Abstract

We have implemented an adjustable traveling-wave method of excitation for the transverse pumping of laser media based on tilting one of the gratings of the compressor of a chirped pulse amplification [Opt. Commun. 56, 219 (1985)] (CPA) laser chain. We show that the only requirement to obtain the best locally compressed pulse is to slightly tilt and translate one of the gratings from its original position. Exact and approximate expressions of these two motions are derived, allowing an easy reconfiguration of any CPA laser. An experimental validation is performed with the first observation of a unidirectional soft-x-ray lasing when subpicosecond pumping pulses are used.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. E. Field, D. A. King, K. H. Hahn, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “Studies of a 96.9-nm laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4286–4296 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
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  21. B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

1999 (2)

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

1997 (3)

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Snavely, L. B. Da Silva, D. C. Eder, D. L. Matthews, and S. J. Moon, “Traveling wave pumping of ultra-short pulse x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 109–113 (1997).

P. Nickles, V. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, J. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

J. C. Moreno, J. Nielsen, and L. B. Da Silva, “Traveling wave excitation and amplification of neon-like germanium 3p-3s transitions,” Opt. Commun. 110, 585–589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia and E. E. Fill, “Traveling-wave excitation of an x-ray laser medium,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 258–264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. E. Field, D. A. King, K. H. Hahn, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “Studies of a 96.9-nm laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4286–4296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

1985 (2)

I. N. Ross and E. M. Hodgson, “Some optical designs for the generation of high quality line foci,” J. Phys. E 18, 169–173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1983 (2)

H. J. Polland, T. Elsaesser, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, M. Kussler, N. J. Marx, B. Sens, and K. H. Drexhage, “Picosecond dye laser emission in the infrared between 1.4 and 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 53–57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zs. Bor, S. Szatmari, and A. Müller, “Picosecond pulse shortening by traveling wave amplified spontaneous emission,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 101–104 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

M. E. Mack, “Superradiant traveling-wave dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 166–168 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (2)

J. D. Shipman, “Traveling wave excitation of high power gas lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 3–4 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay and P. M. Rentzepis, “Some approaches to vacuum UV and x-ray lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 350–352 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Albert, F.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Audebert, P.

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Barty, C. P. J.

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. E. Field, D. A. King, K. H. Hahn, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “Studies of a 96.9-nm laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4286–4296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baton, S.

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Boon, J.

Bor, Zs.

Zs. Bor, S. Szatmari, and A. Müller, “Picosecond pulse shortening by traveling wave amplified spontaneous emission,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 101–104 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carillon, A.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ceglio, N. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chanteloup, J.-C.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Corbett, R.

Crespo Lopez-Urrutia, J. R.

J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia and E. E. Fill, “Traveling-wave excitation of an x-ray laser medium,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 258–264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Da Silva, L. B.

R. A. Snavely, L. B. Da Silva, D. C. Eder, D. L. Matthews, and S. J. Moon, “Traveling wave pumping of ultra-short pulse x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 109–113 (1997).

J. C. Moreno, J. Nielsen, and L. B. Da Silva, “Traveling wave excitation and amplification of neon-like germanium 3p-3s transitions,” Opt. Commun. 110, 585–589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Damarell, A.

Descamps, D.

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Dhez, P.

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Drexhage, K. H.

H. J. Polland, T. Elsaesser, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, M. Kussler, N. J. Marx, B. Sens, and K. H. Drexhage, “Picosecond dye laser emission in the infrared between 1.4 and 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 53–57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay and P. M. Rentzepis, “Some approaches to vacuum UV and x-ray lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 350–352 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Eckart, M. J.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eder, D. C.

R. A. Snavely, L. B. Da Silva, D. C. Eder, D. L. Matthews, and S. J. Moon, “Traveling wave pumping of ultra-short pulse x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 109–113 (1997).

Elsaesser, T.

H. J. Polland, T. Elsaesser, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, M. Kussler, N. J. Marx, B. Sens, and K. H. Drexhage, “Picosecond dye laser emission in the infrared between 1.4 and 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 53–57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Field, J. E.

C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. E. Field, D. A. King, K. H. Hahn, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “Studies of a 96.9-nm laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4286–4296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E. E.

J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia and E. E. Fill, “Traveling-wave excitation of an x-ray laser medium,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 258–264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fourcade, P.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Gordon III, C. L.

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gottfeld, P.

Hagelstein, P. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hahn, K. H.

C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. E. Field, D. A. King, K. H. Hahn, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “Studies of a 96.9-nm laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4286–4296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. E. Field, D. A. King, K. H. Hahn, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “Studies of a 96.9-nm laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4286–4296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hatcher, C. W.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hawryluk, A. M.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hazi, A. U.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hebling, J.

Hodgson, E. M.

I. N. Ross and E. M. Hodgson, “Some optical designs for the generation of high quality line foci,” J. Phys. E 18, 169–173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hooket, C.

Hubert, S.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Jaeglé, P.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jamelot, G.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Janulewicz, K.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Joyeux, D.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Kaiser, W.

H. J. Polland, T. Elsaesser, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, M. Kussler, N. J. Marx, B. Sens, and K. H. Drexhage, “Picosecond dye laser emission in the infrared between 1.4 and 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 53–57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Kalachnikov, M.

P. Nickles, V. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, J. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kalashnikov, M.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Kauffman, R. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keenan, R.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Key, M. H.

Kiehn, G.

King, D. A.

C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. E. Field, D. A. King, K. H. Hahn, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “Studies of a 96.9-nm laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4286–4296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klisnick, A.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kubodera, S.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhl, J.

Kuhnle, G.

Kussler, M.

H. J. Polland, T. Elsaesser, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, M. Kussler, N. J. Marx, B. Sens, and K. H. Drexhage, “Picosecond dye laser emission in the infrared between 1.4 and 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 53–57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Lemoff, B. E.

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, C.

Lewis, C. L. S.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Mac Phee, A.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

MacGowan, B. J.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mack, M. E.

M. E. Mack, “Superradiant traveling-wave dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 166–168 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Marx, N. J.

H. J. Polland, T. Elsaesser, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, M. Kussler, N. J. Marx, B. Sens, and K. H. Drexhage, “Picosecond dye laser emission in the infrared between 1.4 and 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 53–57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D. L.

R. A. Snavely, L. B. Da Silva, D. C. Eder, D. L. Matthews, and S. J. Moon, “Traveling wave pumping of ultra-short pulse x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 109–113 (1997).

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Medecki, H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michard, A.

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Migus, A.

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Moon, S. J.

R. A. Snavely, L. B. Da Silva, D. C. Eder, D. L. Matthews, and S. J. Moon, “Traveling wave pumping of ultra-short pulse x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 109–113 (1997).

Moreno, J. C.

J. C. Moreno, J. Nielsen, and L. B. Da Silva, “Traveling wave excitation and amplification of neon-like germanium 3p-3s transitions,” Opt. Commun. 110, 585–589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Müller, A.

Zs. Bor, S. Szatmari, and A. Müller, “Picosecond pulse shortening by traveling wave amplified spontaneous emission,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 101–104 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Nagata, Y.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nantel, M.

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nickles, P.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

P. Nickles, V. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, J. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, J.

J. C. Moreno, J. Nielsen, and L. B. Da Silva, “Traveling wave excitation and amplification of neon-like germanium 3p-3s transitions,” Opt. Commun. 110, 585–589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O’Rourcke, R.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Obara, M.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Paillard, J. L.

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Pesme, D.

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Phalippou, D.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Pleaasance, L. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polland, H. J.

H. J. Polland, T. Elsaesser, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, M. Kussler, N. J. Marx, B. Sens, and K. H. Drexhage, “Picosecond dye laser emission in the infrared between 1.4 and 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 53–57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Rambach, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rentzepis, P. M.

M. A. Duguay and P. M. Rentzepis, “Some approaches to vacuum UV and x-ray lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 350–352 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Ros, D.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Rosen, M. D.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, I. N.

Rus, B.

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salmon, E.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Sandner, W.

P. Nickles, V. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, J. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Sautivet, A.-M.

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Schnürer, M.

P. Nickles, V. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, J. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, J. H.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seilmeier, A.

H. J. Polland, T. Elsaesser, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, M. Kussler, N. J. Marx, B. Sens, and K. H. Drexhage, “Picosecond dye laser emission in the infrared between 1.4 and 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 53–57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Sens, B.

H. J. Polland, T. Elsaesser, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, M. Kussler, N. J. Marx, B. Sens, and K. H. Drexhage, “Picosecond dye laser emission in the infrared between 1.4 and 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 53–57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Shipman, J. D.

J. D. Shipman, “Traveling wave excitation of high power gas lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 3–4 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V.

P. Nickles, V. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, J. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Simon, P.

Snavely, R. A.

R. A. Snavely, L. B. Da Silva, D. C. Eder, D. L. Matthews, and S. J. Moon, “Traveling wave pumping of ultra-short pulse x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 109–113 (1997).

Stone, G.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Szatmari, S.

S. Szatmari, G. Kuhnle, and P. Simon, “Pulse compression and traveling wave excitation scheme using a single dispersive element,” Appl. Opt. 29, 5372–5379 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zs. Bor, S. Szatmari, and A. Müller, “Picosecond pulse shortening by traveling wave amplified spontaneous emission,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 101–104 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Tashiro, H.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Timsit, H.

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Toyoda, K.

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebes, J. E.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Warwick, J.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Weaver, T. A.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitten, B. L.

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Will, J.

P. Nickles, V. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, J. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Willi, O.

Yin, G. Y.

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. E. Field, D. A. King, K. H. Hahn, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “Studies of a 96.9-nm laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4286–4296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Young, J. F.

C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. E. Field, D. A. King, K. H. Hahn, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “Studies of a 96.9-nm laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4286–4296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeitoun, P.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J. P.

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

Zou, J. P.

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

Zs. Bor, S. Szatmari, and A. Müller, “Picosecond pulse shortening by traveling wave amplified spontaneous emission,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 101–104 (1983).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Polland, T. Elsaesser, A. Seilmeier, W. Kaiser, M. Kussler, N. J. Marx, B. Sens, and K. H. Drexhage, “Picosecond dye laser emission in the infrared between 1.4 and 1.8 μm,” Appl. Phys. B 32, 53–57 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

J. D. Shipman, “Traveling wave excitation of high power gas lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 3–4 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Duguay and P. M. Rentzepis, “Some approaches to vacuum UV and x-ray lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 350–352 (1967).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Mack, “Superradiant traveling-wave dye laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 15, 166–168 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

A. Klisnick, D. Ros, P. Zeitoun, F. Albert, A. Carillon, P. Fourcade, S. Hubert, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, C. L. S. Lewis, A. Mac Phee, R. O’Rourcke, R. Keenan, P. Nickles, K. Janulewicz, M. Kalashnikov, J. Warwick, J.-C. Chanteloup, E. Salmon, C. Sauteret, J. P. Zhou, D. Joyeux, and D. Phalippou, “Generation of intense Ni-like x-ray lasers at LULI: from 130 ps to 350 fs pumping pulses,” Y. Kato, H. Takuma, and H. Daido, eds., Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 159, 107–114 (1999).

J. Phys. E (1)

I. N. Ross and E. M. Hodgson, “Some optical designs for the generation of high quality line foci,” J. Phys. E 18, 169–173 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

J. C. Moreno, J. Nielsen, and L. B. Da Silva, “Traveling wave excitation and amplification of neon-like germanium 3p-3s transitions,” Opt. Commun. 110, 585–589 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. A (2)

C. P. J. Barty, G. Y. Yin, J. E. Field, D. A. King, K. H. Hahn, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “Studies of a 96.9-nm laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4286–4296 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Rus, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, M. Nantel, and P. Zeitoun, “Efficient, high-brightness soft x-ray laser at 21.2 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 3858–3873 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

P. Nickles, V. Shlyaptsev, M. Kalachnikov, M. Schnürer, J. Will, and W. Sandner, “Short pulse x-ray laser at 32.6 nm based on transient gain in Ne-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2748–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. L. Matthews, P. L. Hagelstein, M. D. Rosen, M. J. Eckart, N. M. Ceglio, A. U. Hazi, H. Medecki, B. J. MacGowan, J. E. Trebes, B. L. Whitten, E. M. Campbell, C. W. Hatcher, A. M. Hawryluk, R. L. Kauffman, L. D. Pleaasance, G. Rambach, J. H. Scofield, G. Stone, and T. A. Weaver, “Demonstration of a soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 110–114 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, D. A. King, G. Y. Yin, K. H. Hahn, J. E. Field, J. F. Young, and S. E. Harris, “12.8-eV laser in neutral cesium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2201–2204 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Nagata, K. Midorikawa, S. Kubodera, M. Obara, H. Tashiro, and K. Toyoda, “Soft-x-ray amplification of the Lyman-α transition by optical-induced ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 3774–3777 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. E. Lemoff, G. Y. Yin, C. L. Gordon III, C. P. J. Barty, and S. E. Harris, “Demonstration of a 10-Hz, femtosecond-pulse-driven XUV laser at 41.8 nm in Xe IX,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 1574–1577 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

R. A. Snavely, L. B. Da Silva, D. C. Eder, D. L. Matthews, and S. J. Moon, “Traveling wave pumping of ultra-short pulse x-ray lasers,” in Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications II, J. J. Rocca and L. B. Da Silva, eds., Proc. SPIE 3156, 109–113 (1997).

J. R. Crespo Lopez-Urrutia and E. E. Fill, “Traveling-wave excitation of an x-ray laser medium,” in Ultrashort Wavelength Lasers II, S. Suckewer, ed., Proc. SPIE 2012, 258–264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Zou, D. Descamps, P. Audebert, S. Baton, J. L. Paillard, D. Pesme, A. Michard, A.-M. Sautivet, H. Timsit, and A. Migus, “The LULI 100-TW Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass laser: a first step towards a high performance petawatt facility,” in Third International Conference on Solid State Lasers for Application to Inertial Confinement Fusion, W. H. Lowdermilk, ed., Proc. SPIE 3492, 96–97 (1999).

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1989), pp. 16–17.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

This figure shows, in the incident plane, a polychromatic short pulse represented by its wave vector kincident. This pulse behaves like a plane-wave packet diffracting in λ-dependent directions. Two diffracted plane waves are also represented with vectors kdiff(ω) and kdiff(ω0).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Spatial evolution of the inhomogeneous pulse envelope during its propagation after a misaligned grating-pair compressor. The angle θIP can be totally controlled by the rotation . Oz is the axis along which the central ray of the emerging beam, at λ0, is propagating. The plane of best compression PEG is materialized by the dotted line defining the position of the equivalent grating. The intersection between Oz and that line is P(x=0, z=zEG). The position of this point is adjusted with ΔL to make sure that it is imaged through the focusing optics onto the focal line in the middle of which the pulse duration will then be the shortest. Note the transverse variation of the pulse duration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental setup. The compressor vacuum chamber is represented on the left with the misaligned grating pair and the roof mirror, allowing a double pass. A low-loss mirror allows collection of enough energy for single-shot autocorrelation measurement. The main pulse is directed toward the target plane (materialized by the dashed line) through the focusing system made of an off-axis spherical mirror and an off-axis parabola. Focusing a low-energy inhomogeneous pulse and collecting the energy deposited along the focal line with a set of optical fibers coupled to a streak camera allows retrieval of θIP.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

IR streak camera image showing temporal traces of four pulses coming out from the optical fibers.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Theoretical curves and experimental points for two different configurations of the compressor (=-0.3° and =+0.25°). For each set of points—obtained from streak camera images—one of them does not carry any error bar, since it is used as a reference (indeed, a streak camera image gives only relative delays and not absolute arrival times). Although experimental data for five different rays are collected along the focal line, they are plotted on the figure with the corresponding equivalent transverse position of each ray before focusing (beam diameter being 87 mm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Three curves represent theoretical longitudinal (z) variation of IP duration for three rays (x=0,±37.5 mm). Also shown are three experimental points resulting from measurements performed in the plane located in P, i.e., at the position z=zEG for =-0.2°. The IP pulse-duration distribution is identical at this location and along the focal line. Indeed, the focusing system is a pure astigmatic system that focuses energy along one direction and performs image relaying along the perpendicular direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Four curves represent theoretical transversal (x) variation of IP duration for different pulse duration (τ0=100, 200, and 330 fs and 1 ps). Also shown are the experimental points appearing in Fig. 6 for three different transverse locations (x=0,±37.5 mm). For this graph, the grating was tilted by -0.2°.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

For this graph the grating was tilted by -0.296°, as required by the soft-x-ray laser experiment. The three curves represent theoretical longitudinal (z) variation of IP duration for three rays (x=0,±37.5 mm). Also shown are three experimental points resulting from measurements performed in an observation plane located upstream P(z=zEG). Rayleigh length z0, ∼1480 mm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Soft-x-ray laser line observed without (top) and with (bottom) an IP. The noise level is ∼30 counts and 30 times more soft-x-ray photons are observed in the latter case with unidirectional emission.

Equations (33)

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EO(t)=AO(t)exp(iω0 t).
AO(t)=12πA˜O(ω)exp(iωt)dω.
ΦM(ω)=ωc[z cos(α-α0)+x sin(α-α0)],
sin(i0)+sin(α)=pN 2πcω,
ΦM(ω)=ΦM|0+dΦMdω0(ω-ω0)+12d2ΦMdω20(ω-ω0)2+O(ω-ω0)3,
ΦM|0=ω0cz,
dΦMdω0=zc-x 2πpNω0 cos(α0),
d2ΦMdω20=ω0c[x tan(α0)-z]2πcpNω02 cos(α0)2.
EM(t)=A0t-dΦMdω0exp(iω0t-iΦM|0).
ω0 t-ΦM|0=const.
z=ct+const.
t-dΦMdω0=const.
z=pλ0 Ncos(α0)x+ct+const.,
z=tan(α0)x.
ΦM(ω)=Φc(ω)+Φs(ω)+ωc[x sin(i4-i40)+z cos(i4-i40)].
Φc(ω)=ωc[L cos(α1-α10)+g cos(i2-i20)+g cos(i3-i30)+L cos(α3-α30)],
Φs(ω)=-2ωc[L0 cos(α1-α10)+g],
ΦM|0=ω0c(2ΔL+z),
dΦMdω0=1c2ΔL+z+ω0i4ω0x,
d2ΦMdω0=-ω0cLα1ω02+α3ω02+2g i2ω02-2L0 α1ω02+xc2i4ω0+ω0 2i4ω20-ω0cz i4ω02.
z=ct,
z=ct-2ΔL-x tan θIP.
tan θIP=ω0 i4ω0=2λ0Ncos i1cos α10cos(α10-)-1.
tan θ(λ)=2λNcos i1cos α10cos(α10-)-1.
zEG=-Lα1ω02+α3ω02+2g i2ω02-2L0 α1ω02i4ω02,
tan(θEG)=2i4ω0+ω0 2i4ω20ω0 i4ω02.
z=zEG+x tan(θEG).
ΔL=L-L0=L0α1ω02-α3ω02-2g i2ω02-zEG i4ω02α1ω02+α3ω02.
ΔL=B22B(1+B)+1L0-2 cos2(α10)cos2(i1)zEG-cos2(α10-)1-[Nλ0-sin(α10-)]2g-L0,
ΔL2L0 tan(α10)-(g+2zEG) sin2(α10)cos2(i1)2.
τ(x, z)=τ01+4 ln 2τ02d2ΦMdω20(x, z)21/2,
z0=τ02λ08π ln 2i4ω02.
τ(x=0, z)=τ0[1+(z-zEG)2/z02]1/2.

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