Lett. 12, 614–616 (1988).

D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, “Vector solitons in birefringent nonlinear dispersive media,” Opt. Lett. 13, 53–55 (1988).

C. R. Menyuk, “Stability of soliton in birefringent optical fibers. 2. Arbitrary amplitudes,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 392–402 (1988).

M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, “Bound solitary waves in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2011–2017 (1988).

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, “Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185–1190 (1988).

1987 (2)

C. R. Menyuk, “Nonlinear pulse-propagation in birefringent optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174–176 (1987).

K. J. Blow, N. J. Doran, and D. Wood, “Polarization instabilities for solitons in birefringent fibers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 202–204 (1987).

1986 (1)

1981 (1)

I. P. Kaminow, “Polarization in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).

1980 (2)

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).

H. C. Lefevre, “Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers,” Electron. Lett. 16, 778–780 (1980).

1974 (1)

S. V. Manakov, “On the theory of two-dimensional self-focusing of electromagnetic waves,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 248–253 (1974).

1973 (1)

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, “Transmission of stationary nonlinear pulses in dispersive dielectric fiber. I. Anomalous dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142–144 (1973).

Aitchison, J. S.

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).

Akhmediev, N.

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in biefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 3547–3555 (1995).

N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5742–5754 (1994).

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 278–282 (1994).

Akhmediev, N. N.

Andersen, D. R.

Ankiewicz, A.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in biefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 3547–3555 (1995).

Atai, J.

Barad, Y.

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).

Bergano, N. S.

S. G. Evangelides, Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, “Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185–1190 (1988).

Bergman, K.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. N. Akhmediev, B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 366–372 (2000).

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988–3991 (1999).

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. I. Weinstein, “Mode-locking pulse dynamics in a fiber laser with a saturable Bragg reflector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681–2690 (1997).

Blow, K. J.

Buryak, A.

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 278–282 (1994).

Buryak, A. V.

Chen, Y.

Christodoulides, D. N.

Collings, B. C.

Cundiff, S.

Cundiff, S. T.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. N. Akhmediev, B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 366–372 (2000).

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988–3991 (1999).

N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Phase locking and periodic evolution of solitons in passively mode-locked fiber lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 23, 852–854 (1998).

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization locking in an isotropic, mode-locked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser,” Opt. Express 1, 12–20 (1997); http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress.

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).

Cunningham, J. E.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).

Doran, N. J.

Evangelides Jr., S. G.

S. G. Evangelides, Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).

Gordon, J. P.

S. G. Evangelides, Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).

J. P. Gordon, “Dispersive perturbation of solitons of the nonlinear Schrödinger-equation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 91–97 (1992).

M. N. Islam, C. D. Poole, and J. P. Gordon, “Soliton trapping in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1011–1013 (1989).

L. F. Mollenauer, K. Smith, J. P. Gordon, and C. R. Menyuk, “Resistance of solitons to the effects of polarization dispersion in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1219–1221 (1989).

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).

Hasegawa, A.

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, “Transmission of stationary nonlinear pulses in dispersive dielectric fiber. I. Anomalous dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142–144 (1973).

Holmes, P.

Islam, M. N.

Jan, W. Y.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).

Joseph, R. I.

Kaminow, I. P.

I. P. Kaminow, “Polarization in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).

Kang, J. U.

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).

Kelley, S. M. J.

S. M. J. Kelley, “Characteristic side-band instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806–807 (1992).

Knox, W. H.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. N. Akhmediev, B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 366–372 (2000).

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988–3991 (1999).

N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Phase locking and periodic evolution of solitons in passively mode-locked fiber lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 23, 852–854 (1998).

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. I. Weinstein, “Mode-locking pulse dynamics in a fiber laser with a saturable Bragg reflector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681–2690 (1997).

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization locking in an isotropic, mode-locked soliton Er/Yb fiber laser,” Opt. Express 1, 12–20 (1997); http://epubs.osa.org/opticsexpress.

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).

Koch, M.

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).

Kutz, J. N.

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. I. Weinstein, “Mode-locking pulse dynamics in a fiber laser with a saturable Bragg reflector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681–2690 (1997).

Lefevre, H. C.

H. C. Lefevre, “Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers,” Electron. Lett. 16, 778–780 (1980).

Manakov, S. V.

S. V. Manakov, “On the theory of two-dimensional self-focusing of electromagnetic waves,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 248–253 (1974).

Menyuk, C. R.

Mollenauer, L. F.

S. G. Evangelides, Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).

L. F. Mollenauer, K. Smith, J. P. Gordon, and C. R. Menyuk, “Resistance of solitons to the effects of polarization dispersion in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1219–1221 (1989).

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).

Poole, C. D.

M. N. Islam, C. D. Poole, and J. P. Gordon, “Soliton trapping in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1011–1013 (1989).

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, “Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185–1190 (1988).

Schulte, H. J.

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, “Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185–1190 (1988).

Silberberg, Y.

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).

Sipe, J. E.

M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, “Bound solitary waves in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2011–2017 (1988).

Smith, K.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. N. Akhmediev, B. C. Collings, S. T. Cundiff, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Polarization-locked temporal vector solitons in a fiber laser: theory,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 17, 366–372 (2000).

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988–3991 (1999).

N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, and W. H. Knox, “Phase locking and periodic evolution of solitons in passively mode-locked fiber lasers with a semiconductor saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 23, 852–854 (1998).

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in biefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 3547–3555 (1995).

N. N. Akhmediev, A. V. Buryak, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and D. R. Andersen, “Phase-locked stationary soliton states in birefringent nonlinear optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 434–439 (1995).

N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5742–5754 (1994).

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 278–282 (1994).

Stegeman, G. I.

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).

Stolen, R. H.

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).

Tappert, F.

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, “Transmission of stationary nonlinear pulses in dispersive dielectric fiber. I. Anomalous dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142–144 (1973).

Tratnik, M. V.

M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, “Bound solitary waves in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2011–2017 (1988).

Tsuda, S.

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).

J. N. Kutz, B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. Tsuda, S. Cundiff, W. H. Knox, P. Holmes, and M. I. Weinstein, “Mode-locking pulse dynamics in a fiber laser with a saturable Bragg reflector,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2681–2690 (1997).

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).

Wagner, R. E.

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, “Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185–1190 (1988).

Weinstein, M. I.

Winful, H. G.

Wood, D.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. Hasegawa and F. Tappert, “Transmission of stationary nonlinear pulses in dispersive dielectric fiber. I. Anomalous dispersion,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 23, 142–144 (1973).

Electron. Lett. (2)

S. M. J. Kelley, “Characteristic side-band instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett. 28, 806–807 (1992).

H. C. Lefevre, “Single-mode fiber fractional wave devices and polarization controllers,” Electron. Lett. 16, 778–780 (1980).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

I. P. Kaminow, “Polarization in optical fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 15–22 (1981).

C. R. Menyuk, “Nonlinear pulse-propagation in birefringent optical fiber,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 174–176 (1987).

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

B. C. Collings, K. Bergman, S. T. Cundiff, S. Tsuda, J. N. Kutz, M. Koch, and W. H. Knox, “Short cavity erbium/ytterbium fiber lasers mode-locked with a saturable Bragg reflector,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 1065–1075 (1997).

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode-locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454–464 (1996).

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

S. G. Evangelides, Jr., L. F. Mollenauer, J. P. Gordon, and N. S. Bergano, “Polarization multiplexing with solitons,” J. Lightwave Technol. 10, 28–35 (1992).

C. D. Poole, N. S. Bergano, R. E. Wagner, and H. J. Schulte, “Polarization dispersion and principal states in a 147-km undersea lightwave cable,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 1185–1190 (1988).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

Opt. Commun. (1)

N. Akhmediev, A. Buryak, and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Elliptically polarized solitons in birefringent optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 112, 278–282 (1994).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (7)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. V. Tratnik and J. E. Sipe, “Bound solitary waves in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2011–2017 (1988).

Phys. Rev. E (2)

N. Akhmediev and J. M. Soto-Crespo, “Dynamics of solitonlike pulse propagation in birefringent optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. E 49, 5742–5754 (1994).

J. M. Soto-Crespo, N. Akhmediev, and A. Ankiewicz, “Stationary solitonlike pulses in biefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. E 51, 3547–3555 (1995).

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. T. Cundiff, B. C. Collings, N. N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, K. Bergman, and W. H. Knox, “Observation of polarization-locked vector solitons in optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 3988–3991 (1999).

J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, J. S. Aitchison, and N. Akhmediev, “Observation of Manakov spatial solitons in AlGaAs planar waveguides,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 3699–3702 (1996).

Y. Barad and Y. Silberberg, “Polarization evolution and polarization instability of solitons in a birefringent optical fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3290–3293 (1997).

L. F. Mollenauer, R. H. Stolen, and J. P. Gordon, “Experimental observation of picosecond narrowing and solitons in optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 1095–1098 (1980).

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

S. V. Manakov, “On the theory of two-dimensional self-focusing of electromagnetic waves,” Sov. Phys. JETP 38, 248–253 (1974).

Other (2)

G. P. Agrawal, Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 2nd ed. (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1995).

N. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, Solitons, Nonlinear Pulses and Beams (Chapman & Hall, London, 1997).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Metrics