Abstract

A theoretical study of the interaction of intense terahertz transients and broadband optical pulses in quantum wells is presented. The approach is based on a numerical solution of the anisotropic semiconductor Bloch equations and includes, self-consistently, both continuum and excitonic effects. In the optical regime we recover the dynamic Franz–Keldysh effect showing THz sidebands in the optical absorption spectrum. In the THz regime we discern a series of harmonically generated upshifted THz transients. It is demonstrated pictorially that the upshifted transients are formed by the creation of highly anisotropic interfering, relative-motion electron–hole wave packets. We also investigate the influence of ellipticity of the driving field and chirped optical pulses. The field interaction with the quantum well is shown to be highly nonperturbative for typical free-electron laser fields. A series of propagating charge-carrier wave packets are analyzed, and a connection is made to analogies in the high-field physics of atomic ensembles.

© 2000 Optical Society of America

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  1. S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102–105 (1992); P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, I. Brener, K. W. Goossen, M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, and L. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz emission in single quantum wells after coherent optical excitation of light hole and heavy hole excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3800–3803 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. A. W. Ghosh, A. V. Kuznetsov, and J. W. Wilkins, “Reflection of THz radiation by a superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3494–3497 (1997); J. Kono, M. Y. Su, T. Inoshita, T. Noda, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and H. Sakaki, “Resonant terahertz optical sideband generation from confined magnetoexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1758–1761 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-H. Son, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, “Terahertz electromagnetic pulses as probes for transient velocity overshoot in GaAs and Si,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2519–2527 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Hughes and D. S. Citrin, “Ultrafast heating and switching of a semiconductor optical amplifier using half-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R15969–R15972 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. Hughes and D. S. Citrin, “Creation of highly anisotropic wavepackets in quantum wells: dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect in the optical and terahertz regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R5288–R5291 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. Franz, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 13, 484 (1958); L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 788 (1958).
  8. A. P. Jauho and K. Johnsen, “Dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 4576–4579 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Bloch, Z. Phys. 52, 555 (1929).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Holthaus, “Collapse of minibands in far-infrared irradiated superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 351–354 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent electric-field effects in semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 902–905 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. For a textbook discussion, see J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996) and references therein.
  15. D. S. Citrin, “Quasi-half-cycle terahertz pulse generation via optical rectification in quantum wells using shaped optical pulses,” Optics Express 4, 376–384 (1997); A. M. Weiner, “Enhancement of coherent charge oscillations in coupled quantum wells by femtosecond pulse shaping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2480–2491 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043–11050 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. I. Brener, P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, S.-L. Chuang, L. Pfeiffer, D. E. Laird, and A. M. Weiner, “Coherent control of terahertz emission and carrier populations in semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2457–2469 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, “Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342–3350 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Rappen, U. Peter, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. For a textbook discussion, see H. Haug and S. W. Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 3rd ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994) and references therein.
  21. D. H. Dunlop and V. M. Kenkre, “Dynamic localization of a charged particle moving under the influence of an electric field,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3625–3633 (1986); T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent effects induced by static and time-dependent electric fields in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14490–14497 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  22. J. A. Fleck, “Ultrashort-pulse generation by Q-switched lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 84–100 (1970); J. C. Eilbeck and R. K. Bullough, J. Phys. A 5, 820 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  23. For a review, see, for example, F. Rossi, P. Poli, and C. Jacoboni, “Weighted Monte Carlo approach to semiclassical and quantum electron transport in semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7, 1017 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Zimmermann, in Nonlinear Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, F. Henneberger, S. Schmitt-Rink, and E. O. Göbel, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 51–74; R. Zimmermann, Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Collective Excitations in Solids, Di Bartoli, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1997).
  25. Y. Yacoby, “High-frequency Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. 169, 610–619 (1968).
    [CrossRef]
  26. L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).
  27. D. Fröhlich, S. Spitzer, B. Uebbing, and R. Zimmermann, “Polarization dependence in the intraband optical stark effect of quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 173, 83–89 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. Johnsen and A. P. Jauho, “Optics of excitons in THz irradiated quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 164, 553–556 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Protopapus, D. G. Lappas, and P. L. Knight, “Strong field ionization in arbitrary laser polarizations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4550–4553 (1997); G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  30. J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murname, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752–755 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. I. P. Christov, M. M. Murname, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, M. Ben-Nun, and K. R. Wilson, “Creating and detecting shaped Rydberg wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4978–4981 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  33. P. Moreno, L. Plaja, and L. Roso, “High-order harmonic generation in a partially ionized medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 430–435 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  34. See, for example, V. M. Axt, G. Bartels, and A. Stahl, “Intraband dynamics at the semiconductor band edge: shortcomings of the Bloch equation method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2543–2546 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  35. K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3400 (1993); G. G. Paulus, F. Zacher, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. W. Becker, A. Lohr, K. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645–656 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  37. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. D. S. Citrin and S. Hughes, “Circularly polarized dynamic Franz–Keldysh effect,” submitted to Phys. Rev. B.
  39. J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  40. M. Dignam, J. E. Sipe, and J. Shaw, “Coherent excitations in the Stark ladder: excitonic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10502–10513 (1994); E. Binder, T. Kuhn, and G. Mahler, “Coherent intraband and interband dynamics in double quantum wells: exciton and free-carrier effects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18319–18329 (1994); A. V. Kuznetsov, G. D. Sanders, and C. J. Stanten, “Wave-packet dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 12045–12055 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  41. J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1999 (1)

S. Hughes and D. S. Citrin, “Creation of highly anisotropic wavepackets in quantum wells: dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect in the optical and terahertz regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R5288–R5291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. Hughes and D. S. Citrin, “Ultrafast heating and switching of a semiconductor optical amplifier using half-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R15969–R15972 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, M. Ben-Nun, and K. R. Wilson, “Creating and detecting shaped Rydberg wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4978–4981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (7)

W. Becker, A. Lohr, K. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645–656 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Johnsen and A. P. Jauho, “Optics of excitons in THz irradiated quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 164, 553–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Protopapus, D. G. Lappas, and P. L. Knight, “Strong field ionization in arbitrary laser polarizations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4550–4553 (1997); G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murname, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Ghosh, A. V. Kuznetsov, and J. W. Wilkins, “Reflection of THz radiation by a superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3494–3497 (1997); J. Kono, M. Y. Su, T. Inoshita, T. Noda, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and H. Sakaki, “Resonant terahertz optical sideband generation from confined magnetoexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1758–1761 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Citrin, “Quasi-half-cycle terahertz pulse generation via optical rectification in quantum wells using shaped optical pulses,” Optics Express 4, 376–384 (1997); A. M. Weiner, “Enhancement of coherent charge oscillations in coupled quantum wells by femtosecond pulse shaping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2480–2491 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

A. P. Jauho and K. Johnsen, “Dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 4576–4579 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murname, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752–755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, and L. Roso, “High-order harmonic generation in a partially ionized medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 430–435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

See, for example, V. M. Axt, G. Bartels, and A. Stahl, “Intraband dynamics at the semiconductor band edge: shortcomings of the Bloch equation method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2543–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (5)

J.-H. Son, T. B. Norris, and J. F. Whitaker, “Terahertz electromagnetic pulses as probes for transient velocity overshoot in GaAs and Si,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2519–2527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent electric-field effects in semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 902–905 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Brener, P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, S.-L. Chuang, L. Pfeiffer, D. E. Laird, and A. M. Weiner, “Coherent control of terahertz emission and carrier populations in semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2457–2469 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Dignam, J. E. Sipe, and J. Shaw, “Coherent excitations in the Stark ladder: excitonic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10502–10513 (1994); E. Binder, T. Kuhn, and G. Mahler, “Coherent intraband and interband dynamics in double quantum wells: exciton and free-carrier effects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18319–18329 (1994); A. V. Kuznetsov, G. D. Sanders, and C. J. Stanten, “Wave-packet dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 12045–12055 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Rappen, U. Peter, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (4)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3400 (1993); G. G. Paulus, F. Zacher, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043–11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (6)

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Holthaus, “Collapse of minibands in far-infrared irradiated superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 351–354 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102–105 (1992); P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, I. Brener, K. W. Goossen, M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, and L. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz emission in single quantum wells after coherent optical excitation of light hole and heavy hole excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3800–3803 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

For a review, see, for example, F. Rossi, P. Poli, and C. Jacoboni, “Weighted Monte Carlo approach to semiclassical and quantum electron transport in semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7, 1017 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Fröhlich, S. Spitzer, B. Uebbing, and R. Zimmermann, “Polarization dependence in the intraband optical stark effect of quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 173, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, “Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342–3350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. H. Dunlop and V. M. Kenkre, “Dynamic localization of a charged particle moving under the influence of an electric field,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3625–3633 (1986); T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent effects induced by static and time-dependent electric fields in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14490–14497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

J. A. Fleck, “Ultrashort-pulse generation by Q-switched lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 84–100 (1970); J. C. Eilbeck and R. K. Bullough, J. Phys. A 5, 820 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

Y. Yacoby, “High-frequency Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. 169, 610–619 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

1958 (1)

W. Franz, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 13, 484 (1958); L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 788 (1958).

1929 (1)

F. Bloch, Z. Phys. 52, 555 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Akiyama, H.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S. J.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asmar, N. G.

N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Axt, V. M.

See, for example, V. M. Axt, G. Bartels, and A. Stahl, “Intraband dynamics at the semiconductor band edge: shortcomings of the Bloch equation method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2543–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Backer, G.

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bartels, G.

See, for example, V. M. Axt, G. Bartels, and A. Stahl, “Intraband dynamics at the semiconductor band edge: shortcomings of the Bloch equation method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2543–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

W. Becker, A. Lohr, K. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645–656 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ben-Nun, M.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, M. Ben-Nun, and K. R. Wilson, “Creating and detecting shaped Rydberg wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4978–4981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Birnir, B.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bloch, F.

F. Bloch, Z. Phys. 52, 555 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Brener, I.

I. Brener, P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, S.-L. Chuang, L. Pfeiffer, D. E. Laird, and A. M. Weiner, “Coherent control of terahertz emission and carrier populations in semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2457–2469 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043–11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Budil, K. S.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3400 (1993); G. G. Paulus, F. Zacher, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Campman, K. L.

N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cerne, J.

N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Christov, I. P.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murname, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murname, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752–755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuang, S. L.

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043–11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102–105 (1992); P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, I. Brener, K. W. Goossen, M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, and L. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz emission in single quantum wells after coherent optical excitation of light hole and heavy hole excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3800–3803 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chuang, S.-L.

Citrin, D. S.

S. Hughes and D. S. Citrin, “Creation of highly anisotropic wavepackets in quantum wells: dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect in the optical and terahertz regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R5288–R5291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes and D. S. Citrin, “Ultrafast heating and switching of a semiconductor optical amplifier using half-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R15969–R15972 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Citrin, “Quasi-half-cycle terahertz pulse generation via optical rectification in quantum wells using shaped optical pulses,” Optics Express 4, 376–384 (1997); A. M. Weiner, “Enhancement of coherent charge oscillations in coupled quantum wells by femtosecond pulse shaping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2480–2491 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Citrin and S. Hughes, “Circularly polarized dynamic Franz–Keldysh effect,” submitted to Phys. Rev. B.

Corkum, P. B.

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dignam, M.

M. Dignam, J. E. Sipe, and J. Shaw, “Coherent excitations in the Stark ladder: excitonic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10502–10513 (1994); E. Binder, T. Kuhn, and G. Mahler, “Coherent intraband and interband dynamics in double quantum wells: exciton and free-carrier effects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18319–18329 (1994); A. V. Kuznetsov, G. D. Sanders, and C. J. Stanten, “Wave-packet dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 12045–12055 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ditmire, T.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3400 (1993); G. G. Paulus, F. Zacher, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunlop, D. H.

D. H. Dunlop and V. M. Kenkre, “Dynamic localization of a charged particle moving under the influence of an electric field,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3625–3633 (1986); T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent effects induced by static and time-dependent electric fields in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14490–14497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Fleck, J. A.

J. A. Fleck, “Ultrashort-pulse generation by Q-switched lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 84–100 (1970); J. C. Eilbeck and R. K. Bullough, J. Phys. A 5, 820 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Fox, A. M.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franz, W.

W. Franz, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 13, 484 (1958); L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 788 (1958).

Fröhlich, D.

D. Fröhlich, S. Spitzer, B. Uebbing, and R. Zimmermann, “Polarization dependence in the intraband optical stark effect of quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 173, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ghosh, A. W.

A. W. Ghosh, A. V. Kuznetsov, and J. W. Wilkins, “Reflection of THz radiation by a superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3494–3497 (1997); J. Kono, M. Y. Su, T. Inoshita, T. Noda, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and H. Sakaki, “Resonant terahertz optical sideband generation from confined magnetoexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1758–1761 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Göbel, E. O.

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Greene, B. I.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102–105 (1992); P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, I. Brener, K. W. Goossen, M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, and L. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz emission in single quantum wells after coherent optical excitation of light hole and heavy hole excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3800–3803 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gwinn, E. G.

N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hartmann, C.

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Haug, H.

For a textbook discussion, see H. Haug and S. W. Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 3rd ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994) and references therein.

Holthaus, M.

M. Holthaus, “Collapse of minibands in far-infrared irradiated superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 351–354 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hopkins, P. F.

N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hughes, S.

S. Hughes and D. S. Citrin, “Creation of highly anisotropic wavepackets in quantum wells: dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect in the optical and terahertz regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R5288–R5291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes and D. S. Citrin, “Ultrafast heating and switching of a semiconductor optical amplifier using half-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R15969–R15972 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Citrin and S. Hughes, “Circularly polarized dynamic Franz–Keldysh effect,” submitted to Phys. Rev. B.

Jacoboni, C.

For a review, see, for example, F. Rossi, P. Poli, and C. Jacoboni, “Weighted Monte Carlo approach to semiclassical and quantum electron transport in semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7, 1017 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jauho, A. P.

K. Johnsen and A. P. Jauho, “Optics of excitons in THz irradiated quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 164, 553–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Jauho and K. Johnsen, “Dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 4576–4579 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johnsen, K.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Johnsen and A. P. Jauho, “Optics of excitons in THz irradiated quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 164, 553–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Jauho and K. Johnsen, “Dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 4576–4579 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murname, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murname, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752–755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keldysh, L. V.

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

Kenkre, V. M.

D. H. Dunlop and V. M. Kenkre, “Dynamic localization of a charged particle moving under the influence of an electric field,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3625–3633 (1986); T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent effects induced by static and time-dependent electric fields in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14490–14497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kleber, K.

W. Becker, A. Lohr, K. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645–656 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Knight, P. L.

M. Protopapus, D. G. Lappas, and P. L. Knight, “Strong field ionization in arbitrary laser polarizations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4550–4553 (1997); G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Koch, M.

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent electric-field effects in semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 902–905 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, “Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342–3350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

For a textbook discussion, see H. Haug and S. W. Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 3rd ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994) and references therein.

Köhler, K.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kono, J.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krause, J. L.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, M. Ben-Nun, and K. R. Wilson, “Creating and detecting shaped Rydberg wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4978–4981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kuznetsov, A. V.

A. W. Ghosh, A. V. Kuznetsov, and J. W. Wilkins, “Reflection of THz radiation by a superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3494–3497 (1997); J. Kono, M. Y. Su, T. Inoshita, T. Noda, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and H. Sakaki, “Resonant terahertz optical sideband generation from confined magnetoexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1758–1761 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3400 (1993); G. G. Paulus, F. Zacher, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laird, D. E.

Lappas, D. G.

M. Protopapus, D. G. Lappas, and P. L. Knight, “Strong field ionization in arbitrary laser polarizations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4550–4553 (1997); G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leo, K.

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Levi, A. F. J.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102–105 (1992); P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, I. Brener, K. W. Goossen, M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, and L. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz emission in single quantum wells after coherent optical excitation of light hole and heavy hole excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3800–3803 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

W. Becker, A. Lohr, K. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645–656 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, M.

M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, “Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342–3350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lohr, A.

W. Becker, A. Lohr, K. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645–656 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Luo, M. S. C.

I. Brener, P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, S.-L. Chuang, L. Pfeiffer, D. E. Laird, and A. M. Weiner, “Coherent control of terahertz emission and carrier populations in semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2457–2469 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043–11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Markelz, A. G.

N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meier, T.

T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent electric-field effects in semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 902–905 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moreno, P.

Murname, M. M.

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murname, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murname, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752–755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickel, H.

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Noda, T.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nordstrom, K. B.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Norris, T. B.

Nuss, M. C.

I. Brener, P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, S.-L. Chuang, L. Pfeiffer, D. E. Laird, and A. M. Weiner, “Coherent control of terahertz emission and carrier populations in semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2457–2469 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043–11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peatross, J.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murname, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752–755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perry, M. D.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3400 (1993); G. G. Paulus, F. Zacher, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peter, U.

T. Rappen, U. Peter, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, L.

Plaja, L.

Planken, P. C. M.

I. Brener, P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, M. S. C. Luo, S.-L. Chuang, L. Pfeiffer, D. E. Laird, and A. M. Weiner, “Coherent control of terahertz emission and carrier populations in semiconductor heterostructures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2457–2469 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043–11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Poli, P.

For a review, see, for example, F. Rossi, P. Poli, and C. Jacoboni, “Weighted Monte Carlo approach to semiclassical and quantum electron transport in semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7, 1017 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Protopapus, M.

M. Protopapus, D. G. Lappas, and P. L. Knight, “Strong field ionization in arbitrary laser polarizations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4550–4553 (1997); G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rappen, T.

T. Rappen, U. Peter, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Roskos, H. G.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roso, L.

Rossi, F.

For a review, see, for example, F. Rossi, P. Poli, and C. Jacoboni, “Weighted Monte Carlo approach to semiclassical and quantum electron transport in semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7, 1017 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Saeta, P. N.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102–105 (1992); P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, I. Brener, K. W. Goossen, M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, and L. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz emission in single quantum wells after coherent optical excitation of light hole and heavy hole excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3800–3803 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sakaki, H.

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Salières, P.

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3400 (1993); G. G. Paulus, F. Zacher, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schafer, K. J.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, M. Ben-Nun, and K. R. Wilson, “Creating and detecting shaped Rydberg wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4978–4981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schafer, W.

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, W.

T. Rappen, U. Peter, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scheizer, H.

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102–105 (1992); P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, I. Brener, K. W. Goossen, M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, and L. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz emission in single quantum wells after coherent optical excitation of light hole and heavy hole excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3800–3803 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schultze, A.

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shah, J.

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

For a textbook discussion, see J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996) and references therein.

Shaw, J.

M. Dignam, J. E. Sipe, and J. Shaw, “Coherent excitations in the Stark ladder: excitonic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10502–10513 (1994); E. Binder, T. Kuhn, and G. Mahler, “Coherent intraband and interband dynamics in double quantum wells: exciton and free-carrier effects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18319–18329 (1994); A. V. Kuznetsov, G. D. Sanders, and C. J. Stanten, “Wave-packet dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 12045–12055 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sherwin, M. S.

N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sipe, J. E.

M. Dignam, J. E. Sipe, and J. Shaw, “Coherent excitations in the Stark ladder: excitonic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10502–10513 (1994); E. Binder, T. Kuhn, and G. Mahler, “Coherent intraband and interband dynamics in double quantum wells: exciton and free-carrier effects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18319–18329 (1994); A. V. Kuznetsov, G. D. Sanders, and C. J. Stanten, “Wave-packet dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 12045–12055 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Son, J.-H.

Spitzer, S.

D. Fröhlich, S. Spitzer, B. Uebbing, and R. Zimmermann, “Polarization dependence in the intraband optical stark effect of quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 173, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stahl, A.

See, for example, V. M. Axt, G. Bartels, and A. Stahl, “Intraband dynamics at the semiconductor band edge: shortcomings of the Bloch equation method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2543–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, P.

T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent electric-field effects in semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 902–905 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Uebbing, B.

D. Fröhlich, S. Spitzer, B. Uebbing, and R. Zimmermann, “Polarization dependence in the intraband optical stark effect of quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 173, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

von Plessen, G.

T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent electric-field effects in semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 902–905 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

Whitaker, J. F.

Wilkins, J. W.

A. W. Ghosh, A. V. Kuznetsov, and J. W. Wilkins, “Reflection of THz radiation by a superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3494–3497 (1997); J. Kono, M. Y. Su, T. Inoshita, T. Noda, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and H. Sakaki, “Resonant terahertz optical sideband generation from confined magnetoexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1758–1761 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, K. R.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, M. Ben-Nun, and K. R. Wilson, “Creating and detecting shaped Rydberg wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4978–4981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yacoby, Y.

Y. Yacoby, “High-frequency Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. 169, 610–619 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, J.

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murname, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752–755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zimmermann, R.

D. Fröhlich, S. Spitzer, B. Uebbing, and R. Zimmermann, “Polarization dependence in the intraband optical stark effect of quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 173, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Zimmermann, in Nonlinear Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, F. Henneberger, S. Schmitt-Rink, and E. O. Göbel, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 51–74; R. Zimmermann, Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Collective Excitations in Solids, Di Bartoli, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1997).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Optics Express (1)

D. S. Citrin, “Quasi-half-cycle terahertz pulse generation via optical rectification in quantum wells using shaped optical pulses,” Optics Express 4, 376–384 (1997); A. M. Weiner, “Enhancement of coherent charge oscillations in coupled quantum wells by femtosecond pulse shaping,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2480–2491 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

Y. Yacoby, “High-frequency Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. 169, 610–619 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

K. S. Budil, P. Salières, A. L’Huillier, T. Ditmire, and M. D. Perry, “Influence of ellipticity on harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R3437–R3400 (1993); G. G. Paulus, F. Zacher, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Becker, A. Lohr, K. Kleber, and M. Lewenstein, “A unified theory of high-harmonic generation: application to polarization properties of the harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 56, 645–656 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (10)

M. Dignam, J. E. Sipe, and J. Shaw, “Coherent excitations in the Stark ladder: excitonic Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10502–10513 (1994); E. Binder, T. Kuhn, and G. Mahler, “Coherent intraband and interband dynamics in double quantum wells: exciton and free-carrier effects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 18319–18329 (1994); A. V. Kuznetsov, G. D. Sanders, and C. J. Stanten, “Wave-packet dynamics in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 12045–12055 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Feldmann, K. Leo, J. Shaw, D. A. B. Miller, J. E. Cunningham, S. Schmitt-Rink, T. Meier, G. von Plessen, A. Schultze, and P. Thomas, “Optical investigation of Bloch oscillations in a semiconductor superlattice,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 7252–7255 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, P. C. M. Planken, I. Brener, and M. C. Nuss, “Coherent double-pulse control of quantum beats in a coupled quantum well,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11043–11050 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. H. Dunlop and V. M. Kenkre, “Dynamic localization of a charged particle moving under the influence of an electric field,” Phys. Rev. B 34, 3625–3633 (1986); T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent effects induced by static and time-dependent electric fields in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 14490–14497 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Fleck, “Ultrashort-pulse generation by Q-switched lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 1, 84–100 (1970); J. C. Eilbeck and R. K. Bullough, J. Phys. A 5, 820 (1972).
[CrossRef]

N. G. Asmar, A. G. Markelz, E. G. Gwinn, J. Cerne, M. S. Sherwin, K. L. Campman, P. F. Hopkins, and A. C. Gossard, “Resonant-energy relaxation of terahertz-driven two-dimensional electron gases,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 18041–18044 (1995); X. L. Lei, B. Dong, and Y. Q. Chen, “Nonlinear transport in quasi-two-dimensional systems driven by intense terahertz fields,” Phys. Rev. B 56, 12120–12123 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Lindberg and S. W. Koch, “Effective Bloch equations for semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 3342–3350 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Rappen, U. Peter, and W. Schäfer, “Polarization dependence of dephasing processes: a probe for many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 10774–10777 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes and D. S. Citrin, “Ultrafast heating and switching of a semiconductor optical amplifier using half-cycle terahertz pulses,” Phys. Rev. B 58, R15969–R15972 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Hughes and D. S. Citrin, “Creation of highly anisotropic wavepackets in quantum wells: dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect in the optical and terahertz regimes,” Phys. Rev. B 59, R5288–R5291 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (13)

S. L. Chuang, S. Schmitt-Rink, B. I. Greene, P. N. Saeta, and A. F. J. Levi, “Optical rectification at semiconductor surfaces,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 102–105 (1992); P. C. M. Planken, M. C. Nuss, I. Brener, K. W. Goossen, M. S. C. Luo, S. L. Chuang, and L. Pfeiffer, “Terahertz emission in single quantum wells after coherent optical excitation of light hole and heavy hole excitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3800–3803 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. W. Ghosh, A. V. Kuznetsov, and J. W. Wilkins, “Reflection of THz radiation by a superlattice,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3494–3497 (1997); J. Kono, M. Y. Su, T. Inoshita, T. Noda, M. S. Sherwin, S. J. Allen, and H. Sakaki, “Resonant terahertz optical sideband generation from confined magnetoexcitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1758–1761 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. P. Jauho and K. Johnsen, “Dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24, 4576–4579 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Holthaus, “Collapse of minibands in far-infrared irradiated superlattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 351–354 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Meier, G. von Plessen, P. Thomas, and S. W. Koch, “Coherent electric-field effects in semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 902–905 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. G. Roskos, M. C. Nuss, J. Shah, K. Leo, D. A. B. Miller, A. M. Fox, S. Schmitt-Rink, and K. Köhler, “Coherent submillimeter-wave emission from charge oscillations in a double-well potential,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2216–2219 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, V. M. Axt, G. Bartels, and A. Stahl, “Intraband dynamics at the semiconductor band edge: shortcomings of the Bloch equation method,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 2543–2546 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Protopapus, D. G. Lappas, and P. L. Knight, “Strong field ionization in arbitrary laser polarizations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4550–4553 (1997); G. G. Paulus, H. Walther, A. Lohr, W. Becker, and M. Kleber, “Above-threshold ionization by an elliptically polarized field: quantum tunneling interferences and classical dodging,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 484–487 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhou, J. Peatross, M. M. Murname, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Enhanced high-harmonic generation using 25 fs laser pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 752–755 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, M. M. Murname, and H. C. Kapteyn, “High-harmonic generation of attosecond pulses in the ‘single-cycle’ regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1251–1254 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, M. Ben-Nun, and K. R. Wilson, “Creating and detecting shaped Rydberg wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 4978–4981 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Feldmann, G. von Plessen, M. Koch, E. O. Göbel, P. Thomas, G. Backer, C. Hartmann, H. Scheizer, W. Schafer, and H. Nickel, “Coherent dynamics of excitonic wave packets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 3027–3030 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994–1997 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

K. Johnsen and A. P. Jauho, “Optics of excitons in THz irradiated quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi A 164, 553–556 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi B (2)

D. Fröhlich, S. Spitzer, B. Uebbing, and R. Zimmermann, “Polarization dependence in the intraband optical stark effect of quantum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi B 173, 83–89 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. B. Nordstrom, K. Johnsen, S. J. Allen, A. P. Jauho, B. Birnir, J. Kono, T. Noda, H. Akiyama, and H. Sakaki, “Observation of dynamical Franz–Keldysh effect,” Phys. Status Solidi B 204, 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

For a review, see, for example, F. Rossi, P. Poli, and C. Jacoboni, “Weighted Monte Carlo approach to semiclassical and quantum electron transport in semiconductors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 7, 1017 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965).

Z. Naturforsch. Teil A (1)

W. Franz, Z. Naturforsch. Teil A 13, 484 (1958); L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 34, 788 (1958).

Z. Phys. (1)

F. Bloch, Z. Phys. 52, 555 (1929).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

For a textbook discussion, see J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996) and references therein.

For a textbook discussion, see H. Haug and S. W. Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 3rd ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1994) and references therein.

R. Zimmermann, in Nonlinear Optics of Semiconductor Nanostructures, F. Henneberger, S. Schmitt-Rink, and E. O. Göbel, eds. (Akademie-Verlag, Berlin, 1993), pp. 51–74; R. Zimmermann, Spectroscopy and Dynamics of Collective Excitations in Solids, Di Bartoli, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1997).

D. S. Citrin and S. Hughes, “Circularly polarized dynamic Franz–Keldysh effect,” submitted to Phys. Rev. B.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the modeled experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical polarization versus time corresponding to the following: solid curve, no applied THz field; dashed curve, with THz field and ξ(t)=2πνTHzt; dotted curve, with a THz field and ξ(t)=2πνTHzt+π/2. The frequency and amplitude of the THz field is 1 THz and 3 kV/cm. (b) Corresponding optical absorption spectrum of (a).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) As in Fig. 2(a) but with a 2-THz field of amplitude 6 kV/cm. (b) Corresponding optical absorption spectrum of (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Solid curve, temporal behavior of the emitted THz field with ξ(t)=2πνTHzt; dashed curve, 2πνTHzt+π/2. The frequency and amplitude of the THz field is 1 THz and 3 kV/cm. (b) Solid curve, magnitude of the emitted THz spectra with ξ(t)=2πνTHzt; dashed curve, ξ(t)=2πνTHzt+π/2. Note that an energy of 40 MeV corresponds to a frequency of ∼10 THz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) As in Fig. 4(a) but with a 2-THz field of amplitude 6 kV/cm. (b) Solid curve, magnitude of the emitted THz spectra with ξ(t)=2πνTHzt; dashed curve, ξ(t)=2πνTHzt+π/2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Magnitude of the emitted THz spectra with ξ(t)=2πνTHzt+π/2 for various dephasing times. The driving field has a magnitude and frequency of 3 kV/cm and 1 THz, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Emitted THz field both circularly polarized and linearly polarized driving fields. Heavy and thin solid curves, THz emission for linearly polarized driving fields with ϕ=0, π/2, respectively; heavy and thin dashed curves, THz emission from circularly polarized driving field from the respective x and y components. (b) As in (a) but with a 6-kV/cm field.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Spectrum of the chirped optical pulses. (b) Emitted THz field both a negatively chirped and a positively chirped pulse.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Wave packet at several times [(a) t=100 fs, (b) t=250 fs, (c) t=400 fs, and (d) t=640 fs] for the polarization density with ξ(t)=2πνTHzt. The frequency and amplitude of the THz field is 1 THz and 3 kV/cm. The wave packets have been multiplied by a factor of 103 for clarity. A displacement of the WP from (x, y)=(0, 0) means it is polarized; a circular shape means that the electron and hole distributions are circular (but may be displaced).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

As in Fig. 9 but with ξ(t)=2πνTHzt+π/2.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

As in Fig. 9 but with a 2-THz field of amplitude 6 kV/cm. The phase ξ(t)=2πνTHzt.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

As in Fig. 9 but with ξ(t)=2πνTHzt+π/2.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Wave packet at several times for the polarization density with a circularly polarized input field of magnitude 3 kV/cm and frequency 1 THz.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

FTHz(t, r)=nˆxF0 cos ξ(t)+nˆyF0 sin ξ(t),
t+eFTHz(t, r)·kPk=iΔkPk+iΩk+Pktc.c.,
P˜k¯t˜=Pkttt˜+kPk kt˜,
=t+FTHz(t, r)·kPk.
P˜k˜t=iΔk(t)P˜k˜+iΩk(t)-γ0pP˜k˜,
[withFTHz(t, r)=nˆxF0 cos(ωTHzt)]
Pk(t)=Pk+Λ(t)(t0),
Δk12µ[k˜-Λ(t)]2,
qVk-qPqq˜Vk˜-q˜Pq˜.
P=2A-1kdcvPk=2/(2π)2dk˜x dk˜y dcvP˜k˜x,k˜y.
α(ω)=-4πkz ImP(ω)FOpt(ω).
PTHz(t)=ed2rP*(r, t)rP(r, t)=-4ek˜P˜k˜ikP˜k˜,
FOpt(t)=FOpt(t)exp[-iωc(t)t]+c.c.,

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