Abstract

The fastest organic photorefractive materials show response times in the millisecond range. The origin of this limit is not yet fully understood. Charge-carrier generation and transport processes and reorientation of the nonlinear-optical chromophores may play an important role. We characterize a new photorefractive guest–host polymer by cw two-beam coupling, as well as by cw and pulsed four-wave mixing experiments. The latter were used to determine unambiguously the response time of the material. We show that a decrease of the response time by a factor of 1000 can be achieved by illuminating the sample with a strong cw beam during pulsed exposure. A model of the enhancement process backed by dc photoconductivity measurements is presented.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Meerholz, Angew. Chem. 109, 981 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Schloter and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 9, 991 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 383, 58 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. D. Steele, B. L. Volodin, O. Savina, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, H. Röckel, and S. R. Marder, Opt. Lett. 23, 153 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Schloter, U. Hofmann, P. Strohriegl, H.-W. Schmidt, and D. Haarer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2473 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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1998 (5)

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Steele, B. L. Volodin, O. Savina, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, H. Röckel, and S. R. Marder, Opt. Lett. 23, 153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schloter, U. Hofmann, P. Strohriegl, H.-W. Schmidt, and D. Haarer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2473 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Opt. 37, 2843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Wright, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, J. D. Casperson, M. DeClue, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (6)

C. Hohle, M. Eckl, U. Hofmann, S. Schloter, D. Haarer, and P. Strohriegl, Proc. SPIE 3144, 134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 22, 874 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, Angew. Chem. 109, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Schloter and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 9, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Malliaras, H. Angerman, V. V. Krasnikov, G. ten Brinke, and G. Hadziioannou, J. Phys. D 29, 2045 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Hagen, O. Zobel, O. Sahr, M. Biber, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, C.-D. Eisenbach, and D. Haarer, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3162 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, Science 274, 1182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Phys. Rev. B 52, 14324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegel, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (5)

1992 (1)

1990 (2)

K. Sutter and P. Guenter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Partanen, J. M. C. Jonathan, and R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2404 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

P. Strohriegel, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 7, 771 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

B. Kh. Kostyuk, A. Yu. Kudzin, and G. Kh. Sokolyanskii, Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 1429 (1980).

Adam, D.

D. Adam, P. Schuhmacher, J. Simmerer, L. Häußling, K. Siemensmeyer, H. Etzbach, H. Ringsdorf, and D. Haarer, Nature (London) 371, 141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Angerman, H.

G. G. Malliaras, H. Angerman, V. V. Krasnikov, G. ten Brinke, and G. Hadziioannou, J. Phys. D 29, 2045 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Biber, M.

R. Hagen, O. Zobel, O. Sahr, M. Biber, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, C.-D. Eisenbach, and D. Haarer, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3162 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bittner, R.

Bjorklund, G. C.

Bolink, H. J.

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Phys. Rev. B 52, 14324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bräuchle, C.

Burland, D. M.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, Science 274, 1182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casperson, J. D.

D. Wright, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, J. D. Casperson, M. DeClue, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

DeClue, M.

D. Wright, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, J. D. Casperson, M. DeClue, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Diaz-Garcia, M. A.

D. Wright, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, J. D. Casperson, M. DeClue, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Eckl, M.

C. Hohle, M. Eckl, U. Hofmann, S. Schloter, D. Haarer, and P. Strohriegl, Proc. SPIE 3144, 134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Hagen, O. Zobel, O. Sahr, M. Biber, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, C.-D. Eisenbach, and D. Haarer, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3162 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegel, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Eisenbach, C.-D.

R. Hagen, O. Zobel, O. Sahr, M. Biber, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, C.-D. Eisenbach, and D. Haarer, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3162 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Enami, Y.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Erskine, L.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Etzbach, H.

D. Adam, P. Schuhmacher, J. Simmerer, L. Häußling, K. Siemensmeyer, H. Etzbach, H. Ringsdorf, and D. Haarer, Nature (London) 371, 141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Geletneky, C.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, Science 274, 1182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 22, 874 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guenter, P.

Guillemet, G.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Haarer, D.

S. Schloter, U. Hofmann, P. Strohriegl, H.-W. Schmidt, and D. Haarer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2473 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Schloter and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 9, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Hohle, M. Eckl, U. Hofmann, S. Schloter, D. Haarer, and P. Strohriegl, Proc. SPIE 3144, 134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Hagen, O. Zobel, O. Sahr, M. Biber, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, C.-D. Eisenbach, and D. Haarer, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3162 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegel, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Adam, P. Schuhmacher, J. Simmerer, L. Häußling, K. Siemensmeyer, H. Etzbach, H. Ringsdorf, and D. Haarer, Nature (London) 371, 141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Hadziioannou, G.

G. G. Malliaras, H. Angerman, V. V. Krasnikov, G. ten Brinke, and G. Hadziioannou, J. Phys. D 29, 2045 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Phys. Rev. B 52, 14324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, R.

R. Hagen, O. Zobel, O. Sahr, M. Biber, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, C.-D. Eisenbach, and D. Haarer, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3162 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hall, H. K.

Häußling, L.

D. Adam, P. Schuhmacher, J. Simmerer, L. Häußling, K. Siemensmeyer, H. Etzbach, H. Ringsdorf, and D. Haarer, Nature (London) 371, 141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hellwarth, R. W.

J. P. Partanen, J. M. C. Jonathan, and R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2404 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hendrickx, E.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hofmann, U.

S. Schloter, U. Hofmann, P. Strohriegl, H.-W. Schmidt, and D. Haarer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2473 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Hohle, M. Eckl, U. Hofmann, S. Schloter, D. Haarer, and P. Strohriegl, Proc. SPIE 3144, 134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hohle, C.

C. Hohle, M. Eckl, U. Hofmann, S. Schloter, D. Haarer, and P. Strohriegl, Proc. SPIE 3144, 134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Javidi, B.

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jonathan, J. M. C.

J. P. Partanen, J. M. C. Jonathan, and R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2404 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jurich, M.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, Science 274, 1182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippelen, B.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Steele, B. L. Volodin, O. Savina, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, H. Röckel, and S. R. Marder, Opt. Lett. 23, 153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A. B. Padias, and H. K. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 68 (1994).

Kostyuk, B. Kh.

B. Kh. Kostyuk, A. Yu. Kudzin, and G. Kh. Sokolyanskii, Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 1429 (1980).

Krasnikov, V. V.

G. G. Malliaras, H. Angerman, V. V. Krasnikov, G. ten Brinke, and G. Hadziioannou, J. Phys. D 29, 2045 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Phys. Rev. B 52, 14324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kudzin, A. Yu.

B. Kh. Kostyuk, A. Yu. Kudzin, and G. Kh. Sokolyanskii, Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 1429 (1980).

Lee, V. Y.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, Science 274, 1182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lundquist, P. M.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, Science 274, 1182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyon, S. R.

Maldonado, J. L.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Malliaras, G. G.

G. G. Malliaras, H. Angerman, V. V. Krasnikov, G. ten Brinke, and G. Hadziioannou, J. Phys. D 29, 2045 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Phys. Rev. B 52, 14324 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Steele, B. L. Volodin, O. Savina, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, H. Röckel, and S. R. Marder, Opt. Lett. 23, 153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, and K. Meerholz, Appl. Opt. 37, 2843 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, Angew. Chem. 109, 981 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

D. Wright, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, J. D. Casperson, M. DeClue, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1490 (1998).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 22, 874 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Silence, G. C. Bjorklund, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 19, 1822 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Walsh and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Moylan, C. R.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, Science 274, 1182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Padias, A. B.

Partanen, J. P.

J. P. Partanen, J. M. C. Jonathan, and R. W. Hellwarth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 2404 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Steele, B. L. Volodin, O. Savina, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, H. Röckel, and S. R. Marder, Opt. Lett. 23, 153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A. B. Padias, and H. K. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 68 (1994).

Ringsdorf, H.

D. Adam, P. Schuhmacher, J. Simmerer, L. Häußling, K. Siemensmeyer, H. Etzbach, H. Ringsdorf, and D. Haarer, Nature (London) 371, 141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Röckel, H.

D. Steele, B. L. Volodin, O. Savina, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, H. Röckel, and S. R. Marder, Opt. Lett. 23, 153 (1998).
[CrossRef]

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sahr, O.

R. Hagen, O. Zobel, O. Sahr, M. Biber, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, C.-D. Eisenbach, and D. Haarer, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3162 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon,

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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D. Adam, P. Schuhmacher, J. Simmerer, L. Häußling, K. Siemensmeyer, H. Etzbach, H. Ringsdorf, and D. Haarer, Nature (London) 371, 141 (1994).
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Simmerer, J.

D. Adam, P. Schuhmacher, J. Simmerer, L. Häußling, K. Siemensmeyer, H. Etzbach, H. Ringsdorf, and D. Haarer, Nature (London) 371, 141 (1994).
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Steele, D. D.

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
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O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegel, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
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S. Schloter, U. Hofmann, P. Strohriegl, H.-W. Schmidt, and D. Haarer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2473 (1998).
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D. Wright, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, J. D. Casperson, M. DeClue, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1490 (1998).
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B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
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Adv. Mater. (2)

S. Schloter and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 9, 991 (1997).
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O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegel, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
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Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

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A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
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D. Wright, M. A. Diaz-Garcia, J. D. Casperson, M. DeClue, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 1490 (1998).
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W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Hagen, O. Zobel, O. Sahr, M. Biber, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, C.-D. Eisenbach, and D. Haarer, J. Appl. Phys. 80, 3162 (1996).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. D (1)

G. G. Malliaras, H. Angerman, V. V. Krasnikov, G. ten Brinke, and G. Hadziioannou, J. Phys. D 29, 2045 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. (1)

P. Strohriegel, Makromol. Chem. Rapid Commun. 7, 771 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (2)

D. Adam, P. Schuhmacher, J. Simmerer, L. Häußling, K. Siemensmeyer, H. Etzbach, H. Ringsdorf, and D. Haarer, Nature (London) 371, 141 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, B. Javidi, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 383, 58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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Phys. Rev. B (1)

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Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Hohle, M. Eckl, U. Hofmann, S. Schloter, D. Haarer, and P. Strohriegl, Proc. SPIE 3144, 134 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, Science 274, 1182 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Kippelen, S. R. Marder, E. Hendrickx, J. L. Maldonado, G. Guillemet, B. L. Volodin, D. D. Steele, Y. Enami, Sandalphon, Y. J. Yao, J. F. Wang, H. Röckel, L. Erskine, and N. Peyghambarian, Science 279, 54 (1998).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. Solid State (1)

B. Kh. Kostyuk, A. Yu. Kudzin, and G. Kh. Sokolyanskii, Sov. Phys. Solid State 22, 1429 (1980).

Other (1)

S. J. Zilker, J. Wolff, S. Schloter, U. Hofmann, A. Schreiber, P. Strohriegl, C. Hohle, and D. Haarer, Phys. Lett. (to be published).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Investigated guest–host polymer consisting of photoconducting polysiloxane (PSX) doped with the nonlinear-optical chromophore DMMNT and the sensitizer TNF.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Holographic time-of-flight (HTOF) experiment. S, sample; NF, holographic notch filter; PM, photomultiplier tube; BS, 50/50 beam splitter; HV, high-voltage supply; Osc, digital storage oscilloscope; P, polarizers; ND, neutral-density filters.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diffraction efficiency for s- and p-polarized reading beams as obtained from the DFWM measurements. The inset shows the two-beam coupling gain coefficient.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Decay time versus the external electric field, determined by means of DFWM. The inset shows the temporal evolution of η at E=80 V/µm with the writing beams switched on at t=0 s (writing) and one beam switched off at t=300 s (erasing).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Diffracted intensity versus time for two different intensities of the reading beam, 0.03 W/cm2 and 3 W/cm2 (inset). The applied field was 72 V/µm in both cases.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal position tmax of the maximum of the diffraction efficiency as a function of the intensity of the reading laser (applied field, 72 V/µm).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal maximum of the diffraction efficiency η(tmax) versus intensity of the reading beam at an applied field of 72 V/µm. The fit is explained in the text.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Time-resolved photocurrent excited by 3 W/cm2 of He–Ne radiation at an applied field of 72 V/µm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Diffracted intensity as a function of time. The He–Ne laser (3 W/cm2) was switched on 60 s after exposure with the NdYAG pulses.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Monte Carlo simulation for the temporal position t of the maximum of the diffraction efficiency as a function of the intensity of the reading laser.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η(t)(reffEsc)2,
μ=LdrE·tmax,
Γ=1d/cos Θ[ln(γ0β)-ln(β+1-γ0)],
η=ηmax exp-2τt
p=p1+p2.
p2=c×I,
dn(t)dt=-kn(t)2+P[N0-n(t)],
nss=12Pk2+4N0Pk1/2-Pk,
η(P)(N0-nss)2=N021-12PN0k2+4PN0k1/2-PN0k2.

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