Abstract

The frequencies of three Doppler-free absorption lines of the  127I2 molecule in the vicinity of 730 nm have been measured interferometrically with reference to an iodine-stabilized 633-nm He–Ne laser. These frequencies are important as transfer standards for Doppler-free, two-photon spectroscopy of the 1S2S transitions in muonium, hydrogen, and deuterium (with the use of frequency tripling to generate the necessary 244-nm radiation). The a15 component of the R(26) 5–13 transition has recently been used as a reference line in a high-precision measurement of the muonium 1S2S frequency interval. Under the conditions reported, the frequency of this transition was found to be 409 253 981.70 (0.14) MHz, ∼680 MHz away from the muonium transition.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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1997

T. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase-coherent measurement of the hydrogen 1S–2S transition frequency with an optical frequency interval divider chain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646–2649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Sansonetti, “Precise measurements of hyperfine components in the spectrum of molecular iodine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1913–1920 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. F. von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Berkeland, E. A. Hinds, and M. G. Boshier, “Precise optical measurement of Lamb shifts in atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2470–2473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994

T. J. Quinn, “Mise en pratique of the definition of the metre (1992),” Metrologia 30, 523–541 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Frequency stabilization of diode lasers to hyperfine transitions of the iodine molecule,” Opt. Commun. 110, 708–716 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Arie and R. L. Byer, “The hyperfine structure of the 127I2 P(119)35–0 transition,” Opt. Commun. 111, 253–258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, “Interferometric measurements of 130Te2 reference frequencies for 1S–2S transitions in hydrogen-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783–4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

W. R. C. Rowley, “The performance of a longitudinal Zeeman-stabilised He–Ne laser (633 nm) with thermal modulation and control,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 348–351 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Morinaga, K. Sugiyama, N. Ito, and J. Helmcke, “Hyperfine structure of low-lying vibrational levels in the B electronic state of molecular iodine,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1656–1659 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, and J. L. Hall, “Measurement of the positronium 13S1–23S1 interval by Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1689–1692 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, and P. T. Woods, “Interferometric frequency-ratio determination of stabilized 473 THz and 88 THz laser radiations,” Metrologia 20, 157–161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1981

M. Gläser, D. Kegung, and H. J. Foth, “Hyperfine structure and fluorescent analysis of enriched 129I2 at the 612 nm wavelength of the He–Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 38, 119–123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, and J. Sinzelle, “Study of the iodine absorption spectrum by means of Fourier spectroscopy in the region 12600–14000 cm−1,” J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 1419–1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978

1976

J. L. Hall and S. A. Lee, “Interferometric real-time display of cw dye laser wavelength with sub-Doppler accuracy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Arie, A.

A. Arie and R. L. Byer, “The hyperfine structure of the 127I2 P(119)35–0 transition,” Opt. Commun. 111, 253–258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baer, T.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Baird, P. E. G.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barr, J. R. M.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barwood, G. P.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, “Interferometric measurements of 130Te2 reference frequencies for 1S–2S transitions in hydrogen-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783–4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, and P. T. Woods, “Interferometric frequency-ratio determination of stabilized 473 THz and 88 THz laser radiations,” Metrologia 20, 157–161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Berkeland, D.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berkeland, D. J.

D. J. Berkeland, E. A. Hinds, and M. G. Boshier, “Precise optical measurement of Lamb shifts in atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2470–2473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biraben, F.

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorklund, G. C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Bodermann, B.

S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Frequency stabilization of diode lasers to hyperfine transitions of the iodine molecule,” Opt. Commun. 110, 708–716 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Boshier, M. G.

D. J. Berkeland, E. A. Hinds, and M. G. Boshier, “Precise optical measurement of Lamb shifts in atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2470–2473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braun, B.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

A. Arie and R. L. Byer, “The hyperfine structure of the 127I2 P(119)35–0 transition,” Opt. Commun. 111, 253–258 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S.

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, and J. L. Hall, “Measurement of the positronium 13S1–23S1 interval by Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1689–1692 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Eaton, G. H.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, A. I.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Flowers, J. L.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, “Interferometric measurements of 130Te2 reference frequencies for 1S–2S transitions in hydrogen-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783–4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foot, C. J.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foth, H. J.

M. Gläser, D. Kegung, and H. J. Foth, “Hyperfine structure and fluorescent analysis of enriched 129I2 at the 612 nm wavelength of the He–Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 38, 119–123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gabrysch, M.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. F. von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Geerds, H.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gerstenkorn, S.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, and J. Sinzelle, “Study of the iodine absorption spectrum by means of Fourier spectroscopy in the region 12600–14000 cm−1,” J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 1419–1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Gill, P.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, “Interferometric measurements of 130Te2 reference frequencies for 1S–2S transitions in hydrogen-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783–4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gläser, M.

M. Gläser, D. Kegung, and H. J. Foth, “Hyperfine structure and fluorescent analysis of enriched 129I2 at the 612 nm wavelength of the He–Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 38, 119–123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Gross, B.

T. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase-coherent measurement of the hydrogen 1S–2S transition frequency with an optical frequency interval divider chain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646–2649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, and J. L. Hall, “Measurement of the positronium 13S1–23S1 interval by Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1689–1692 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall and S. A. Lee, “Interferometric real-time display of cw dye laser wavelength with sub-Doppler accuracy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hänsch, T. W.

T. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase-coherent measurement of the hydrogen 1S–2S transition frequency with an optical frequency interval divider chain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646–2649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Helmcke, J.

Hinds, E. A.

D. J. Berkeland, E. A. Hinds, and M. G. Boshier, “Precise optical measurement of Lamb shifts in atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2470–2473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hollberg, L.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Huber, A.

T. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase-coherent measurement of the hydrogen 1S–2S transition frequency with an optical frequency interval divider chain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646–2649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hughes, V. W.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ito, N.

Julien, L.

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jungmann, K.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. F. von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kegung, D.

M. Gläser, D. Kegung, and H. J. Foth, “Hyperfine structure and fluorescent analysis of enriched 129I2 at the 612 nm wavelength of the He–Ne laser,” Opt. Commun. 38, 119–123 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Knöckel, H.

S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Frequency stabilization of diode lasers to hyperfine transitions of the iodine molecule,” Opt. Commun. 110, 708–716 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kremser, S.

S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Frequency stabilization of diode lasers to hyperfine transitions of the iodine molecule,” Opt. Commun. 110, 708–716 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. A.

J. L. Hall and S. A. Lee, “Interferometric real-time display of cw dye laser wavelength with sub-Doppler accuracy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Leibfried, D.

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenth, W.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Levenson, M. D.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Luc, P.

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, and J. Sinzelle, “Study of the iodine absorption spectrum by means of Fourier spectroscopy in the region 12600–14000 cm−1,” J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 1419–1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Maas, F. E.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matousek, P.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matthias, B. E.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mills, A. P.

S. Chu, A. P. Mills, and J. L. Hall, “Measurement of the positronium 13S1–23S1 interval by Doppler-free two-photon spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1689–1692 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Morinaga, A.

Ortiz, C.

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Paschucki, K.

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Persaud, M. A.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Petley, B. W.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, “Interferometric measurements of 130Te2 reference frequencies for 1S–2S transitions in hydrogen-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783–4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plimmer, M. D.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prevedelli, M.

T. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase-coherent measurement of the hydrogen 1S–2S transition frequency with an optical frequency interval divider chain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646–2649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Quinn, T. J.

T. J. Quinn, “Mise en pratique of the definition of the metre (1992),” Metrologia 30, 523–541 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reichert, J.

T. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase-coherent measurement of the hydrogen 1S–2S transition frequency with an optical frequency interval divider chain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646–2649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reinhard, I.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. F. von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Riis, E.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, H. G.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rowley, W. R. C.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, P. Gill, J. L. Flowers, and B. W. Petley, “Interferometric measurements of 130Te2 reference frequencies for 1S–2S transitions in hydrogen-like atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 4783–4790 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. C. Rowley, “The performance of a longitudinal Zeeman-stabilised He–Ne laser (633 nm) with thermal modulation and control,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 348–351 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, and P. T. Woods, “Interferometric frequency-ratio determination of stabilized 473 THz and 88 THz laser radiations,” Metrologia 20, 157–161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Woods, K. C. Sholton, and W. R. C. Rowley, “Frequency determination of visible laser light by interferometric comparison with upconverted CO2 laser radiation,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1048–1054 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandars, P. G. H.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sansonetti, C. J.

Schmidt-Kaler, F.

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schwartz, W.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sholton, K. C.

Sinzelle, J.

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, and J. Sinzelle, “Study of the iodine absorption spectrum by means of Fourier spectroscopy in the region 12600–14000 cm−1,” J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 1419–1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Stacey, D. N.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugiyama, K.

Swan, J. B.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tate, D. A.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tiemann, E.

S. Kremser, B. Bodermann, H. Knöckel, and E. Tiemann, “Frequency stabilization of diode lasers to hyperfine transitions of the iodine molecule,” Opt. Commun. 110, 708–716 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Toner, W. T.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Towrie, M.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Udem, T.

T. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase-coherent measurement of the hydrogen 1S–2S transition frequency with an optical frequency interval divider chain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646–2649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vassen, W.

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Weikersthal, B. F.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. F. von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Warrington, D. M.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitz, M.

T. Udem, A. Huber, B. Gross, J. Reichert, M. Prevedelli, M. Weitz, and T. W. Hänsch, “Phase-coherent measurement of the hydrogen 1S–2S transition frequency with an optical frequency interval divider chain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 2646–2649 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Willmann, L.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woodgate, G. K.

M. G. Boshier, P. E. G. Baird, C. J. Foot, E. A. Hinds, M. D. Plimmer, D. N. Stacey, J. B. Swan, D. A. Tate, D. M. Warrington, and G. K. Woodgate, “Laser spectroscopy of the 1S–2S transition in hydrogen and deuterium: determination of the 1S Lamb shift and the Rydberg constant,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 6169–6184 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Woodle, K. A.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woodman, G. S.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Woods, P. T.

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, and P. T. Woods, “Interferometric frequency-ratio determination of stabilized 473 THz and 88 THz laser radiations,” Metrologia 20, 157–161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

P. T. Woods, K. C. Sholton, and W. R. C. Rowley, “Frequency determination of visible laser light by interferometric comparison with upconverted CO2 laser radiation,” Appl. Opt. 17, 1048–1054 (1978).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

M. Weitz, A. Huber, F. Schmidt-Kaler, D. Leibfried, W. Vassen, C. Zimmermann, K. Paschucki, T. W. Hänsch, L. Julien, and F. Biraben, “Precision measurement of the 1S ground-state Lamb shift in atomic hydrogen and deuterium by frequency comparison,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 2664–2681 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

zu Pulitz, G.

F. E. Maas, B. Braun, H. Geerds, K. Jungmann, B. E. Matthias, G. zu Pulitz, I. Reinhard, W. Schwartz, L. Willmann, L. Zhang, P. E. G. Baird, P. G. H. Sandars, G. S. Woodman, G. H. Eaton, P. Matousek, W. T. Toner, M. Towrie, J. R. M. Barr, A. I. Ferguson, M. A. Persaud, E. Riis, D. Berkeland, M. G. Boshier, V. W. Hughes, and K. A. Woodle, “A measurement of the 1S–2S transition frequency in muonium,” Phys. Lett. A 187, 247–254 (1994).
[CrossRef]

zu Putlitz, G.

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. F. von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. B

I. Reinhard, M. Gabrysch, B. F. von Weikersthal, K. Jungmann, and G. zu Putlitz, “Measurement and compensation of frequency chirping in pulsed dye laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 63, 467–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bjorklund, M. D. Levenson, W. Lenth, and C. Ortiz, “Frequency modulation (FM) spectroscopy. Theory of lineshapes and signal-to-noise analysis,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 145–152 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

J. L. Hall, L. Hollberg, T. Baer, and H. G. Robinson, “Optical heterodyne saturation spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 680–682 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Hall and S. A. Lee, “Interferometric real-time display of cw dye laser wavelength with sub-Doppler accuracy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 367–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. (Paris)

S. Gerstenkorn, P. Luc, and J. Sinzelle, “Study of the iodine absorption spectrum by means of Fourier spectroscopy in the region 12600–14000 cm−1,” J. Phys. (Paris) 41, 1419–1430 (1980).
[CrossRef]

S. Gerstenkorn and P. Luc, “Description of the absorption spectrum of iodine recorded by means of Fourier transform spectroscopy: the (B–X) system,” J. Phys. (Paris) 46, 867–881 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol.

W. R. C. Rowley, “The performance of a longitudinal Zeeman-stabilised He–Ne laser (633 nm) with thermal modulation and control,” Meas. Sci. Technol. 1, 348–351 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia

G. P. Barwood, W. R. C. Rowley, and P. T. Woods, “Interferometric frequency-ratio determination of stabilized 473 THz and 88 THz laser radiations,” Metrologia 20, 157–161 (1984).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Quinn, “Mise en pratique of the definition of the metre (1992),” Metrologia 30, 523–541 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental arrangement for the FM saturation spectroscopy of molecular iodine. EOM, electro-optic modulator; GB, glass blank; PBS, polarizing beam splitter; PD, fast photodiode; TC, temperature controller.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Signal detection scheme for the FM saturation spectrometer. AMP, amplifier; DBM, double-balanced mixer; LO, local oscillator; RF, radio frequency; IF, intermediate frequency.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Hyperfine structure of the  127I2 R(26) 5–13 transition showing the muonium reference line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Hyperfine structure of the  127I2 P(258) 7–11 transition showing the hydrogen reference line.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Hyperfine structure of the  127I2 R(137) 5–12 transition showing the deuterium reference line.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Interferometric Frequency Measurement Uncertainties

Tables Icon

Table 2 Iodine Transition Frequencies

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