Abstract

We present a comprehensive spectroscopic study of the possible room-temperature green laser transition  2H9/2 4I13/2 in Ba2YCl7:3%Er3+. Because of the low phonon energies, 270 cm-1 in Ba2YCl7, the otherwise multiphonon-quenched  4I9/2 and  2H9/2 levels are metastable and can serve as intermediate pump and upper laser levels, respectively, for a green upconversion laser excited at 800 nm. Polarized spectra of ground-state and excited-state absorption at 800 nm and of emission at 560 nm are measured, and the corresponding absorption and emission cross sections are derived. Luminescence-decay measurements provide lifetime data. Despite the large number of metastable levels of Er3+ in a low-phonon host material, luminescence spectra and intensity-versus-power measurements reveal that the energy dissipation into levels other than those required for the operation of the laser transition (i.e.,  4I15/2 4I9/2 2H9/2 4I13/2) is small at low dopant concentrations. At higher concentrations, an energy-transfer upconversion process populates the lower laser level and counteracts inversion. The theoretical pump threshold of the proposed upconversion-laser transition under cw and pulsed excitation is derived.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. M. Pierrou, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Kellner, C. Czeranowsky, and G. Huber, “Generation of 740-mW of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling with a first-order quasi-phase-matched KTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 24, 205–207 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Sandrock, H. Scheife, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “High-power continuous-wave upconversion fiber laser at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 22, 808–810 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Paschotta, P. R. Barber, A. C. Tropper, and D. C. Hanna, “Characterization and modeling of thulium:ZBLAN blue-upconversion fiber lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1213–1218 (1997).
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  7. L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “New laser lines in the visible from Er3+ ions in BaY2F8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 474–477 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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  12. R. A. McFarlane, “Dual wavelength visible upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301–2302 (1989).
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  13. P. Xie and S. C. Rand, “Visible cooperative upconversion laser in Er:LiYF4,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1198–1200 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. R. R. Stephens and R. A. McFarlane, “Diode-pumped upconversion laser with 100-mW output power,” Opt. Lett. 18, 34–36 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Brede, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room temperature green laser emission of Er3+:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 729–730 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  16. R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion laser emission in Er-doped crystals at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2030–2031 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion continuous wave Er3+:LiYF4 laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383–384 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. A. McFarlane, “Upconversion laser in BaY2F8:Er 5% pumped by ground-state and excited-state absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 871–880 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Scheps, “Er3+:YAlO3 upconversion laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2914–2924 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Scheps, “Photon avalanche upconversion in Er3+:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 309–316 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. Digonnot and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Time-resolved spectra of excited-state absorption in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 404–410 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state absorption in Er:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9 and comparison with Er:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 339–344 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  26. R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorgé, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. P. van der Ziel, F. W. Ostermayer, Jr., and L. G. van Uitert, “Infrared excitation of visible luminescence in Y1−xErxF3 via resonant energy transfer,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4432–4441 (1970).
    [CrossRef]
  28. P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Stimulated emission and excited-state absorption on the 550 nm-laser transition in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 60+61, 842–845 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  30. S. R. Lüthi, M. Pollnau, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 162–178 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. P. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, R. A. McFarlane, and R. N. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+ dimer systems. Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9(X=Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475–12484 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. P. Hehlen, G. Frei, and H. U. Güdel, “Dynamics of infrared-to-visible upconversion in Cs3Lu2Br9:1%Er3+,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 16264–16273 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  33. K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. N. Schwartz, “NIR to VIS upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+. One- and two-color excitations around 1000 and 800 nm,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 191–195 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  34. N. J. Cockroft, G. D. Jones, and D. C. Nguyen, “Dynamics and spectroscopy of infrared-to-visible upconversion in erbium-doped cesium cadmium bromide (CsCdBr3:Er3+),” Phys. Rev. B 45, 5187–5198 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  35. T. Riedener, P. Egger, J. Hulliger, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion mechanism in Er3+-doped Ba2YCl7,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1800–1808 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  36. P. Egger, R. Burkhalter, and J. Hulliger, “Czochralski growth of Ba2Y1−xErxCl7(0<x≤1) using growth equip-ment integrated into a dry-box,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 515–520 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  37. M. S. Wickleder, P. Egger, T. Riedener, N. Furer, H. U. Güdel, and J. Hulliger, “Synthesis and crystal structure of the new ternary halide series Ba2MCl7(M=Gd-Yb, Y) containing the highly efficient up-conversion material Ba2ErCl7,” Chem. Mat. 8, 2828–2831 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  38. R. Burlot, R. Moncorgé, H. Manaa, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, J. Garcia-Solé, and D. Cochet-Muchy, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ ion in LiNbO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals relevant for laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 6, 313–330 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  39. S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  40. W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. Rubin, A. Brenier, R. Moncorgé, and C. Pédrini, “Excited-state absorption and energy transfer in Er3+-doped LiYF4,” J. Lumin. 36, 39–47 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  42. M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  43. M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the erbium 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  44. R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-wave lasing on a self-terminating transition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 14–16 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (4)

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorgé, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lüthi, M. Pollnau, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 162–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Egger, R. Burkhalter, and J. Hulliger, “Czochralski growth of Ba2Y1−xErxCl7(0<x≤1) using growth equip-ment integrated into a dry-box,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 515–520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pierrou, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Kellner, C. Czeranowsky, and G. Huber, “Generation of 740-mW of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling with a first-order quasi-phase-matched KTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 24, 205–207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (4)

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, and D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171–173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. E.-A. Möbert, A. Diening, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave upconversion-pumped laser emission in Ho, Yb:KYF4 at 756, 1070, and 1390 nm,” Laser Phys. 8, 210–213 (1998).

K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. N. Schwartz, “NIR to VIS upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+. One- and two-color excitations around 1000 and 800 nm,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1996 (3)

M. S. Wickleder, P. Egger, T. Riedener, N. Furer, H. U. Güdel, and J. Hulliger, “Synthesis and crystal structure of the new ternary halide series Ba2MCl7(M=Gd-Yb, Y) containing the highly efficient up-conversion material Ba2ErCl7,” Chem. Mat. 8, 2828–2831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Burlot, R. Moncorgé, H. Manaa, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, J. Garcia-Solé, and D. Cochet-Muchy, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ ion in LiNbO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals relevant for laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 6, 313–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state absorption in Er:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9 and comparison with Er:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 339–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

R. Scheps, “Photon avalanche upconversion in Er3+:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 309–316 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (9)

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion continuous wave Er3+:LiYF4 laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McFarlane, “Upconversion laser in BaY2F8:Er 5% pumped by ground-state and excited-state absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 871–880 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Scheps, “Er3+:YAlO3 upconversion laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2914–2924 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Thrash and L. F. Johnson, “Upconversion laser emission from Yb-sensitized Tm in BYF,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 881–885 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Stimulated emission and excited-state absorption on the 550 nm-laser transition in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 60+61, 842–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, R. A. McFarlane, and R. N. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+ dimer systems. Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9(X=Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, G. Frei, and H. U. Güdel, “Dynamics of infrared-to-visible upconversion in Cs3Lu2Br9:1%Er3+,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 16264–16273 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the erbium 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

R. R. Stephens and R. A. McFarlane, “Diode-pumped upconversion laser with 100-mW output power,” Opt. Lett. 18, 34–36 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Brede, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room temperature green laser emission of Er3+:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 729–730 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion laser emission in Er-doped crystals at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2030–2031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (5)

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable green-upconversion erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 111–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. J. Cockroft, G. D. Jones, and D. C. Nguyen, “Dynamics and spectroscopy of infrared-to-visible upconversion in erbium-doped cesium cadmium bromide (CsCdBr3:Er3+),” Phys. Rev. B 45, 5187–5198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Xie and S. C. Rand, “Visible cooperative upconversion laser in Er:LiYF4,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1198–1200 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Time-resolved spectra of excited-state absorption in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 404–410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. Digonnot and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

R. A. McFarlane, “Dual wavelength visible upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301–2302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-wave lasing on a self-terminating transition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 14–16 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, “Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977–1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. Rubin, A. Brenier, R. Moncorgé, and C. Pédrini, “Excited-state absorption and energy transfer in Er3+-doped LiYF4,” J. Lumin. 36, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “New laser lines in the visible from Er3+ ions in BaY2F8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 474–477 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. P. van der Ziel, F. W. Ostermayer, Jr., and L. G. van Uitert, “Infrared excitation of visible luminescence in Y1−xErxF3 via resonant energy transfer,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4432–4441 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Allain, J. Y.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable green-upconversion erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 111–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Balmer, J. E.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the erbium 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barber, P. R.

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Boulon, G.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorgé, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Burlot, R. Moncorgé, H. Manaa, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, J. Garcia-Solé, and D. Cochet-Muchy, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ ion in LiNbO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals relevant for laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 6, 313–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brede, R.

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room temperature green laser emission of Er3+:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 729–730 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion laser emission in Er-doped crystals at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2030–2031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Brenier, A.

J. Rubin, A. Brenier, R. Moncorgé, and C. Pédrini, “Excited-state absorption and energy transfer in Er3+-doped LiYF4,” J. Lumin. 36, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Brierley, M. C.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Britton, P. E.

Burkhalter, R.

P. Egger, R. Burkhalter, and J. Hulliger, “Czochralski growth of Ba2Y1−xErxCl7(0<x≤1) using growth equip-ment integrated into a dry-box,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 515–520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Burlot, R.

R. Burlot, R. Moncorgé, H. Manaa, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, J. Garcia-Solé, and D. Cochet-Muchy, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ ion in LiNbO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals relevant for laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 6, 313–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Burlot-Loison, R.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorgé, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion continuous wave Er3+:LiYF4 laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion laser emission in Er-doped crystals at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2030–2031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B. H. T.

P. E.-A. Möbert, A. Diening, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave upconversion-pumped laser emission in Ho, Yb:KYF4 at 756, 1070, and 1390 nm,” Laser Phys. 8, 210–213 (1998).

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room temperature green laser emission of Er3+:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 729–730 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chase, L. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Cochet-Muchy, D.

R. Burlot, R. Moncorgé, H. Manaa, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, J. Garcia-Solé, and D. Cochet-Muchy, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ ion in LiNbO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals relevant for laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 6, 313–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cockroft, N. J.

N. J. Cockroft, G. D. Jones, and D. C. Nguyen, “Dynamics and spectroscopy of infrared-to-visible upconversion in erbium-doped cesium cadmium bromide (CsCdBr3:Er3+),” Phys. Rev. B 45, 5187–5198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Czeranowsky, C.

Danger, T.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion continuous wave Er3+:LiYF4 laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion laser emission in Er-doped crystals at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2030–2031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room temperature green laser emission of Er3+:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 729–730 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Diening, A.

P. E.-A. Möbert, A. Diening, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave upconversion-pumped laser emission in Ho, Yb:KYF4 at 756, 1070, and 1390 nm,” Laser Phys. 8, 210–213 (1998).

Doualan, J.-L.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorgé, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Egger, P.

P. Egger, R. Burkhalter, and J. Hulliger, “Czochralski growth of Ba2Y1−xErxCl7(0<x≤1) using growth equip-ment integrated into a dry-box,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 515–520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedener, P. Egger, J. Hulliger, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion mechanism in Er3+-doped Ba2YCl7,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1800–1808 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Wickleder, P. Egger, T. Riedener, N. Furer, H. U. Güdel, and J. Hulliger, “Synthesis and crystal structure of the new ternary halide series Ba2MCl7(M=Gd-Yb, Y) containing the highly efficient up-conversion material Ba2ErCl7,” Chem. Mat. 8, 2828–2831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frei, G.

M. P. Hehlen, G. Frei, and H. U. Güdel, “Dynamics of infrared-to-visible upconversion in Cs3Lu2Br9:1%Er3+,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 16264–16273 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Furer, N.

M. S. Wickleder, P. Egger, T. Riedener, N. Furer, H. U. Güdel, and J. Hulliger, “Synthesis and crystal structure of the new ternary halide series Ba2MCl7(M=Gd-Yb, Y) containing the highly efficient up-conversion material Ba2ErCl7,” Chem. Mat. 8, 2828–2831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, H. G.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorgé, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gamelin, D. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Garcia-Solé, J.

R. Burlot, R. Moncorgé, H. Manaa, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, J. Garcia-Solé, and D. Cochet-Muchy, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ ion in LiNbO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals relevant for laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 6, 313–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ghisler, Ch.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Golding, P. S.

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Graf, Th.

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the erbium 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Güdel, H. U.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lüthi, M. Pollnau, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 162–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. N. Schwartz, “NIR to VIS upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+. One- and two-color excitations around 1000 and 800 nm,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedener, P. Egger, J. Hulliger, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion mechanism in Er3+-doped Ba2YCl7,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1800–1808 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Wickleder, P. Egger, T. Riedener, N. Furer, H. U. Güdel, and J. Hulliger, “Synthesis and crystal structure of the new ternary halide series Ba2MCl7(M=Gd-Yb, Y) containing the highly efficient up-conversion material Ba2ErCl7,” Chem. Mat. 8, 2828–2831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state absorption in Er:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9 and comparison with Er:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 339–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, G. Frei, and H. U. Güdel, “Dynamics of infrared-to-visible upconversion in Cs3Lu2Br9:1%Er3+,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 16264–16273 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, R. A. McFarlane, and R. N. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+ dimer systems. Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9(X=Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “New laser lines in the visible from Er3+ ions in BaY2F8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 474–477 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

R. Burlot, R. Moncorgé, H. Manaa, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, J. Garcia-Solé, and D. Cochet-Muchy, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ ion in LiNbO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals relevant for laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 6, 313–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Han, T. P. J.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorgé, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

Hehlen, M. P.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lüthi, M. Pollnau, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 162–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, R. A. McFarlane, and R. N. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+ dimer systems. Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9(X=Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, G. Frei, and H. U. Güdel, “Dynamics of infrared-to-visible upconversion in Cs3Lu2Br9:1%Er3+,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 16264–16273 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heine, F.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion continuous wave Er3+:LiYF4 laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heumann, E.

P. E.-A. Möbert, A. Diening, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave upconversion-pumped laser emission in Ho, Yb:KYF4 at 756, 1070, and 1390 nm,” Laser Phys. 8, 210–213 (1998).

T. Sandrock, H. Scheife, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “High-power continuous-wave upconversion fiber laser at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 22, 808–810 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion continuous wave Er3+:LiYF4 laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Stimulated emission and excited-state absorption on the 550 nm-laser transition in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 60+61, 842–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room temperature green laser emission of Er3+:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 729–730 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion laser emission in Er-doped crystals at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2030–2031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Time-resolved spectra of excited-state absorption in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 404–410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

M. Pierrou, F. Laurell, H. Karlsson, T. Kellner, C. Czeranowsky, and G. Huber, “Generation of 740-mW of blue light by intracavity frequency doubling with a first-order quasi-phase-matched KTiOPO4 crystal,” Opt. Lett. 24, 205–207 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. E.-A. Möbert, A. Diening, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave upconversion-pumped laser emission in Ho, Yb:KYF4 at 756, 1070, and 1390 nm,” Laser Phys. 8, 210–213 (1998).

T. Sandrock, H. Scheife, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “High-power continuous-wave upconversion fiber laser at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 22, 808–810 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion continuous wave Er3+:LiYF4 laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Stimulated emission and excited-state absorption on the 550 nm-laser transition in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 60+61, 842–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion laser emission in Er-doped crystals at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2030–2031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room temperature green laser emission of Er3+:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 729–730 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Time-resolved spectra of excited-state absorption in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 404–410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hulliger, J.

P. Egger, R. Burkhalter, and J. Hulliger, “Czochralski growth of Ba2Y1−xErxCl7(0<x≤1) using growth equip-ment integrated into a dry-box,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 515–520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedener, P. Egger, J. Hulliger, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion mechanism in Er3+-doped Ba2YCl7,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1800–1808 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Wickleder, P. Egger, T. Riedener, N. Furer, H. U. Güdel, and J. Hulliger, “Synthesis and crystal structure of the new ternary halide series Ba2MCl7(M=Gd-Yb, Y) containing the highly efficient up-conversion material Ba2ErCl7,” Chem. Mat. 8, 2828–2831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, S. D.

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

R. J. Thrash and L. F. Johnson, “Upconversion laser emission from Yb-sensitized Tm in BYF,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 881–885 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “New laser lines in the visible from Er3+ ions in BaY2F8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 474–477 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Jones, G. D.

N. J. Cockroft, G. D. Jones, and D. C. Nguyen, “Dynamics and spectroscopy of infrared-to-visible upconversion in erbium-doped cesium cadmium bromide (CsCdBr3:Er3+),” Phys. Rev. B 45, 5187–5198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Karlsson, H.

Kellner, T.

King, T. A.

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Koetke, J.

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion laser emission in Er-doped crystals at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2030–2031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Krämer, K.

K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. N. Schwartz, “NIR to VIS upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+. One- and two-color excitations around 1000 and 800 nm,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state absorption in Er:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9 and comparison with Er:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 339–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, R. A. McFarlane, and R. N. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+ dimer systems. Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9(X=Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kway, W. L.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Laming, R. I.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laurell, F.

Le Boulanger, P.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorgé, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, “Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977–1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lüthi, S. R.

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lüthi, M. Pollnau, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 162–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lüthy, W.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state absorption in Er:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9 and comparison with Er:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 339–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the erbium 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, “Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977–1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Manaa, H.

R. Burlot, R. Moncorgé, H. Manaa, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, J. Garcia-Solé, and D. Cochet-Muchy, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ ion in LiNbO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals relevant for laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 6, 313–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, R. A.

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state absorption in Er:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9 and comparison with Er:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 339–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, R. A. McFarlane, and R. N. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+ dimer systems. Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9(X=Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McFarlane, “Upconversion laser in BaY2F8:Er 5% pumped by ground-state and excited-state absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 871–880 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Stephens and R. A. McFarlane, “Diode-pumped upconversion laser with 100-mW output power,” Opt. Lett. 18, 34–36 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. McFarlane, “Dual wavelength visible upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301–2302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Millar, C. A.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miniscalco, W. J.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. Digonnot and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-wave lasing on a self-terminating transition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 14–16 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Möbert, P. E.-A.

P. E.-A. Möbert, A. Diening, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave upconversion-pumped laser emission in Ho, Yb:KYF4 at 756, 1070, and 1390 nm,” Laser Phys. 8, 210–213 (1998).

Moncorgé, R.

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorgé, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Burlot, R. Moncorgé, H. Manaa, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, J. Garcia-Solé, and D. Cochet-Muchy, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ ion in LiNbO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals relevant for laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 6, 313–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Rubin, A. Brenier, R. Moncorgé, and C. Pédrini, “Excited-state absorption and energy transfer in Er3+-doped LiYF4,” J. Lumin. 36, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Monerie, M.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable green-upconversion erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 111–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morkel, P. R.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. C.

N. J. Cockroft, G. D. Jones, and D. C. Nguyen, “Dynamics and spectroscopy of infrared-to-visible upconversion in erbium-doped cesium cadmium bromide (CsCdBr3:Er3+),” Phys. Rev. B 45, 5187–5198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ostermayer Jr., F. W.

J. P. van der Ziel, F. W. Ostermayer, Jr., and L. G. van Uitert, “Infrared excitation of visible luminescence in Y1−xErxF3 via resonant energy transfer,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4432–4441 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Paschotta, R.

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pédrini, C.

J. Rubin, A. Brenier, R. Moncorgé, and C. Pédrini, “Excited-state absorption and energy transfer in Er3+-doped LiYF4,” J. Lumin. 36, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pierrou, M.

Poignant, H.

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable green-upconversion erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 111–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lüthi, M. Pollnau, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 162–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ross, M. Pollnau, P. G. R. Smith, W. A. Clarkson, P. E. Britton, and D. C. Hanna, “Generation of high-power blue light in periodically poled LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett. 23, 171–173 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state absorption in Er:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9 and comparison with Er:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 339–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Stimulated emission and excited-state absorption on the 550 nm-laser transition in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 60+61, 842–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the erbium 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Time-resolved spectra of excited-state absorption in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 404–410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Quimby, R. S.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. Digonnot and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. S. Quimby and W. J. Miniscalco, “Continuous-wave lasing on a self-terminating transition,” Appl. Opt. 28, 14–16 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rand, S. C.

Riedener, T.

T. Riedener, P. Egger, J. Hulliger, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion mechanism in Er3+-doped Ba2YCl7,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1800–1808 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Wickleder, P. Egger, T. Riedener, N. Furer, H. U. Güdel, and J. Hulliger, “Synthesis and crystal structure of the new ternary halide series Ba2MCl7(M=Gd-Yb, Y) containing the highly efficient up-conversion material Ba2ErCl7,” Chem. Mat. 8, 2828–2831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ross, G. W.

Rubin, J.

J. Rubin, A. Brenier, R. Moncorgé, and C. Pédrini, “Excited-state absorption and energy transfer in Er3+-doped LiYF4,” J. Lumin. 36, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sandrock, T.

Scheife, H.

Scheps, R.

R. Scheps, “Photon avalanche upconversion in Er3+:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 309–316 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Scheps, “Er3+:YAlO3 upconversion laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2914–2924 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schwartz, R. N.

K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. N. Schwartz, “NIR to VIS upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+. One- and two-color excitations around 1000 and 800 nm,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, R. A. McFarlane, and R. N. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+ dimer systems. Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9(X=Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion continuous wave Er3+:LiYF4 laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Silversmith, A. J.

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, “Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977–1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. G. R.

Stephens, R. R.

Szebesta, D.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tarbox, E. J.

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, B.

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. Digonnot and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thrash, R. J.

Tropper, A. C.

van der Ziel, J. P.

J. P. van der Ziel, F. W. Ostermayer, Jr., and L. G. van Uitert, “Infrared excitation of visible luminescence in Y1−xErxF3 via resonant energy transfer,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4432–4441 (1970).
[CrossRef]

van Uitert, L. G.

J. P. van der Ziel, F. W. Ostermayer, Jr., and L. G. van Uitert, “Infrared excitation of visible luminescence in Y1−xErxF3 via resonant energy transfer,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4432–4441 (1970).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state absorption in Er:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9 and comparison with Er:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 339–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the erbium 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Whitley, T. J.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wickleder, M. S.

M. S. Wickleder, P. Egger, T. Riedener, N. Furer, H. U. Güdel, and J. Hulliger, “Synthesis and crystal structure of the new ternary halide series Ba2MCl7(M=Gd-Yb, Y) containing the highly efficient up-conversion material Ba2ErCl7,” Chem. Mat. 8, 2828–2831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wyatt, R.

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Xie, P.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. A (1)

M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Time-resolved spectra of excited-state absorption in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” Appl. Phys. A 54, 404–410 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Pollnau, W. Lüthy, H. P. Weber, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. A. McFarlane, “Excited-state absorption in Er:BaY2F8 and Cs3Er2Br9 and comparison with Er:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. B 62, 339–344 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Ch. Ghisler, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Cross sections of excited-state absorption at 800 nm in erbium-doped ZBLAN fiber,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 23–28 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, “New laser lines in the visible from Er3+ ions in BaY2F8,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 474–477 (1972).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Silversmith, W. Lenth, and R. M. Macfarlane, “Green infrared-pumped erbium upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1977–1979 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. A. McFarlane, “Dual wavelength visible upconversion laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2301–2302 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, T. Danger, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room temperature green laser emission of Er3+:LiYF4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 729–730 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Brede, E. Heumann, J. Koetke, T. Danger, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion laser emission in Er-doped crystals at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2030–2031 (1993).
[CrossRef]

F. Heine, E. Heumann, T. Danger, T. Schweizer, G. Huber, and B. Chai, “Green upconversion continuous wave Er3+:LiYF4 laser at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 383–384 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mat. (1)

M. S. Wickleder, P. Egger, T. Riedener, N. Furer, H. U. Güdel, and J. Hulliger, “Synthesis and crystal structure of the new ternary halide series Ba2MCl7(M=Gd-Yb, Y) containing the highly efficient up-conversion material Ba2ErCl7,” Chem. Mat. 8, 2828–2831 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

T. J. Whitley, C. A. Millar, R. Wyatt, M. C. Brierley, and D. Szebesta, “Upconversion pumped green lasing in erbium doped fluorozirconate fibre,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1785–1786 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Allain, M. Monerie, and H. Poignant, “Tunable green-upconversion erbium fibre laser,” Electron. Lett. 28, 111–113 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

R. Scheps, “Er3+:YAlO3 upconversion laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2914–2924 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Scheps, “Photon avalanche upconversion in Er3+:YAlO3,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 309–316 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, L. L. Chase, L. K. Smith, W. L. Kway, and W. F. Krupke, “Infrared cross-section measurements for crystals doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2619–2630 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Barnes, R. I. Laming, E. J. Tarbox, and P. R. Morkel, “Absorption and emission cross section of Er3+ doped silica fibers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1004–1010 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Alloys Compd. (1)

K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, and R. N. Schwartz, “NIR to VIS upconversion in LaCl3:1%Er3+. One- and two-color excitations around 1000 and 800 nm,” J. Alloys Compd. 275–277, 191–195 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. Danger, J. Koetke, R. Brede, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Spectroscopy and green upconversion laser emission of Er3+-doped crystals at room temperature,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 1413–1422 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Burlot-Loison, J.-L. Doualan, P. Le Boulanger, T. P. J. Han, H. G. Gallagher, R. Moncorgé, and G. Boulon, “Excited-state absorption of Er3+-doped LiNbO3,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 4165–4170 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

P. Egger, R. Burkhalter, and J. Hulliger, “Czochralski growth of Ba2Y1−xErxCl7(0<x≤1) using growth equip-ment integrated into a dry-box,” J. Cryst. Growth 200, 515–520 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (2)

J. Rubin, A. Brenier, R. Moncorgé, and C. Pédrini, “Excited-state absorption and energy transfer in Er3+-doped LiYF4,” J. Lumin. 36, 39–47 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, E. Heumann, and G. Huber, “Stimulated emission and excited-state absorption on the 550 nm-laser transition in Er3+ doped YAlO3,” J. Lumin. 60+61, 842–845 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Laser Phys. (1)

P. E.-A. Möbert, A. Diening, E. Heumann, G. Huber, and B. H. T. Chai, “Room-temperature continuous-wave upconversion-pumped laser emission in Ho, Yb:KYF4 at 756, 1070, and 1390 nm,” Laser Phys. 8, 210–213 (1998).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Opt. Mater. (1)

R. Burlot, R. Moncorgé, H. Manaa, G. Boulon, Y. Guyot, J. Garcia-Solé, and D. Cochet-Muchy, “Spectroscopic investigation of Nd3+ ion in LiNbO3, MgO:LiNbO3 and LiTaO3 single crystals relevant for laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 6, 313–330 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (9)

N. J. Cockroft, G. D. Jones, and D. C. Nguyen, “Dynamics and spectroscopy of infrared-to-visible upconversion in erbium-doped cesium cadmium bromide (CsCdBr3:Er3+),” Phys. Rev. B 45, 5187–5198 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Riedener, P. Egger, J. Hulliger, and H. U. Güdel, “Upconversion mechanism in Er3+-doped Ba2YCl7,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 1800–1808 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Lüthi, M. Pollnau, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Near-infrared to visible upconversion in Er3+ doped Cs3Lu2Cl9, Cs3Lu2Br9, and Cs3Y2I9 excited at 1.54 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 60, 162–178 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, K. Krämer, H. U. Güdel, R. A. McFarlane, and R. N. Schwartz, “Upconversion in Er3+ dimer systems. Trends within the series Cs3Er2X9(X=Cl, Br, I),” Phys. Rev. B 49, 12475–12484 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. P. Hehlen, G. Frei, and H. U. Güdel, “Dynamics of infrared-to-visible upconversion in Cs3Lu2Br9:1%Er3+,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 16264–16273 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. P. van der Ziel, F. W. Ostermayer, Jr., and L. G. van Uitert, “Infrared excitation of visible luminescence in Y1−xErxF3 via resonant energy transfer,” Phys. Rev. B 2, 4432–4441 (1970).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Golding, S. D. Jackson, T. A. King, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer processes in Er3+-doped and Er3+, Pr3+-codoped ZBLAN glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 62, 856–864 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, D. R. Gamelin, S. R. Lüthi, H. U. Güdel, and M. P. Hehlen, “Power dependence of upconversion luminescence in lanthanide and transition-metal-ion systems,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 3337–3346 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, Th. Graf, J. E. Balmer, W. Lüthy, and H. P. Weber, “Explanation of the cw operation of the erbium 3-μm crystal laser,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 3990–3996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. S. Quimby, W. J. Miniscalco, and B. Thompson, “Excited state absorption at 980 nm in erbium doped glass,” in Fiber Laser Sources and Amplifiers III, M. Digonnot and E. Snitzer, eds., Proc. SPIE 1581, 72–79 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. Piehler and D. Craven, “Green laser diode pumped erbium fiber laser,” in Compact Blue-Green Lasers, Vol. 1 of 1994 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1994), pp. 65–67.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram of Er3+ in Ba2YCl7 up to 27 000 cm-1, indicating the processes that are relevant for laser excitation at 800 nm: GSA, ESA, ETU, and luminescence transitions as well as stimulated emission (SE) at the potential laser transition  2H9/2 4I13/2. The levels labeled 0–3 are included in the analytical rate-equation model (Section 5).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Unpolarized GSA spectrum of Er3+ in Ba2YCl7 (3% doped) from 5000 to 45 000 cm-1. Assignments of the spin–orbit levels are given.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Effective cross sections of Ba2YCl7:Er3+ in the 800-nm wavelength region of GSA  4I15/2 4I9/2 (dotted curves) and ESA  4I9/2 2H9/2 (solid curves) for polarization along each of the three axes. Note the amplification factor of 2 for the GSA. (b) Polarized excitation spectra of the  2H9/2 4I15/2 luminescence at 24 569 cm-1 (406.9 nm) of Ba2YCl7:3% Er3+ (thick curves) and Ba2YCl7:1% Er3+ (thin curve, for Ea only). The black bars at the top show the crystal-field transitions expected for GSA and ESA according to the energies of the Stark components of the originating and terminating levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Survey luminescence spectra polarized along the a axis after excitation at 12 504 cm-1, i.e., 799.5 nm (upper trace), and at 12 110 cm-1, i.e., 825.5 nm (lower trace), in Ba2YCl7:3% Er3+.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effective emission cross sections for the  2H9/2 4I13/2 transition in Ba2YCl7:Er3+ for polarization along each of the three axes.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Semilogarithmic plot of luminescence decays from  2H9/2 at 24 569 cm-1 (406.9 nm) in Ba2YCl7:3%Er3+ after switchoff of cw excitation at (1) 12 503 cm-1 (799.6 nm); (2) 12 110 cm-1 (825.5 nm); and (3) 12 503 cm-1 with the remaining cw excitation at 12 110 cm-1. Solid curves single [curve (3)] or double [curves (1) and (2)] exponential fits of the experimental data.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Double logarithmic plot of the power dependence of upconversion luminescence from  2H9/2 at 24 569 cm-1 (406.9 nm) and  4G11/2 at 26 308 cm-1 (380.0 nm) after one-color excitation at 12 153 cm-1 (822.6 nm) for Ba2YCl7:3% Er3+. The x axis represents the input power on the crystal relative to the maximum power of 270 mW. The numbers denote the slopes (indicated by the dashed curves) at the lowest and highest pump powers.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Calculated threshold inversion and population inversion of the upconversion laser at the 556-nm transition  2H9/2(4)4I13/2(6) versus time after cw excitation has been switched on, for four different pump powers and with an ESA fraction of this pump power of γ=0.5.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimentally Determined Level Energies of Er3+ in Ba2 YCl7 up to 44 000 cm-1

Tables Icon

Table 2 Spectroscopic Parameters for Polarization Parallel to the a Axis of Ba2YCl7:3%Er3+ (N0  = 1.1 × 1020  cm-3) Used for the Theoretical Calculations in Section 5a

Equations (25)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σSEa(λ)=3λ48πcn2βτRIα(λ)α Iα(λ)dλ,
P=PGSA+PESA=(1-γ)P+γP,
RGSA=[1-exp(-dσGSAN0)]λGSAhcdπw02PGSA=ρGSAPGSA=ρGSA(1-γ)P.
RESA=[1-exp(-dσESAN2)]λESAhcdπw02PESAλESAσESAhcπw02PESAN2=ρESAPESAN2=ρESAγPN2.
L=-ln[(1-T)(1-L)].
dϕdt=dσSEb3N3-g3g1b1N1cdoptϕ-Lc2doptϕ.
L2dσSE=Nthr=b3N3-b1N1.
dN3dt=γρESAPN2-A3N3,
dN2dt=(1-γ)ρGSAP-γρESAPN2+β32A3N3-A2N2,
dN1dt=β31A3N3+β21A2N2-A1N1.
N3=γρESAP(1-γ)ρGSAP[(1-β32)γρESAP+A2]A3,
N2=(1-γ)ρGSAP(1-β32)γρESAP+A2,
N1=(β31γρESAP+β21A2)(1-γ)ρGSAP[(1-β32)γρESAP+A2]A1.
P=12C1C2Nthr(1-γ)ρGSA+C3γρESA+C2Nthr(1-γ)ρGSA+C3γρESA2+4C4C1Nthr(1-γ)ρGSAγρESA1/2,
C1=b3A3-b1β31A1,
C2=1-β32,
C3=β21A2b1A1,
C4=A2.
b3/A3β31b1/A1>1.
N3(t)=γρESAPA3N2(t).
N2(t)
=(1-γ)ρGSAP(1-β32)γρESAP+A2×(1-exp{-t[(1-β32)γρESAP+A2]}),
N1(t)=(β31γρESAP+β21A2)(1-γ)ρGSAP(1-β32)γρESAP+A2×1-exp(-tA1)A1+exp(-tA1)-exp{-t[(1-β32)γρESAP+A2]}A1-(1-β32)γρESAP-A2.
N3(t)=γρESA(1-γ)ρGSAP21-exp{-t[(1-β32)γρESAP+A2]}(1-β32)γρESAP+A2,
N1(t)=(β31γρESAP+β21A2)(1-γ)ρGSAP(1-β32)γρESAP+A2t+1-tA1-exp{-t[(1-β32)γρESAP+A2]}A1-(1-β32)γρESAP-A2.

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