Abstract

Ce:BaTiO3 nanocrystallites were prepared on fused quartz substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The structural properties of the nanocrystallites were studied by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. The refractive indices and absorption edges were obtained from the optical transmission spectra with an approximate formula. The incidence and polarization angle–dependent second-harmonic generation (SHG) were measured. The effective SHG coefficient was reduced by decreasing the deposition temperature. Some possible mechanisms of the correlation between the SHG coefficient and the deposition temperature are discussed.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. L.-Z. Xuan, S.-H. Pan, Z.-H. Chen, R.-P. Wang, W.-S. Shi, and C.-L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  20. O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
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1999 (1)

I. Kosacki, V. Petrovsky, and H. U. Anderson, “Band gap energy in nanocrystalline ZrO2:16%Y thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 341–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (3)

D. Bao, H. Yang, L. Zhang, and X. Yao, “Structure and optical properties of SrTiO3 thin films prepared by a sol-gel technique,” Phys. Status Solidi A 169, 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L.-Z. Xuan, S.-H. Pan, Z.-H. Chen, R.-P. Wang, W.-S. Shi, and C.-L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Noh, “Structural and nonlinear-optical properties of epitaxial LiNbO3 films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 251–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

A. Grisard, E. Lallier, G. Garry, and P. Aubert, “Ferroelectric integrated-optics: recent developments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1627–1635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, P. Yu, and G. K. L. Wong, “Growth of beta-barium borate (β-BaB2O4) thin-films for nonlinear-optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 434–439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Tcheliebou, H. S. Ryu, C. K. Hong, W. S. Park, and S. Baik, “On the microstructure and optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 305, 30–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. H. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, and G. Z. Yang, “Enhancement of bulklike second-order nonlinear susceptibility in SiGe/Si step wells and biasing-field controlled (Si5Ge5)100 superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 15842–15846 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, “Anomalous second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310–312 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

T. Okada, Y. Nakata, H. Kaibara, and M. Maeda, “Second-harmonic generation in pulsed-laser-deposition BaTiO3 thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 34, L1536–L1539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Masuda, H. Masumoto, Y. Kidachi, A. Watadzu, A. Baba, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Optical-properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 film fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5124–5131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Guerrero and B. S. Mendoza, “Model for great enhancement of second-harmonic generation in quantum dots,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 559–569 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

B. Bihari, J. Kumar, G. T. Stauf, P. C. Van Buskirk, and C. S. Hwang, “Investigation of barium titanate thin films on MgO substrates by second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1169–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, and T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. Shimizu, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and H. Sakaki, “Enhanced second-order optical nonlinearity using inter- and intra-band transitions in low-dimensional semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 399–401 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Allam and M. Wagner, “Optical second-harmonic generation in laterally asymmetric quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2726–2728 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. Didomenico, Jr., and S. H. Wemple, “Oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics. I. Theory of electro-optical and nonlinear optical effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720–734 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Allam, J.

J. Allam and M. Wagner, “Optical second-harmonic generation in laterally asymmetric quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2726–2728 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, H. U.

I. Kosacki, V. Petrovsky, and H. U. Anderson, “Band gap energy in nanocrystalline ZrO2:16%Y thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 341–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. H.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aubert, P.

A. Grisard, E. Lallier, G. Garry, and P. Aubert, “Ferroelectric integrated-optics: recent developments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1627–1635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baba, A.

Y. Masuda, H. Masumoto, Y. Kidachi, A. Watadzu, A. Baba, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Optical-properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 film fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5124–5131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Baik, S.

F. Tcheliebou, H. S. Ryu, C. K. Hong, W. S. Park, and S. Baik, “On the microstructure and optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 305, 30–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bao, D.

D. Bao, H. Yang, L. Zhang, and X. Yao, “Structure and optical properties of SrTiO3 thin films prepared by a sol-gel technique,” Phys. Status Solidi A 169, 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bihari, B.

B. Bihari, J. Kumar, G. T. Stauf, P. C. Van Buskirk, and C. S. Hwang, “Investigation of barium titanate thin films on MgO substrates by second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1169–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. H.

X. H. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, and G. Z. Yang, “Enhancement of bulklike second-order nonlinear susceptibility in SiGe/Si step wells and biasing-field controlled (Si5Ge5)100 superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 15842–15846 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.-H.

L.-Z. Xuan, S.-H. Pan, Z.-H. Chen, R.-P. Wang, W.-S. Shi, and C.-L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dadap, J. I.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Didomenico Jr., M.

M. Didomenico, Jr., and S. H. Wemple, “Oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics. I. Theory of electro-optical and nonlinear optical effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720–734 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fedyanin, A. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fillard, J. P.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Garry, G.

A. Grisard, E. Lallier, G. Garry, and P. Aubert, “Ferroelectric integrated-optics: recent developments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1627–1635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gasiot, J.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Goto, T.

Y. Masuda, H. Masumoto, Y. Kidachi, A. Watadzu, A. Baba, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Optical-properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 film fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5124–5131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grisard, A.

A. Grisard, E. Lallier, G. Garry, and P. Aubert, “Ferroelectric integrated-optics: recent developments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1627–1635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guerrero, A.

Hirai, T.

Y. Masuda, H. Masumoto, Y. Kidachi, A. Watadzu, A. Baba, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Optical-properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 film fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5124–5131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. K.

F. Tcheliebou, H. S. Ryu, C. K. Hong, W. S. Park, and S. Baik, “On the microstructure and optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 305, 30–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hwang, C. S.

B. Bihari, J. Kumar, G. T. Stauf, P. C. Van Buskirk, and C. S. Hwang, “Investigation of barium titanate thin films on MgO substrates by second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1169–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kaibara, H.

T. Okada, Y. Nakata, H. Kaibara, and M. Maeda, “Second-harmonic generation in pulsed-laser-deposition BaTiO3 thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 34, L1536–L1539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, D. L.

L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, “Anomalous second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310–312 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kidachi, Y.

Y. Masuda, H. Masumoto, Y. Kidachi, A. Watadzu, A. Baba, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Optical-properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 film fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5124–5131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. W.

D. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Noh, “Structural and nonlinear-optical properties of epitaxial LiNbO3 films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 251–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kosacki, I.

I. Kosacki, V. Petrovsky, and H. U. Anderson, “Band gap energy in nanocrystalline ZrO2:16%Y thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 341–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, J.

B. Bihari, J. Kumar, G. T. Stauf, P. C. Van Buskirk, and C. S. Hwang, “Investigation of barium titanate thin films on MgO substrates by second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1169–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuwata-Gonokami, M.

A. Shimizu, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and H. Sakaki, “Enhanced second-order optical nonlinearity using inter- and intra-band transitions in low-dimensional semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 399–401 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lallier, E.

A. Grisard, E. Lallier, G. Garry, and P. Aubert, “Ferroelectric integrated-optics: recent developments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1627–1635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

D. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Noh, “Structural and nonlinear-optical properties of epitaxial LiNbO3 films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 251–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.-L.

L.-Z. Xuan, S.-H. Pan, Z.-H. Chen, R.-P. Wang, W.-S. Shi, and C.-L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Liao, H. B.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, P. Yu, and G. K. L. Wong, “Growth of beta-barium borate (β-BaB2O4) thin-films for nonlinear-optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 434–439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. P.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, and T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lowell, J. K.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lu, H. A.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, and T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, M.

T. Okada, Y. Nakata, H. Kaibara, and M. Maeda, “Second-harmonic generation in pulsed-laser-deposition BaTiO3 thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 34, L1536–L1539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Manifacier, J. C.

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, and T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Masuda, Y.

Y. Masuda, H. Masumoto, Y. Kidachi, A. Watadzu, A. Baba, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Optical-properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 film fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5124–5131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Masumoto, H.

Y. Masuda, H. Masumoto, Y. Kidachi, A. Watadzu, A. Baba, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Optical-properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 film fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5124–5131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Melnikov, A. V.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza, B. S.

Nakata, Y.

T. Okada, Y. Nakata, H. Kaibara, and M. Maeda, “Second-harmonic generation in pulsed-laser-deposition BaTiO3 thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 34, L1536–L1539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neumayer, D. A.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, and T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Noh, T. W.

D. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Noh, “Structural and nonlinear-optical properties of epitaxial LiNbO3 films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 251–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

T. Okada, Y. Nakata, H. Kaibara, and M. Maeda, “Second-harmonic generation in pulsed-laser-deposition BaTiO3 thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 34, L1536–L1539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S. H.

X. H. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, and G. Z. Yang, “Enhancement of bulklike second-order nonlinear susceptibility in SiGe/Si step wells and biasing-field controlled (Si5Ge5)100 superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 15842–15846 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Pan, S.-H.

L.-Z. Xuan, S.-H. Pan, Z.-H. Chen, R.-P. Wang, W.-S. Shi, and C.-L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Park, W. S.

F. Tcheliebou, H. S. Ryu, C. K. Hong, W. S. Park, and S. Baik, “On the microstructure and optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 305, 30–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Petrovsky, V.

I. Kosacki, V. Petrovsky, and H. U. Anderson, “Band gap energy in nanocrystalline ZrO2:16%Y thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 341–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rotter, L. D.

L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, “Anomalous second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310–312 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, H. S.

F. Tcheliebou, H. S. Ryu, C. K. Hong, W. S. Park, and S. Baik, “On the microstructure and optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 305, 30–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sakaki, H.

A. Shimizu, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and H. Sakaki, “Enhanced second-order optical nonlinearity using inter- and intra-band transitions in low-dimensional semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 399–401 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shi, W.-S.

L.-Z. Xuan, S.-H. Pan, Z.-H. Chen, R.-P. Wang, W.-S. Shi, and C.-L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shimizu, A.

A. Shimizu, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and H. Sakaki, “Enhanced second-order optical nonlinearity using inter- and intra-band transitions in low-dimensional semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 399–401 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stauf, G. T.

B. Bihari, J. Kumar, G. T. Stauf, P. C. Van Buskirk, and C. S. Hwang, “Investigation of barium titanate thin films on MgO substrates by second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1169–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tcheliebou, F.

F. Tcheliebou, H. S. Ryu, C. K. Hong, W. S. Park, and S. Baik, “On the microstructure and optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 305, 30–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Van Buskirk, P. C.

B. Bihari, J. Kumar, G. T. Stauf, P. C. Van Buskirk, and C. S. Hwang, “Investigation of barium titanate thin films on MgO substrates by second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1169–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vaudin, M. D.

L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, “Anomalous second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310–312 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, M.

J. Allam and M. Wagner, “Optical second-harmonic generation in laterally asymmetric quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2726–2728 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wang, R.-P.

L.-Z. Xuan, S.-H. Pan, Z.-H. Chen, R.-P. Wang, W.-S. Shi, and C.-L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Watadzu, A.

Y. Masuda, H. Masumoto, Y. Kidachi, A. Watadzu, A. Baba, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Optical-properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 film fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5124–5131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wemple, S. H.

M. Didomenico, Jr., and S. H. Wemple, “Oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics. I. Theory of electro-optical and nonlinear optical effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720–734 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, W.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, and T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wills, L. A.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, and T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, and T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wong, G. K. L.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, P. Yu, and G. K. L. Wong, “Growth of beta-barium borate (β-BaB2O4) thin-films for nonlinear-optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 434–439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, R. F.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, P. Yu, and G. K. L. Wong, “Growth of beta-barium borate (β-BaB2O4) thin-films for nonlinear-optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 434–439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. F.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, L. Z.

X. H. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, and G. Z. Yang, “Enhancement of bulklike second-order nonlinear susceptibility in SiGe/Si step wells and biasing-field controlled (Si5Ge5)100 superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 15842–15846 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, L.-Z.

L.-Z. Xuan, S.-H. Pan, Z.-H. Chen, R.-P. Wang, W.-S. Shi, and C.-L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. Z.

X. H. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, and G. Z. Yang, “Enhancement of bulklike second-order nonlinear susceptibility in SiGe/Si step wells and biasing-field controlled (Si5Ge5)100 superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 15842–15846 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

D. Bao, H. Yang, L. Zhang, and X. Yao, “Structure and optical properties of SrTiO3 thin films prepared by a sol-gel technique,” Phys. Status Solidi A 169, 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yao, X.

D. Bao, H. Yang, L. Zhang, and X. Yao, “Structure and optical properties of SrTiO3 thin films prepared by a sol-gel technique,” Phys. Status Solidi A 169, 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, P.

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, P. Yu, and G. K. L. Wong, “Growth of beta-barium borate (β-BaB2O4) thin-films for nonlinear-optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 434–439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

D. Bao, H. Yang, L. Zhang, and X. Yao, “Structure and optical properties of SrTiO3 thin films prepared by a sol-gel technique,” Phys. Status Solidi A 169, 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, T. G.

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, and T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

X. H. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, and G. Z. Yang, “Enhancement of bulklike second-order nonlinear susceptibility in SiGe/Si step wells and biasing-field controlled (Si5Ge5)100 superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 15842–15846 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

L. D. Rotter, D. L. Kaiser, and M. D. Vaudin, “Anomalous second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 310–312 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Lu, L. A. Wills, W. Wessels, W. P. Lin, T. G. Zhang, G. K. Wong, D. A. Neumayer, and T. J. Marks, “Second-harmonic generation of poled BaTiO3 thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 1314–1316 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L.-Z. Xuan, S.-H. Pan, Z.-H. Chen, R.-P. Wang, W.-S. Shi, and C.-L. Li, “Second-harmonic generation in BaTiO3 films doped with cerium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 2896–2898 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Kosacki, V. Petrovsky, and H. U. Anderson, “Band gap energy in nanocrystalline ZrO2:16%Y thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 341–343 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. Shimizu, M. Kuwata-Gonokami, and H. Sakaki, “Enhanced second-order optical nonlinearity using inter- and intra-band transitions in low-dimensional semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 399–401 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Allam and M. Wagner, “Optical second-harmonic generation in laterally asymmetric quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2726–2728 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Grisard, E. Lallier, G. Garry, and P. Aubert, “Ferroelectric integrated-optics: recent developments,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1627–1635 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

B. Bihari, J. Kumar, G. T. Stauf, P. C. Van Buskirk, and C. S. Hwang, “Investigation of barium titanate thin films on MgO substrates by second-harmonic generation,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1169–1174 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Didomenico, Jr., and S. H. Wemple, “Oxygen-octahedra ferroelectrics. I. Theory of electro-optical and nonlinear optical effects,” J. Appl. Phys. 40, 720–734 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

H. B. Liao, R. F. Xiao, P. Yu, and G. K. L. Wong, “Growth of beta-barium borate (β-BaB2O4) thin-films for nonlinear-optical applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 174, 434–439 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. E (1)

J. C. Manifacier, J. Gasiot, and J. P. Fillard, “A simple method for the determination of the optical constants n, k and the thickness of a weakly absorbing thin film,” J. Phys. E 9, 1002–1004 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

Y. Masuda, H. Masumoto, Y. Kidachi, A. Watadzu, A. Baba, T. Goto, and T. Hirai, “Optical-properties of Ba2NaNb5O15 film fabricated by RF magnetron sputtering method,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 5124–5131 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 (1)

T. Okada, Y. Nakata, H. Kaibara, and M. Maeda, “Second-harmonic generation in pulsed-laser-deposition BaTiO3 thin films,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 34, L1536–L1539 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

D. W. Kim, S. H. Lee, and T. W. Noh, “Structural and nonlinear-optical properties of epitaxial LiNbO3 films grown by pulsed-laser deposition,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 56, 251–255 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

X. H. Zhang, Z. H. Chen, L. Z. Xuan, S. H. Pan, and G. Z. Yang, “Enhancement of bulklike second-order nonlinear susceptibility in SiGe/Si step wells and biasing-field controlled (Si5Ge5)100 superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 15842–15846 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

D. Bao, H. Yang, L. Zhang, and X. Yao, “Structure and optical properties of SrTiO3 thin films prepared by a sol-gel technique,” Phys. Status Solidi A 169, 227–233 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

F. Tcheliebou, H. S. Ryu, C. K. Hong, W. S. Park, and S. Baik, “On the microstructure and optical properties of Ba0.5Sr0.5TiO3 films,” Thin Solid Films 305, 30–34 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, A. V. Melnikov, J. I. Dadap, X. F. Xu, M. H. Anderson, M. C. Downer, and J. K. Lowell, “d.c. electric field induced second-harmornic generation spectroscopy of the Si(001)-SiO2 interface: separation of the bulk and surface non-linear contributions,” Thin Solid Films 294, 231–234 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), p. 37.

S. Trolier-Mckinstry, C. A. Randall, J. P. Maria, C. Theis, D. G. Schlom, J. Shepard, Jr., and K. Yamakawa, “Size effects and domains in ferroelectric thin film actuators,” in Ferroelectric Thin Films V, Materials Research Society Symposium Proceeding, S. B. Desu, R. Ramesh, B. A. Tuttle, R. E. Jones, and I. K. Yoo, eds. (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1996), Vol. 433, pp. 363–374.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Scanning electron micrograph of Ce:BaTiO3 nanocrystallites deposited at 750 °C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

X-ray diffraction patterns of Ce:BaTiO3 nanocrystallites on fused quartz substrates deposited at (a) 750 °C, (b) 650 °C, (c) 550 °C, (d) 450 °C, (e) 350 °C, and (f ) room temperature.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical transmission spectra of Ce:BaTiO3 nanocrystallites deposited at (a) 750 °C, (b) 650 °C, (c) 550 °C, (d) 450 °C, (e) 350 °C, and (f ) room temperature. The inset shows the relationship between absorption edge Eg and deposition temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effective SHG coefficient, |deff|, versus incidence angle θi for Ce:BaTiO3 nanocrystallites deposited at (a) 750 °C, (b) 650 °C, (c) 550 °C, (d) 450 °C, (e) 350 °C, and (f ) room temperature. The solid curves are the best fits to deff=d15 sin 2θω cos θ2ω+(d31 cos2 θω+d33 sin2 θω)sin θ2ω, which is expected for a c-textured BaTiO3 film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effective SHG coefficient, |deff|, versus polarization angle, ϕω, for Ce:BaTiO3 nanocrystallites deposited at (a) 750 °C, (b) 650 °C, (c) 550 °C, (d) 450 °C, (e) 350 °C, and (f ) room temperature. The solid curves are the best fits to deff=d1 sin2 ϕω+d2 cos2 ϕω, which is expected for a c-textured BaTiO3 film.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

defflc,qlsn(2ω)n2(ω)TqIsnq(2ω)nq2(ω)TsIq1/2d11,q,
deff=d15 sin 2θω cos θ2ω+(d31 cos2 θω+d33 sin2 θω)sin θ2ω,

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