Abstract

The fractional thermal loading in a diode-end-pumped solid-state laser is deduced from experimental measurement of the critical pump power. The results show that fractional thermal loading critically depends on the pump-to-mode size ratio. This dependence is attributed to the effect of the pump-to-mode size ratio on the population inversion and to the effect of energy-transfer upconversion. Rigorous modeling calculations have been performed to yield a comprehensive understanding of the thermal loading in diode-end-pumped solid-state lasers.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  8. P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 647–655 (1999).
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  28. Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped laser to high power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234–239 (1999).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (3)

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. Wynne, J. L. Daneu, and T. Y. Fan, “Thermal coefficients of the expansion and refractive index in YAG,” Appl. Opt. 38, 3282–3285 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (6)

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion density in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime, quenching, and ground state bleaching,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J. P. Meyn, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Study of luminescence concentration quenching and energy transfer upconversion in Nd-doped LaSc3(BO3)4 and GdVO4 laser crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1052–1060 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen and H. J. Kuo, “Determination of the thermal loading of diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 by use of thermally induced second-harmonic-harmonic output depolarization,” Opt. Lett. 23, 846–848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, “Heat, fluorescence, and stimulated-emission densities of fractions in Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 560–572 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. C. Brown, “Ultrahigh-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 861–873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped laser to high power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

Y. Guyot, H. Manan, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Ozygus and J. Erhard, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers with transverse beat frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1361–1362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, and R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd-doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, and R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Brauch, “Temperature dependence of efficiency and thermal lensing of diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 397–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

A. K. Cousins, “Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1057–1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. Laporta and M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

T. S. Chen, V. L. Anderson, and O. Kahan, “Measurements of heating and energy storage in diode pumped Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 6–8 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1979 (1)

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, “Single-transverse-mode LiNdP4O12 slab waveguide laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 653–658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, G. F.

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, and R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd-doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, V. L.

T. S. Chen, V. L. Anderson, and O. Kahan, “Measurements of heating and energy storage in diode pumped Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 6–8 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Beach, R. J.

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, and R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd-doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Blows, J. L.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bon, M.

Y. Guyot, H. Manan, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bonner, C. L.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion density in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, M. S.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brauch, U.

U. Brauch, “Temperature dependence of efficiency and thermal lensing of diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 397–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown, “Heat, fluorescence, and stimulated-emission densities of fractions in Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 560–572 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, “Ultrahigh-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 861–873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brussard, M.

P. Laporta and M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chen, T. S.

T. S. Chen, V. L. Anderson, and O. Kahan, “Measurements of heating and energy storage in diode pumped Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 6–8 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. F.

Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen and H. J. Kuo, “Determination of the thermal loading of diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 by use of thermally induced second-harmonic-harmonic output depolarization,” Opt. Lett. 23, 846–848 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped laser to high power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime, quenching, and ground state bleaching,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Comaskey, B.

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, and R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd-doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cousins, A. K.

A. K. Cousins, “Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1057–1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Daneu, J. L.

Dawes, J.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

De Giovanni, P.

Descroix, E.

Y. Guyot, H. Manan, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erhard, J.

B. Ozygus and J. Erhard, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers with transverse beat frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1361–1362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fan, T. Y.

Ferrand, B.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion density in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Friel, G. J.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Garnier, N.

Y. Guyot, H. Manan, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, R.

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, and R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Guy, S.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion density in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Guyot, Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manan, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hanna, D. C.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion density in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime, quenching, and ground state bleaching,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hardman, P. J.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime, quenching, and ground state bleaching,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. M.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped laser to high power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

Jensen, T.

Kahan, O.

T. S. Chen, V. L. Anderson, and O. Kahan, “Measurements of heating and energy storage in diode pumped Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 6–8 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C. F.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped laser to high power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, K.

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, “Single-transverse-mode LiNdP4O12 slab waveguide laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 653–658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H. J.

Laporta, P.

P. Laporta and M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Laporte, P.

Y. Guyot, H. Manan, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Leduc, M.

Manan, H.

Y. Guyot, H. Manan, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Merazzi, S.

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, and R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Metcalf, D.

Meyn, J. P.

Moncorgé, R.

Y. Guyot, H. Manan, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Moran, B. D.

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, and R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd-doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neuenschwander, B.

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Noginov, M. A.

Omatsu, T.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V.

Otsuka, K.

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, “Single-transverse-mode LiNdP4O12 slab waveguide laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 653–658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Ozygus, B.

B. Ozygus and J. Erhard, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers with transverse beat frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1361–1362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Pask, H.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Payne, S. A.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pfistner, C.

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, and R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pollnau, M.

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime, quenching, and ground state bleaching,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

Rivoire, J. Y.

Y. Guyot, H. Manan, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Seamans, J. F.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shepherd, D. P.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion density in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, L. K.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tateda, M.

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tidwell, S. C.

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tropper, A. C.

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion density in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Wang, C. L.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped laser to high power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wang, S. C.

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped laser to high power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weber, H. P.

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, and R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weber, R.

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, and R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilke, G. D.

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, R.

Zachorowski, J.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

U. Brauch, “Temperature dependence of efficiency and thermal lensing of diode-laser-pumped Nd:YAG lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 397–402 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

B. Ozygus and J. Erhard, “Thermal lens determination of end-pumped solid-state lasers with transverse beat frequencies,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1361–1362 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (14)

P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, G. J. Friel, M. Pollnau, and D. C. Hanna, “Energy-transfer upconversion and thermal lensing in high-power end-pumped Nd:YLF laser crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 647–655 (1999).
[CrossRef]

A. K. Cousins, “Temperature and thermal stress scaling in finite-length end-pumped laser rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 1057–1069 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Tidwell, J. F. Seamans, M. S. Bowers, and A. K. Cousins, “Scaling cw diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser to high average powers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 997–1008 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Neuenschwander, R. Weber, and H. P. Weber, “Determination of the thermal lens in solid-state lasers with stable cavities,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1082–1087 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Comaskey, B. D. Moran, G. F. Albrecht, and R. J. Beach, “Characterization of the heat loading of Nd-doped YAG, YOS, YLF, and GGG excited at diode pumping wavelengths,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31, 1261–1264 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, “Heat, fluorescence, and stimulated-emission densities of fractions in Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 560–572 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Y. Fan, “Heat generation in Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 1457–1459 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Chen, V. L. Anderson, and O. Kahan, “Measurements of heating and energy storage in diode pumped Nd:YAG,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 6–8 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Brown, “Ultrahigh-average-power diode-pumped Nd:YAG and Yb:YAG lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 861–873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Pfistner, R. Weber, H. P. Weber, S. Merazzi, and R. Gruber, “Thermal beam distortions in end-pumped Nd:YAG, Nd:GSGG, and Nd:YLF rods,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1605–1615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Guy, C. L. Bonner, D. P. Shepherd, D. C. Hanna, A. C. Tropper, and B. Ferrand, “High-inversion density in Nd:YAG: upconversion and bleaching,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 34, 900–909 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. Laporta and M. Brussard, “Design criteria for mode size optimization in diode-pumped solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2319–2326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, T. M. Huang, C. F. Kao, C. L. Wang, and S. C. Wang, “Optimization in scaling fiber-coupled laser-diode end-pumped laser to high power: influence of thermal effect,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1424–1429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. F. Chen, “Design criteria for concentration optimization in scaling diode end-pumped lasers to high powers: influence of thermal fracture,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 234–239 (1999).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. L. Blows, T. Omatsu, J. Dawes, H. Pask, and M. Tateda, “Heat generation in Nd:YVO4 with and without laser action,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1727–1729 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kubodera and K. Otsuka, “Single-transverse-mode LiNdP4O12 slab waveguide laser,” J. Appl. Phys. 50, 653–658 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Pollnau, P. J. Hardman, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Upconversion, lifetime, quenching, and ground state bleaching,” Opt. Commun. 147, 203–211 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Payne, G. D. Wilke, L. K. Smith, and W. F. Krupke, “Auger upconversion losses in Nd-doped laser glasses,” Opt. Commun. 111, 263–268 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Guyot, H. Manan, J. Y. Rivoire, R. Moncorgé, N. Garnier, E. Descroix, M. Bon, and P. Laporte, “Excited-state-absorption and upconversion studies of Nd3+-doped single crystals Y3A15O12, YLiF4, and LaMgAl11O19,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 784–799 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals, Vol. 14 of Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1981).
[CrossRef]

W. Koechner, Solid-State Laser Engineering, 4th ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996), p. 51.

M. Pollnau, W. A. Clarkson, and D. C. Hanna, “Thermal lensing in end-pumped Nd:YAG under lasing and nonlasing conditions,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 1998), pp. 100–101, paper CTUI 1.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for measuring thermal loading.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimentally measured variation of output power as a function of absorbed pump power for several pump-to-mode size ratios.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental results for the relationship between fractional thermal loading and the pump-to-mode size ratio.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Numerical calculations of N/Nth,o and No/Nth,o as a function of Pabs/Pth,o for several values of the pump-to-mode size ratio.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of FETU on relative pumping power Pabs/Pth,o for three values of the pump-to-mode size ratio.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fractional thermal loading versus Pabs/Pth,o for three values of the pump-to-mode size ratio.

Equations (23)

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1fth=ξPabs2πKcωp2[dno/dT+(no-1)(1+ν)αT+no3αTCr],
1fthcritical=1d2*-1ρ1-d1,
d2*=d2+l(1/no-1),
ξ=1Pcritical 1d2*-1ρ1-d1×2πKcωp2dno/dT+(no-1)(1+ν)αT+no3αTCr.
ξ=PthPabsF(β)+1-PthPabsF(β)1-λpλl,
F(β)=1-2β 2(1+β-1)+ln4β 1+β-11+β+1
β=8γτ2απωp2 PthhνP
dn(x, y, z)dt=Rprp(x, y, z)-cσn(x, y, z)Φϕo(x, y, z)-n(x, y, z)τ-γn(x, y, z)2,
dΦdt=cσΦrodn(x, y, z)ϕo(x, y, z)dV-Φτc,
τc=2leffc 1L+ln(1/R)
Rp=Pabshνp.
rodrp(x, y, z)dV=cavityϕo(x, y, z)dV=1.
rp(x, y, z)=1πωp2 α exp(-αz)1-exp(-αl)Θ(ωp2-x2-y2),
ϕo(x, y, z)=2πωl2(z)leff exp-2 x2+y2ωl2(z),
ωl(z)=ωo{1+[(z-zl)λ1/πωo2]2}1/2ωo.
n(x, y, z)=2Rprp(x, y, z)1τ+cσΦϕo(x, y, z)+1τ+cσΦϕo(x, y, z)2+4γRprp(x, y, z)1/2.
rod 2ϕo(x, y, z)rp(x, y, z)1+cστΦϕo(x, y, z)+[1+cστΦϕo(x, y, z)]2+4γτ2Pabshνprp(x, y, z)1/2 dV=PabsPth,o-1rodϕ0rpdV.
Pth,o=ln(1/R)+L2leff hνpστ 1rodϕorpdV
N=rodn(x, y, z)dV.
NoNth,o=PabsPth,o rod rp(x, y, z)1+cστΦϕo(x, y, z) dV,
rod ϕo(x, y, z)rp(x, y, z)1+cστΦϕo(x, y, z) dV=PabsPth,o-1rodϕ0rpdV.
FETU=No-NNo.
ξ=FETU+(1-FETU)1-λpλl,

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