Abstract

Metal nanocluster composite glasses, prepared by sequential copper and nickel implantation in fused silica, are analyzed by the Z-scan method. The role of laser-composite interaction effects in the analyses is discriminated, and a phenomenological model is proposed that effectively reproduces the experimental findings. Spatially modulated reduction of both the linear refractive index and the absorbance are suggested as the mechanisms responsible for the observed transmittance Z-scan curves. The third-order fast nonlinearity of the examined composite in terms of intensity-dependent refractive index is therefore evaluated to be lower than 5×10-12 cm2 W-1.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Quantum-dot composites for nonlinear optical applications,” in Handbook of Optical Properties II: Optics of Small Particles, Interfaces, and Surfaces, R. E. Hummel and P. Wissmann, eds. (CRC Press, New York, 1997), Vol. 2, p. 191.
  3. U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).
  4. P. Mazzoldi, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Metal nanocluster formation by ion implantation in silicate glasses: nonlinear optical applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 285–330 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zuhr, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. N. Skelland and P. D. Townsend, “Ion implantation into heated silica substrates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 93, 433–438 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-scan technique for nonlinear materials characterization,” in Materials Characterization and Optical Probe Techniques, R. A. Lessard and H. Franke, eds. (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Vol. CR69, pp. 501–524.
  11. M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, “Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 517–521 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Yang, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., R. H. Magruder III, C. W. White, R. A. Zuhr, and H. Hosono, “Probing interface properties of nanocomposites by third-order nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 403–415 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Zontone, F. D’Acapito, and F. Gonella, “Synchrotron radiation glancing incidence X-ray diffraction: a tool for structural investigations of ion implanted glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 416–421 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 133–136 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  18. F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. C. Huang and J. T. Lue, “Quantum size effect on the optical properties of small metal particles,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17279–17285 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Kurita, A. Takami, and S. Koda, “Size reduction of gold particles in aqueous solution by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 789–791 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Vollmer, R. Weidenauer, W. Hoheisel, U. Schulte, and F. Träger, “Size manipulation of metal particles with laser light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 12509–12512 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. H. Haberland and B. v. Issendorff, “New spectroscopic tool for cluster science: nonexponential laser fluence dependence of photofragmentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1445–1448 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. A. Stella, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, G. Lanzani, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Size effects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics of metallic tin nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 15497–15500 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  28. G. Mattei, Department of Physics, University of Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova, Italy (personal communication, 1998).

1999 (3)

F. Zontone, F. D’Acapito, and F. Gonella, “Synchrotron radiation glancing incidence X-ray diffraction: a tool for structural investigations of ion implanted glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 416–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 133–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, “Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 517–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurita, A. Takami, and S. Koda, “Size reduction of gold particles in aqueous solution by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 789–791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1996 (6)

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Haberland and B. v. Issendorff, “New spectroscopic tool for cluster science: nonexponential laser fluence dependence of photofragmentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1445–1448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stella, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, G. Lanzani, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Size effects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics of metallic tin nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 15497–15500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., R. H. Magruder III, C. W. White, R. A. Zuhr, and H. Hosono, “Probing interface properties of nanocomposites by third-order nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 403–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Mazzoldi, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Metal nanocluster formation by ion implantation in silicate glasses: nonlinear optical applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 285–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (5)

W. C. Huang and J. T. Lue, “Quantum size effect on the optical properties of small metal particles,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17279–17285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zuhr, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Skelland and P. D. Townsend, “Ion implantation into heated silica substrates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 93, 433–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Uchida, S. Kaneko, S. Omi, C. Hata, H. Tanji, Y. Asahara, A. J. Ikushima, T. Tokizaki, and A. Nakamura, “Optical nonlinearities of a high concentration of small metal particles dispersed in glass: copper and silver particles,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1236–1243 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

M. Vollmer, R. Weidenauer, W. Hoheisel, U. Schulte, and F. Träger, “Size manipulation of metal particles with laser light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 12509–12512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Afonso, C. N.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Arnold, G. W.

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Mazzoldi, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Metal nanocluster formation by ion implantation in silicate glasses: nonlinear optical applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 285–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Asahara, Y.

Ballesteros, J. M.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Battaglin, G.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Mazzoldi, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Metal nanocluster formation by ion implantation in silicate glasses: nonlinear optical applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 285–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bertoncello, R.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Borsella, E.

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Budai, J. D.

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Calvelli, P.

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cattaruzza, E.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cesca, T.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Cheyssac, P.

A. Stella, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, G. Lanzani, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Size effects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics of metallic tin nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 15497–15500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D’Acapito, F.

F. Zontone, F. D’Acapito, and F. Gonella, “Synchrotron radiation glancing incidence X-ray diffraction: a tool for structural investigations of ion implanted glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 416–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

De Silvestri, S.

A. Stella, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, G. Lanzani, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Size effects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics of metallic tin nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 15497–15500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Donnelly, T.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falcone, R. W.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Falconieri, M.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 133–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Garrido, F.

D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, “Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 517–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gonella, F.

F. Zontone, F. D’Acapito, and F. Gonella, “Synchrotron radiation glancing incidence X-ray diffraction: a tool for structural investigations of ion implanted glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 416–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, “Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 517–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Mazzoldi, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Metal nanocluster formation by ion implantation in silicate glasses: nonlinear optical applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 285–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gu, Z.

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Haberland, H.

H. Haberland and B. v. Issendorff, “New spectroscopic tool for cluster science: nonexponential laser fluence dependence of photofragmentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1445–1448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hache, F.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, D. J.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Haglund Jr., R. F.

D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, “Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 517–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., R. H. Magruder III, C. W. White, R. A. Zuhr, and H. Hosono, “Probing interface properties of nanocomposites by third-order nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 403–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Mazzoldi, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Metal nanocluster formation by ion implantation in silicate glasses: nonlinear optical applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 285–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zuhr, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hata, C.

Henderson, D. O.

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hoheisel, W.

M. Vollmer, R. Weidenauer, W. Hoheisel, U. Schulte, and F. Träger, “Size manipulation of metal particles with laser light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 12509–12512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hosono, H.

L. Yang, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., R. H. Magruder III, C. W. White, R. A. Zuhr, and H. Hosono, “Probing interface properties of nanocomposites by third-order nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 403–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, W. C.

W. C. Huang and J. T. Lue, “Quantum size effect on the optical properties of small metal particles,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17279–17285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ikushima, A. J.

Kaneko, S.

Koda, S.

H. Kurita, A. Takami, and S. Koda, “Size reduction of gold particles in aqueous solution by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 789–791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kofman, R.

A. Stella, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, G. Lanzani, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Size effects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics of metallic tin nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 15497–15500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kreibig, U.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kurita, H.

H. Kurita, A. Takami, and S. Koda, “Size reduction of gold particles in aqueous solution by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 789–791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lanzani, G.

A. Stella, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, G. Lanzani, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Size effects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics of metallic tin nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 15497–15500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lue, J. T.

W. C. Huang and J. T. Lue, “Quantum size effect on the optical properties of small metal particles,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17279–17285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Magruder III, R. H.

L. Yang, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., R. H. Magruder III, C. W. White, R. A. Zuhr, and H. Hosono, “Probing interface properties of nanocomposites by third-order nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 403–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zuhr, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mattei, G.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Maurizio, C.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Mazzoldi, P.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Mazzoldi, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Metal nanocluster formation by ion implantation in silicate glasses: nonlinear optical applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 285–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mu, R.

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, A.

Nisoli, M.

A. Stella, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, G. Lanzani, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Size effects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics of metallic tin nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 15497–15500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Omi, S.

Osborne Jr., D. H.

D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, “Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 517–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., R. H. Magruder III, C. W. White, R. A. Zuhr, and H. Hosono, “Probing interface properties of nanocomposites by third-order nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 403–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petford-Long, A. K.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Piovesan, M.

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Polloni, R.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ricard, D.

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rubenchik, A. M.

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Said, A. A.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Salvetti, G.

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 133–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schulte, U.

M. Vollmer, R. Weidenauer, W. Hoheisel, U. Schulte, and F. Träger, “Size manipulation of metal particles with laser light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 12509–12512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Serna, R.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Skelland, N.

N. Skelland and P. D. Townsend, “Ion implantation into heated silica substrates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 93, 433–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Solis, J.

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stella, A.

A. Stella, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, G. Lanzani, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Size effects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics of metallic tin nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 15497–15500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Svelto, O.

A. Stella, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, G. Lanzani, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Size effects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics of metallic tin nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 15497–15500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Takami, A.

H. Kurita, A. Takami, and S. Koda, “Size reduction of gold particles in aqueous solution by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 789–791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanji, H.

Tokizaki, T.

Townsend, P. D.

N. Skelland and P. D. Townsend, “Ion implantation into heated silica substrates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 93, 433–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Träger, F.

M. Vollmer, R. Weidenauer, W. Hoheisel, U. Schulte, and F. Träger, “Size manipulation of metal particles with laser light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 12509–12512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tung, Y. S.

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uchida, K.

Ueda, A.

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

v. Issendorff, B.

H. Haberland and B. v. Issendorff, “New spectroscopic tool for cluster science: nonexponential laser fluence dependence of photofragmentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1445–1448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Stryland, E. W.

J. Wang, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Time-resolved Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1009–1017 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vollmer, M.

M. Vollmer, R. Weidenauer, W. Hoheisel, U. Schulte, and F. Träger, “Size manipulation of metal particles with laser light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 12509–12512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Weidenauer, R.

M. Vollmer, R. Weidenauer, W. Hoheisel, U. Schulte, and F. Träger, “Size manipulation of metal particles with laser light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 12509–12512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

White, C. W.

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., R. H. Magruder III, C. W. White, R. A. Zuhr, and H. Hosono, “Probing interface properties of nanocomposites by third-order nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 403–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wittig, J. E.

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zuhr, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wu, M. H.

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yang, L.

L. Yang, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., R. H. Magruder III, C. W. White, R. A. Zuhr, and H. Hosono, “Probing interface properties of nanocomposites by third-order nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 403–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zuhr, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zontone, F.

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Zontone, F. D’Acapito, and F. Gonella, “Synchrotron radiation glancing incidence X-ray diffraction: a tool for structural investigations of ion implanted glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 416–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Zuhr, R. A.

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., R. H. Magruder III, C. W. White, R. A. Zuhr, and H. Hosono, “Probing interface properties of nanocomposites by third-order nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 403–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zuhr, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. A (2)

F. Hache, D. Ricard, C. Flytzanis, and U. Kreibig, “The optical Kerr effect in small metal particles and metal colloids: the case of gold,” Appl. Phys. A 47, 347–357 (1988).
[CrossRef]

L. Yang, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., R. H. Magruder III, C. W. White, R. A. Zuhr, and H. Hosono, “Probing interface properties of nanocomposites by third-order nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. A 62, 403–415 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., F. Gonella, and F. Garrido, “Laser-induced sign reversal of the nonlinear refractive index of Ag nanoclusters in soda-lime glass,” Appl. Phys. B 66, 517–521 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri and G. Salvetti, “Simultaneous measurement of pure-optical and thermo-optical nonlinearities induced by high-repetition-rate, femtosecond laser pulses: application to CS2,” Appl. Phys. B 69, 133–136 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, E. Cattaruzza, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, P. Calvelli, R. Polloni, R. Bertoncello, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Interaction of high-power laser light with silver nanocluster composite glasses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3101–3103 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Falconieri, G. Salvetti, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, M. Piovesan, G. Battaglin, and R. Polloni, “Large third-order optical nonlinearity of nanocluster-doped glass formed by ion implantation of copper and nickel in silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 288–290 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Kurita, A. Takami, and S. Koda, “Size reduction of gold particles in aqueous solution by pulsed laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 789–791 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. H. Magruder III, R. F. Haglund, Jr., L. Yang, J. E. Wittig, and R. A. Zuhr, “Physical and optical properties of Cu nanoclusters fabricated by ion implantation in fused silica,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 708–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

P. Mazzoldi, G. W. Arnold, G. Battaglin, F. Gonella, and R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Metal nanocluster formation by ion implantation in silicate glasses: nonlinear optical applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 5, 285–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

J. Chen, R. Mu, A. Ueda, M. H. Wu, Y. S. Tung, Z. Gu, D. O. Henderson, C. W. White, J. D. Budai, and R. A. Zuhr, “Characterization of zinc implanted silica: effects of thermal annealing and picosecond laser radiation,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 16, 1409–1413 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B (4)

N. Skelland and P. D. Townsend, “Ion implantation into heated silica substrates,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 93, 433–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Zontone, F. D’Acapito, and F. Gonella, “Synchrotron radiation glancing incidence X-ray diffraction: a tool for structural investigations of ion implanted glasses,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 147, 416–421 (1999).
[CrossRef]

E. Cattaruzza, G. Battaglin, R. Polloni, T. Cesca, F. Gonella, G. Mattei, C. Maurizio, P. Mazzoldi, F. D’Acapito, F. Zontone, and R. Bertoncello, “Nanocluster formation in silicate glasses by sequential ion implantation procedures,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 148, 1007–1111 (1999).
[CrossRef]

G. Battaglin, E. Borsella, E. Cattaruzza, F. Gonella, R. F. Haglund, Jr., G. Mattei, P. Mazzoldi, D. H. Osborne, Jr., and R. Polloni, “Highly nonlinear optical composites obtained in silica and soda-lime glasses by Ti ion implantation and laser annealing,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. B 141, 274–278 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

T. Ditmire, T. Donnelly, A. M. Rubenchik, R. W. Falcone, and M. D. Perry, “Interaction of intense laser pulses with atomic clusters,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3379–3402 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

A. Stella, M. Nisoli, S. De Silvestri, O. Svelto, G. Lanzani, P. Cheyssac, and R. Kofman, “Size effects in the ultrafast electronic dynamics of metallic tin nanoparticles,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 15497–15500 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Vollmer, R. Weidenauer, W. Hoheisel, U. Schulte, and F. Träger, “Size manipulation of metal particles with laser light,” Phys. Rev. B 40, 12509–12512 (1989).
[CrossRef]

W. C. Huang and J. T. Lue, “Quantum size effect on the optical properties of small metal particles,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 17279–17285 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

H. Haberland and B. v. Issendorff, “New spectroscopic tool for cluster science: nonexponential laser fluence dependence of photofragmentation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1445–1448 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

R. Serna, J. M. Ballesteros, J. Solis, C. N. Afonso, D. H. Osborne, Jr., R. F. Haglund, Jr., and A. K. Petford-Long, “Laser-induced modification of the nonlinear optical response of laser-deposited Cu:Al2O3 nanocomposite films,” Thin Solid Films 318, 96–99 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

G. Mattei, Department of Physics, University of Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova, Italy (personal communication, 1998).

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

R. F. Haglund, Jr., “Quantum-dot composites for nonlinear optical applications,” in Handbook of Optical Properties II: Optics of Small Particles, Interfaces, and Surfaces, R. E. Hummel and P. Wissmann, eds. (CRC Press, New York, 1997), Vol. 2, p. 191.

U. Kreibig and M. Vollmer, Optical Properties of Metal Clusters (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1995).

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-scan technique for nonlinear materials characterization,” in Materials Characterization and Optical Probe Techniques, R. A. Lessard and H. Franke, eds. (SPIE Press, Bellingham, Wash., 1997), Vol. CR69, pp. 501–524.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of the Z-scan technique: case of negative nonlinearity (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

FF experimental curve for intensity I=2 GW cm-2.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) FF and (b) NF experimental curves for intensity I=15 GW cm-2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

FF curve of Fig. 3(a) (dots) and relative fit (solid curve) with use of Eq. (3).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

NF curve of Fig. 3(b) (dots) and relative fit (solid curve) with use of Eq. (5).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FF curve of Fig. 3(a) (dots) and relative fit (solid curve) with use of Eq. (7).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

FF curve of Fig. 3(a) (dots) and relative fit (solid curve) with use of Eq. (8).

Equations (8)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Ee(r, z, t)=E(r, z, t)exp(-α0L/2)exp[-iΔϕ(r, z, t)],
Δϕ(r, z, t)=k Leff Δn0(t)1+z2z02exp2r2w021+z2z02,
T[z, Δn0(t)]1+4 k Leff Δn0(t) zz01+z2z029+z2z02,
α(r)=α0[1-exp(-2r2/wα2)],
T(z, α0)1+2α0L21+2 w02wα2×1+z2z02z2z02+1+2 w02wα21+z2z022.
Δn(r)=Δn0 exp(-2r2/wn2),
T(z, Δn0, α0)1+4kLΔn0 w02wn2×zz01+z2z02z2z02+1+2 w02wn21+z2z022.
T(z, Δn0, α0)1+4kLΔn0 w02wn2×zz01+z2z02z2z02+1+2 w02wn21+z2z022+2α0L21+2 w02wα2×1+z2z02z2z02+1+2 w02wα21+z2z022.

Metrics