Abstract

Using a λ=2.8 µm pump makes it possible to take full advantage of notable nonlinear optical properties of the infrared crystals ZnGeP2, CdSe, and GaSe to achieve efficient mid-infrared frequency downconversion. Traveling-wave optical parametric generators with angular tuning were pumped by single 100-ps 2.8-µm Er,Cr:YSGG laser pulses. The continuous tuning range achieved was 3.9–10 µm (ZnGeP2), 3.57–4.3 and 8–13 µm (CdSe), and 3.3–19 µm (GaSe), with a quantum conversion efficiency of typically 10% and the lowest, to the author’s knowledge, threshold ever obtained for a traveling-wave optical parametric generator. A dual-wavelength optical parametric generator was used for nonlinear spectroscopy of intersubband transitions of conduction-band electrons, quantum confined in semiconductor quantum wells, as well as for the study of intersubband-based resonantly enhanced χ(2) in quantum wells.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  11. A. A. Davydov, L. A. Kulevsky, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, V. V. Smirnov, and A. A. Shirkov, “A tunable infrared parametric oscillator in CdSe crystal,” Opt. Commun. 9, 234–236 (1973).
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  13. D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, R. C. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “CdSe down-converter tuned from 9.5 to 24 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 142–144 (1974).
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    [CrossRef]
  17. K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, “2.8-μm laser-pumped type-I and type-II traveling-wave optical parametric generator in GaSe,” Opt. Commun. 114, 333–335 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. T. Dahinten, U. Plödereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1-picosecond duration tunable between 4-μm and 18-μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, “Intense subpicosecond pulses tunable between 4 μm and 20 μm generated by an all-solid-state laser system,” Opt. Commun. 113, 99–104 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. A. Kaindl, D. C. Smith, M. Joschko, M. P. Hasselbeck, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μm at an 88-MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 861–863 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  21. K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, “Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 155, 47–50 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. L. Vodopyanov, “Parametric generation of tunable infrared radiation in ZnGeP2 and GaSe pumped at 3 μm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1723–1729 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, “Parametric generation of tunable infrared radiation in ZnGeP2 and GaSe pumped at 3 μm,” Opt. Commun. 117, 277–282 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  24. K. Kato, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in ZnGeP2,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2506–2510 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. G. C. Bhar, “Refractive index interpolation in phase-matching,” Appl. Opt. 15, 305–307 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  26. K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relations for GaSe in the 0.65–18 μm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  27. K. L. Vodopyanov and V. Chazapis, “Extra-wide tuning range optical parametric generator,” Opt. Commun. 135, 98–102 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. K. L. Vodopyanov, “Megawatt peak power 8–13 μm CdSe optical parametric generator pumped at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Commun. 150, 210–212 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  29. J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of the intersubband scattering rate in semiconductor quantum wells by excited state differential absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1354–1356 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, C. C. Phillips, B. Sung, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Saturation study of III–V multi-quantum well bound-to-bound and bound-to-quasibound intersubband transitions in the λ=3–10 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 708–714 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  32. K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, and C. C. Phillips, “Two-colour mid-infrared saturation spectroscopy of intersubband transitions in multi-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3405–3407 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  33. M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6–10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1041–1044 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  34. E. Rosencher, P. Bols, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetric MQWs,” Electron Lett. 25, 1063–1064 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  35. P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, D. D. Yang, and J.-M. Lourtioz, “Detailed analysis of second-harmonic generation near 10.6 μm in GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 215–217 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  36. G. Almogy and A. Yariv, “Resonantly-enhanced nonlinear optics of intersubband transitions,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 401–458 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  37. K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2654–2656 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Megawatt peak power 8–13 μm CdSe optical parametric generator pumped at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Commun. 150, 210–212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, “Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 155, 47–50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Kaindl, D. C. Smith, M. Joschko, M. P. Hasselbeck, M. Woerner, and T. Elsaesser, “Femtosecond infrared pulses tunable from 9 to 18 μm at an 88-MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 23, 861–863 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Phua, K. S. Lai, R. F. Wu, and T. C. Chong, “Coupled tandem optical parametric oscillator (OPO): an OPO within an OPO,” Opt. Lett. 23, 1262–1264 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. Kato, “Second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation in ZnGeP2,” Appl. Opt. 36, 2506–2510 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. H. Allik, S. Chandra, D. M. Rines, P. G. Schunemann, J. A. Hutchinson, and R. Utano, “Tunable 7–12-μm optical parametric oscillator using a Cr, Er:YSGG laser to pump CdSe and ZnGeP2 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 597–599 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. Chazapis, “Extra-wide tuning range optical parametric generator,” Opt. Commun. 135, 98–102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Petrov, Y. Tanaka, and T. Suzuki, “Parametric generation of 1-ps pulses between 5 and 11 μm with a ZnGeP2 crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1749–1755 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, C. C. Phillips, B. Sung, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Saturation study of III–V multi-quantum well bound-to-bound and bound-to-quasibound intersubband transitions in the λ=3–10 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 708–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, and C. C. Phillips, “Two-colour mid-infrared saturation spectroscopy of intersubband transitions in multi-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3405–3407 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, “2.8-μm laser-pumped type-I and type-II traveling-wave optical parametric generator in GaSe,” Opt. Commun. 114, 333–335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relations for GaSe in the 0.65–18 μm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, “Parametric generation of tunable infrared radiation in ZnGeP2 and GaSe pumped at 3 μm,” Opt. Commun. 117, 277–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Almogy and A. Yariv, “Resonantly-enhanced nonlinear optics of intersubband transitions,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 401–458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, “Intense subpicosecond pulses tunable between 4 μm and 20 μm generated by an all-solid-state laser system,” Opt. Commun. 113, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. C. Fernelius, “Properties of gallium selenide single crystal,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 24, 275–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

T. Dahinten, U. Plödereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1-picosecond duration tunable between 4-μm and 18-μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of the intersubband scattering rate in semiconductor quantum wells by excited state differential absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1354–1356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Parametric generation of tunable infrared radiation in ZnGeP2 and GaSe pumped at 3 μm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1723–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, “High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 83, 322–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, D. D. Yang, and J.-M. Lourtioz, “Detailed analysis of second-harmonic generation near 10.6 μm in GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 215–217 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6–10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rosencher, P. Bols, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetric MQWs,” Electron Lett. 25, 1063–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, and L. A. Kulevskii, “Picosecond parametric superluminescence in the ZnGeP2 crystal,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 49, 146–149 (1985).

1976

1974

D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, R. C. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “CdSe down-converter tuned from 9.5 to 24 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 142–144 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1973

A. A. Davydov, L. A. Kulevsky, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, V. V. Smirnov, and A. A. Shirkov, “A tunable infrared parametric oscillator in CdSe crystal,” Opt. Commun. 9, 234–236 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1972

G. C. Bhar, D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, and R. C. Smith, “Tunable down-conversion from an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 6, 323–326 (1972).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herbst and R. L. Byer, “Singly resonant CdSe infrared parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 189–191 (1972).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “GaSe, a new effective crystal for nonlinear optics,” JETP Lett. 16, 90–92 (1972).

Abdullaev, G. B.

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “GaSe, a new effective crystal for nonlinear optics,” JETP Lett. 16, 90–92 (1972).

Allakhverdiev, K. R.

T. Dahinten, U. Plödereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1-picosecond duration tunable between 4-μm and 18-μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, “High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 83, 322–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Allik, T. H.

Almogy, G.

G. Almogy and A. Yariv, “Resonantly-enhanced nonlinear optics of intersubband transitions,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 401–458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bayanov, I. M.

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, “Intense subpicosecond pulses tunable between 4 μm and 20 μm generated by an all-solid-state laser system,” Opt. Commun. 113, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bhar, G. C.

G. C. Bhar, “Refractive index interpolation in phase-matching,” Appl. Opt. 15, 305–307 (1976).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bhar, D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, and R. C. Smith, “Tunable down-conversion from an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 6, 323–326 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Bols, P.

E. Rosencher, P. Bols, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetric MQWs,” Electron Lett. 25, 1063–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Boucaud, P.

P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, D. D. Yang, and J.-M. Lourtioz, “Detailed analysis of second-harmonic generation near 10.6 μm in GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 215–217 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6–10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. L. Herbst and R. L. Byer, “Singly resonant CdSe infrared parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 189–191 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of the intersubband scattering rate in semiconductor quantum wells by excited state differential absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1354–1356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chandra, S.

Chazapis, V.

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. Chazapis, “Extra-wide tuning range optical parametric generator,” Opt. Commun. 135, 98–102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, C. C. Phillips, B. Sung, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Saturation study of III–V multi-quantum well bound-to-bound and bound-to-quasibound intersubband transitions in the λ=3–10 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 708–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, and C. C. Phillips, “Two-colour mid-infrared saturation spectroscopy of intersubband transitions in multi-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3405–3407 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of the intersubband scattering rate in semiconductor quantum wells by excited state differential absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1354–1356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chong, T. C.

Chu, S. N. G.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of the intersubband scattering rate in semiconductor quantum wells by excited state differential absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1354–1356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dahinten, T.

T. Dahinten, U. Plödereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1-picosecond duration tunable between 4-μm and 18-μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Danielius, R.

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, “Intense subpicosecond pulses tunable between 4 μm and 20 μm generated by an all-solid-state laser system,” Opt. Commun. 113, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davydov, A. A.

A. A. Davydov, L. A. Kulevsky, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, V. V. Smirnov, and A. A. Shirkov, “A tunable infrared parametric oscillator in CdSe crystal,” Opt. Commun. 9, 234–236 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Delaitre, S.

E. Rosencher, P. Bols, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetric MQWs,” Electron Lett. 25, 1063–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

Faist, J.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of the intersubband scattering rate in semiconductor quantum wells by excited state differential absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1354–1356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fejer, M. M.

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6–10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fernelius, N. C.

N. C. Fernelius, “Properties of gallium selenide single crystal,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 24, 275–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gribenyukov, A. I.

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, “High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 83, 322–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, and L. A. Kulevskii, “Picosecond parametric superluminescence in the ZnGeP2 crystal,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 49, 146–149 (1985).

Hanna, D. C.

D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, R. C. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “CdSe down-converter tuned from 9.5 to 24 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 142–144 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bhar, D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, and R. C. Smith, “Tunable down-conversion from an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 6, 323–326 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Harris Jr., J. S.

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, C. C. Phillips, B. Sung, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Saturation study of III–V multi-quantum well bound-to-bound and bound-to-quasibound intersubband transitions in the λ=3–10 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 708–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6–10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harwit, A.

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6–10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hasselbeck, M. P.

Heinz, P.

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, “Intense subpicosecond pulses tunable between 4 μm and 20 μm generated by an all-solid-state laser system,” Opt. Commun. 113, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herbst, R. L.

R. L. Herbst and R. L. Byer, “Singly resonant CdSe infrared parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 189–191 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Hopkinson, M.

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, A. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of the intersubband scattering rate in semiconductor quantum wells by excited state differential absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1354–1356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hutchinson, J. A.

Ibragimov, Z. A.

T. Dahinten, U. Plödereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1-picosecond duration tunable between 4-μm and 18-μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Joschko, M.

Julien, F. H.

P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, D. D. Yang, and J.-M. Lourtioz, “Detailed analysis of second-harmonic generation near 10.6 μm in GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 215–217 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kaindl, R. A.

Kato, K.

Kerimov, T. A.

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, “High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 83, 322–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kulevskii, L. A.

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relations for GaSe in the 0.65–18 μm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, “High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 83, 322–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, and L. A. Kulevskii, “Picosecond parametric superluminescence in the ZnGeP2 crystal,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 49, 146–149 (1985).

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “GaSe, a new effective crystal for nonlinear optics,” JETP Lett. 16, 90–92 (1972).

Kulevsky, L. A.

A. A. Davydov, L. A. Kulevsky, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, V. V. Smirnov, and A. A. Shirkov, “A tunable infrared parametric oscillator in CdSe crystal,” Opt. Commun. 9, 234–236 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Lai, K. S.

Lourtioz, J.-M.

P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, D. D. Yang, and J.-M. Lourtioz, “Detailed analysis of second-harmonic generation near 10.6 μm in GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 215–217 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, R. C. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “CdSe down-converter tuned from 9.5 to 24 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 142–144 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bhar, D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, and R. C. Smith, “Tunable down-conversion from an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 6, 323–326 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, J. R.

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mirov, S. B.

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, “Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 155, 47–50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Nagle, J.

E. Rosencher, P. Bols, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetric MQWs,” Electron Lett. 25, 1063–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, K.

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Petrov, V.

V. Petrov, Y. Tanaka, and T. Suzuki, “Parametric generation of 1-ps pulses between 5 and 11 μm with a ZnGeP2 crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1749–1755 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, C. C.

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, C. C. Phillips, B. Sung, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Saturation study of III–V multi-quantum well bound-to-bound and bound-to-quasibound intersubband transitions in the λ=3–10 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 708–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, and C. C. Phillips, “Two-colour mid-infrared saturation spectroscopy of intersubband transitions in multi-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3405–3407 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phua, P. B.

Plödereder, U.

T. Dahinten, U. Plödereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1-picosecond duration tunable between 4-μm and 18-μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Prokhorov, A. M.

A. A. Davydov, L. A. Kulevsky, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, V. V. Smirnov, and A. A. Shirkov, “A tunable infrared parametric oscillator in CdSe crystal,” Opt. Commun. 9, 234–236 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “GaSe, a new effective crystal for nonlinear optics,” JETP Lett. 16, 90–92 (1972).

Rines, D. M.

Rosencher, E.

E. Rosencher, P. Bols, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetric MQWs,” Electron Lett. 25, 1063–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Salaev, E. Yu.

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “GaSe, a new effective crystal for nonlinear optics,” JETP Lett. 16, 90–92 (1972).

Savel’ev, A. D.

A. A. Davydov, L. A. Kulevsky, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, V. V. Smirnov, and A. A. Shirkov, “A tunable infrared parametric oscillator in CdSe crystal,” Opt. Commun. 9, 234–236 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “GaSe, a new effective crystal for nonlinear optics,” JETP Lett. 16, 90–92 (1972).

Schunemann, P. G.

Seilmeier, A.

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, “Intense subpicosecond pulses tunable between 4 μm and 20 μm generated by an all-solid-state laser system,” Opt. Commun. 113, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Dahinten, U. Plödereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1-picosecond duration tunable between 4-μm and 18-μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Serapiglia, G. B.

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shirkov, A. A.

A. A. Davydov, L. A. Kulevsky, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, V. V. Smirnov, and A. A. Shirkov, “A tunable infrared parametric oscillator in CdSe crystal,” Opt. Commun. 9, 234–236 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of the intersubband scattering rate in semiconductor quantum wells by excited state differential absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1354–1356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sivco, D. L.

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of the intersubband scattering rate in semiconductor quantum wells by excited state differential absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1354–1356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smirnov, V. V.

A. A. Davydov, L. A. Kulevsky, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, V. V. Smirnov, and A. A. Shirkov, “A tunable infrared parametric oscillator in CdSe crystal,” Opt. Commun. 9, 234–236 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “GaSe, a new effective crystal for nonlinear optics,” JETP Lett. 16, 90–92 (1972).

Smith, D. C.

Smith, R. C.

D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, R. C. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “CdSe down-converter tuned from 9.5 to 24 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 142–144 (1974).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bhar, D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, and R. C. Smith, “Tunable down-conversion from an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 6, 323–326 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Sung, B.

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, C. C. Phillips, B. Sung, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Saturation study of III–V multi-quantum well bound-to-bound and bound-to-quasibound intersubband transitions in the λ=3–10 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 708–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, T.

V. Petrov, Y. Tanaka, and T. Suzuki, “Parametric generation of 1-ps pulses between 5 and 11 μm with a ZnGeP2 crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1749–1755 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, Y.

V. Petrov, Y. Tanaka, and T. Suzuki, “Parametric generation of 1-ps pulses between 5 and 11 μm with a ZnGeP2 crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1749–1755 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Utano, R.

Vodopyanov, K. L.

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, “Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 155, 47–50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Megawatt peak power 8–13 μm CdSe optical parametric generator pumped at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Commun. 150, 210–212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. Chazapis, “Extra-wide tuning range optical parametric generator,” Opt. Commun. 135, 98–102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, C. C. Phillips, B. Sung, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Saturation study of III–V multi-quantum well bound-to-bound and bound-to-quasibound intersubband transitions in the λ=3–10 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 708–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, and C. C. Phillips, “Two-colour mid-infrared saturation spectroscopy of intersubband transitions in multi-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3405–3407 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, “2.8-μm laser-pumped type-I and type-II traveling-wave optical parametric generator in GaSe,” Opt. Commun. 114, 333–335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, “Parametric generation of tunable infrared radiation in ZnGeP2 and GaSe pumped at 3 μm,” Opt. Commun. 117, 277–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relations for GaSe in the 0.65–18 μm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Parametric generation of tunable infrared radiation in ZnGeP2 and GaSe pumped at 3 μm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1723–1729 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Dahinten, U. Plödereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1-picosecond duration tunable between 4-μm and 18-μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, “High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 83, 322–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, and L. A. Kulevskii, “Picosecond parametric superluminescence in the ZnGeP2 crystal,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 49, 146–149 (1985).

Voevodin, V. G.

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, “Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 155, 47–50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, “Parametric generation of tunable infrared radiation in ZnGeP2 and GaSe pumped at 3 μm,” Opt. Commun. 117, 277–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, “2.8-μm laser-pumped type-I and type-II traveling-wave optical parametric generator in GaSe,” Opt. Commun. 114, 333–335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, “High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 83, 322–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, and L. A. Kulevskii, “Picosecond parametric superluminescence in the ZnGeP2 crystal,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 49, 146–149 (1985).

Vurgaftman, I.

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Woerner, M.

Wu, R. F.

Wyatt, R.

D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, R. C. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “CdSe down-converter tuned from 9.5 to 24 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 142–144 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Yang, D. D.

P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, D. D. Yang, and J.-M. Lourtioz, “Detailed analysis of second-harmonic generation near 10.6 μm in GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 215–217 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

G. Almogy and A. Yariv, “Resonantly-enhanced nonlinear optics of intersubband transitions,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 401–458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S. J. B.

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6–10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. L. Vodopyanov, K. O’Neill, G. B. Serapiglia, C. C. Phillips, M. Hopkinson, I. Vurgaftman, and J. R. Meyer, “Phase-matched second harmonic generation in asymmetric double-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2654–2656 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Faist, F. Capasso, C. Sirtori, D. L. Sivco, A. L. Hutchinson, S. N. G. Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Measurement of the intersubband scattering rate in semiconductor quantum wells by excited state differential absorption spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 1354–1356 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, and C. C. Phillips, “Two-colour mid-infrared saturation spectroscopy of intersubband transitions in multi-quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 3405–3407 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Boucaud, F. H. Julien, D. D. Yang, and J.-M. Lourtioz, “Detailed analysis of second-harmonic generation near 10.6 μm in GaAs/AlGaAs asymmetric quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 215–217 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. L. Herbst and R. L. Byer, “Singly resonant CdSe infrared parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21, 189–191 (1972).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, R. C. Smith, and R. Wyatt, “CdSe down-converter tuned from 9.5 to 24 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 142–144 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser.

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, and L. A. Kulevskii, “Picosecond parametric superluminescence in the ZnGeP2 crystal,” Bull. Acad. Sci. USSR Phys. Ser. 49, 146–149 (1985).

Electron Lett.

E. Rosencher, P. Bols, J. Nagle, and S. Delaitre, “Second harmonic generation by intersub-band transitions in compositionally asymmetric MQWs,” Electron Lett. 25, 1063–1064 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

V. Petrov, Y. Tanaka, and T. Suzuki, “Parametric generation of 1-ps pulses between 5 and 11 μm with a ZnGeP2 crystal,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 1749–1755 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Dahinten, U. Plödereder, A. Seilmeier, K. L. Vodopyanov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and Z. A. Ibragimov, “Infrared pulses of 1-picosecond duration tunable between 4-μm and 18-μm,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 2245–2250 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater.

G. Almogy and A. Yariv, “Resonantly-enhanced nonlinear optics of intersubband transitions,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 4, 401–458 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

JETP Lett.

G. B. Abdullaev, L. A. Kulevskii, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, E. Yu. Salaev, and V. V. Smirnov, “GaSe, a new effective crystal for nonlinear optics,” JETP Lett. 16, 90–92 (1972).

Opt. Commun.

A. A. Davydov, L. A. Kulevsky, A. M. Prokhorov, A. D. Savel’ev, V. V. Smirnov, and A. A. Shirkov, “A tunable infrared parametric oscillator in CdSe crystal,” Opt. Commun. 9, 234–236 (1973).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Bhar, D. C. Hanna, B. Luther-Davies, and R. C. Smith, “Tunable down-conversion from an optical parametric oscillator,” Opt. Commun. 6, 323–326 (1972).
[CrossRef]

I. M. Bayanov, R. Danielius, P. Heinz, and A. Seilmeier, “Intense subpicosecond pulses tunable between 4 μm and 20 μm generated by an all-solid-state laser system,” Opt. Commun. 113, 99–104 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, L. A. Kulevskii, V. G. Voevodin, A. I. Gribenyukov, K. R. Allakhverdiev, and T. A. Kerimov, “High efficiency middle IR parametric superradiance in ZnGeP2 and GaSe crystals pumped by an erbium laser,” Opt. Commun. 83, 322–326 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, “2.8-μm laser-pumped type-I and type-II traveling-wave optical parametric generator in GaSe,” Opt. Commun. 114, 333–335 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, S. B. Mirov, V. G. Voevodin, and P. G. Schunemann, “Two-photon absorption in GaSe and CdGeAs2,” Opt. Commun. 155, 47–50 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and L. A. Kulevskii, “New dispersion relations for GaSe in the 0.65–18 μm spectral region,” Opt. Commun. 118, 375–378 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. Chazapis, “Extra-wide tuning range optical parametric generator,” Opt. Commun. 135, 98–102 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov, “Megawatt peak power 8–13 μm CdSe optical parametric generator pumped at 2.8 μm,” Opt. Commun. 150, 210–212 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. L. Vodopyanov and V. G. Voevodin, “Parametric generation of tunable infrared radiation in ZnGeP2 and GaSe pumped at 3 μm,” Opt. Commun. 117, 277–282 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. Lett.

M. M. Fejer, S. J. B. Yoo, R. L. Byer, A. Harwit, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Observation of extremely large quadratic susceptibility at 9.6–10.8 μm in electric-field-biased AlGaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 1041–1044 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact.

N. C. Fernelius, “Properties of gallium selenide single crystal,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. 24, 275–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science

J. Faist, F. Capasso, D. L. Sivco, C. Sirtori, A. L. Hutchinson, and A. Y. Cho, “Quantum cascade laser,” Science 264, 553–556 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

K. L. Vodopyanov, V. Chazapis, C. C. Phillips, B. Sung, and J. S. Harris, Jr., “Saturation study of III–V multi-quantum well bound-to-bound and bound-to-quasibound intersubband transitions in the λ=3–10 μm spectral range,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 12, 708–714 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. A. Budni, L. A. Pomeranz, M. L. Lemons, P. G. Schunemann, T. M. Pollak, and E. P. Chicklis, “10W mid-IR holmium pumped ZnGeP2 OPO,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, W. R. Bosenberg and M. M. Fejer, eds., Vol. 19 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), pp. 90–92.

E. Cheung, S. Palese, H. Injeyan, C. Hoefer, R. Hilyard, H. Komine, J. Berg, and W. Bosenberg, “High power conversion to mid-IR using KTP and ZGP OPO,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, M. M. Fejer, H. Injeyan, and U. Keller, eds., Vol. 26 of OSA Trends in Optics and Photonics Series, (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1999), pp. 358–361.

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer, Berlin, 1997), pp. 68–240.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1988), pp. 378–406.

For narrow-gap semiconductors, however, the dependence of the index of refraction on the energy gap becomes weaker: n4Eg=const. (Moss rule); see T. S. Moss, Optical Properties of Semiconductors (Butterworth, London, 1959), p. 48.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Figure of merit d2/n3 for the most common NLO crystals, plotted as a function of the short-wave transparency cutoff wavelength. In some cases, when there are different tensor components in use (e.g., d31 and d33 for LiNbO3), two different values are plotted for the same material.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the double-pass traveling-wave OPG pumped by an Er laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

OPG angular tuning curves at a λ=2.8 µm pump for (a) ZGP, (b) CdSe, and (c) GaSe (z cut). Vertical bars [in (a)] represent experimental half-maximum linewidths. Solid curves represent calculated tuning curves based on best dispersion relations for ZGP,24 CdSe,25 and GaSe,26 accordingly. Insets: linear transmission spectra for uncoated crystals; dotted lines correspond to Fresnel losses.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CdSe OPG line shapes at different wavelengths, corresponding to angle tuning.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

OPG quantum efficiency as a function of wavelength for the three crystals.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Multicolor OPG setup pumped by the same laser pulse.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Conduction-band energy subbands in MQW’s and energy dispersion in the plane, parallel to the layers. Electrons, scattered from the (n=2) to the (n=1) subband by phonon emission or absorption, create excess population in high-lying states of the lower (n=1) subband. (b) Linear MQW [from (n=2) to (n=1)] absorption spectrum (thin curve), and the spectrum obtained when the saturating pump is applied (thick curve). Induced absorption from (n=2) to (n=3) can be seen on the blue side. The two peaks on the red side correspond to excess carrier occupancy in high-lying states of the (n=1) subband, a condition that is due to electrons backscattered by phonon emission or absorption. The two arrows in the inset indicate theoretical positions of the peaks.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Schematic of the experiment on SHG in asymmetric MQW’s, performed with edge-emitting geometry; (b) SHG efficiency versus incident wavelength. The pump intensity is ∼50 MW/cm2.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Some Properties of Mid-IR Nonlinear Crystalsa

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Table 2 Experimental Results Obtained with the ZGP, CdSe, and GaSe Two-Pass OPG’s Pumped at λ=2.8 µm

Equations (1)

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Γ2=deff2n32ω1ω2Ipump0c3.

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