Abstract

An analysis method is developed to investigate the vibrational properties of thin films by use of infrared in situ ellipsometry. The procedure is based on the study of regions located in or outside the vibrational bands as a function of film thickness. Infrared index, line positions, bandwidths, and absorption intensities can be determined, even in the case of low oscillator strengths. As an illustration, C—H bonding of 100-nm-thick hydrogenated amorphous carbon films have been studied: Weak vibrations located at 1405 and 1440 cm−1, which had not been observed so far, are evidenced, thus revealing the presence of CH olefinic units and methyl groups bonded to sp2-configured carbon.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. H. Shanks, C. J. Fang, L. Ley, M. Cardona, F. J. Demond, and S. Kalbitzer, “Infrared spectrum and structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 100, 43–56 (1980).
  2. A. Friedl, W. Fukarek, W. Möller, and A. Koch, “In situ characterization of plasma-deposited a-C:H thin films spectroscopic infrared ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2882–2889 (1994).
  3. R. Ossikovski and B. Drévillon, “Infrared-ellipsometry evidence of disorder-induced vibrational frequency shift in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 10530–42 (1996).
  4. N. Blayo and B. Drévillon, “In situ study of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by infrared ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 950–952 (1991).
  5. N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).
  6. A. Canillas, E. Pascual, and B. Drévillon, “Phase-modulated ellipsometer using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for real-time applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2153–2159 (1993).
  7. S. Vallon, E. Compain, and B. Drévillon, “Improvements of Fourier transform phase-modulated ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3269–3272 (1995).
  8. R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).
  9. C. Godet, T. Heitz, J. E. Bourée, B. Drévillon, and C. Clerc, “Growth and composition of dual-plasma polymer-like amorphous carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3919–3932 (1998).
  10. T. Heitz and B. Drévillon, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 704–707 (1998).
  11. B. Drévillon, “Phase modulated ellipsometry from the ultraviolet to the infrared: in situ application to the growth of semiconductors,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27, 1–87 (1993).
  12. D. E. Aspnes, “Modulation spectroscopy/electric field effects on the dielectric function of semiconductors,” in Optical Properties of Solids, M. Balkanski and T. S. Moss, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), Vol. 2, pp. 109–154.
  13. T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, J. E. Bourée, and C. Godet, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of hydrogenated amorphous carbon/Si interface formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 780–782 (1998).
  14. T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, C. Godet, and J. E. Bourée, “Quantitative study of C—H bonding in polymer-like amorphous carbon films using in-situ infrared ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 13957–73 (1998).
  15. J. Robertson, “Hard amorphous diamond-like carbons,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 21, 199–333 (1991).
  16. A. S. Wexler, “Infrared determination of structural units in organic compounds by integrated intensity measurements: alkanes, alkenes, and monosubstituted alkyl benzenes,” Spectrochim. Acta 21, 1725–1742 (1965).
  17. C. Jäger, J. Gottwald, H. W. Spiess, and R. J. Newport, “Structural properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (III)—NMR investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 846–852 (1994).
  18. R. Stief, J. Schäfer, J. Riestein, L. Ley, and W. Beyer, “Hydrogen bonding analysis in amorphous hydrogenated carbon by a combination of infrared absorption and thermal effusion experiments,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 636–640 (1996).
  19. B. Dischler, C. Wild, W. Müller-Sebert, and P. Koidl, “Hydrogen in polycrystalline diamond,” Physica B 185, 217–221 (1993).
  20. C. Castiglioni, M. Gusoni, and G. Zerbi, “A simple way to obtain information on charge distribution in molecules directly from infrared spectra: the case of C—H bonds,” J. Mol. Struct. 198, 475–488 (1989).

1998 (4)

C. Godet, T. Heitz, J. E. Bourée, B. Drévillon, and C. Clerc, “Growth and composition of dual-plasma polymer-like amorphous carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3919–3932 (1998).

T. Heitz and B. Drévillon, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 704–707 (1998).

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, J. E. Bourée, and C. Godet, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of hydrogenated amorphous carbon/Si interface formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 780–782 (1998).

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, C. Godet, and J. E. Bourée, “Quantitative study of C—H bonding in polymer-like amorphous carbon films using in-situ infrared ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 13957–73 (1998).

1997 (1)

R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).

1996 (2)

R. Stief, J. Schäfer, J. Riestein, L. Ley, and W. Beyer, “Hydrogen bonding analysis in amorphous hydrogenated carbon by a combination of infrared absorption and thermal effusion experiments,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 636–640 (1996).

R. Ossikovski and B. Drévillon, “Infrared-ellipsometry evidence of disorder-induced vibrational frequency shift in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 10530–42 (1996).

1995 (1)

S. Vallon, E. Compain, and B. Drévillon, “Improvements of Fourier transform phase-modulated ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3269–3272 (1995).

1994 (2)

A. Friedl, W. Fukarek, W. Möller, and A. Koch, “In situ characterization of plasma-deposited a-C:H thin films spectroscopic infrared ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2882–2889 (1994).

C. Jäger, J. Gottwald, H. W. Spiess, and R. J. Newport, “Structural properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (III)—NMR investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 846–852 (1994).

1993 (3)

B. Dischler, C. Wild, W. Müller-Sebert, and P. Koidl, “Hydrogen in polycrystalline diamond,” Physica B 185, 217–221 (1993).

A. Canillas, E. Pascual, and B. Drévillon, “Phase-modulated ellipsometer using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for real-time applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2153–2159 (1993).

B. Drévillon, “Phase modulated ellipsometry from the ultraviolet to the infrared: in situ application to the growth of semiconductors,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27, 1–87 (1993).

1991 (2)

N. Blayo and B. Drévillon, “In situ study of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by infrared ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 950–952 (1991).

J. Robertson, “Hard amorphous diamond-like carbons,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 21, 199–333 (1991).

1989 (1)

C. Castiglioni, M. Gusoni, and G. Zerbi, “A simple way to obtain information on charge distribution in molecules directly from infrared spectra: the case of C—H bonds,” J. Mol. Struct. 198, 475–488 (1989).

1980 (1)

H. Shanks, C. J. Fang, L. Ley, M. Cardona, F. J. Demond, and S. Kalbitzer, “Infrared spectrum and structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 100, 43–56 (1980).

1965 (1)

A. S. Wexler, “Infrared determination of structural units in organic compounds by integrated intensity measurements: alkanes, alkenes, and monosubstituted alkyl benzenes,” Spectrochim. Acta 21, 1725–1742 (1965).

Beyer, W.

R. Stief, J. Schäfer, J. Riestein, L. Ley, and W. Beyer, “Hydrogen bonding analysis in amorphous hydrogenated carbon by a combination of infrared absorption and thermal effusion experiments,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 636–640 (1996).

Blayo, N.

N. Blayo and B. Drévillon, “In situ study of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by infrared ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 950–952 (1991).

Bourée, J. E.

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, J. E. Bourée, and C. Godet, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of hydrogenated amorphous carbon/Si interface formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 780–782 (1998).

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, C. Godet, and J. E. Bourée, “Quantitative study of C—H bonding in polymer-like amorphous carbon films using in-situ infrared ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 13957–73 (1998).

C. Godet, T. Heitz, J. E. Bourée, B. Drévillon, and C. Clerc, “Growth and composition of dual-plasma polymer-like amorphous carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3919–3932 (1998).

Canillas, A.

A. Canillas, E. Pascual, and B. Drévillon, “Phase-modulated ellipsometer using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for real-time applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2153–2159 (1993).

Cardona, M.

H. Shanks, C. J. Fang, L. Ley, M. Cardona, F. J. Demond, and S. Kalbitzer, “Infrared spectrum and structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 100, 43–56 (1980).

Castiglioni, C.

C. Castiglioni, M. Gusoni, and G. Zerbi, “A simple way to obtain information on charge distribution in molecules directly from infrared spectra: the case of C—H bonds,” J. Mol. Struct. 198, 475–488 (1989).

Clerc, C.

C. Godet, T. Heitz, J. E. Bourée, B. Drévillon, and C. Clerc, “Growth and composition of dual-plasma polymer-like amorphous carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3919–3932 (1998).

Coeuret, F.

R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).

Compain, E.

S. Vallon, E. Compain, and B. Drévillon, “Improvements of Fourier transform phase-modulated ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3269–3272 (1995).

Demond, F. J.

H. Shanks, C. J. Fang, L. Ley, M. Cardona, F. J. Demond, and S. Kalbitzer, “Infrared spectrum and structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 100, 43–56 (1980).

Dischler, B.

B. Dischler, C. Wild, W. Müller-Sebert, and P. Koidl, “Hydrogen in polycrystalline diamond,” Physica B 185, 217–221 (1993).

Drévillon, B.

C. Godet, T. Heitz, J. E. Bourée, B. Drévillon, and C. Clerc, “Growth and composition of dual-plasma polymer-like amorphous carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3919–3932 (1998).

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, C. Godet, and J. E. Bourée, “Quantitative study of C—H bonding in polymer-like amorphous carbon films using in-situ infrared ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 13957–73 (1998).

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, J. E. Bourée, and C. Godet, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of hydrogenated amorphous carbon/Si interface formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 780–782 (1998).

T. Heitz and B. Drévillon, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 704–707 (1998).

R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).

R. Ossikovski and B. Drévillon, “Infrared-ellipsometry evidence of disorder-induced vibrational frequency shift in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 10530–42 (1996).

S. Vallon, E. Compain, and B. Drévillon, “Improvements of Fourier transform phase-modulated ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3269–3272 (1995).

B. Drévillon, “Phase modulated ellipsometry from the ultraviolet to the infrared: in situ application to the growth of semiconductors,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27, 1–87 (1993).

A. Canillas, E. Pascual, and B. Drévillon, “Phase-modulated ellipsometer using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for real-time applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2153–2159 (1993).

N. Blayo and B. Drévillon, “In situ study of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by infrared ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 950–952 (1991).

Etemadi, R.

R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).

Fang, C. J.

H. Shanks, C. J. Fang, L. Ley, M. Cardona, F. J. Demond, and S. Kalbitzer, “Infrared spectrum and structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 100, 43–56 (1980).

Friedl, A.

A. Friedl, W. Fukarek, W. Möller, and A. Koch, “In situ characterization of plasma-deposited a-C:H thin films spectroscopic infrared ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2882–2889 (1994).

Fukarek, W.

A. Friedl, W. Fukarek, W. Möller, and A. Koch, “In situ characterization of plasma-deposited a-C:H thin films spectroscopic infrared ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2882–2889 (1994).

Godet, C.

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, J. E. Bourée, and C. Godet, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of hydrogenated amorphous carbon/Si interface formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 780–782 (1998).

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, C. Godet, and J. E. Bourée, “Quantitative study of C—H bonding in polymer-like amorphous carbon films using in-situ infrared ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 13957–73 (1998).

C. Godet, T. Heitz, J. E. Bourée, B. Drévillon, and C. Clerc, “Growth and composition of dual-plasma polymer-like amorphous carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3919–3932 (1998).

R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).

Gottwald, J.

C. Jäger, J. Gottwald, H. W. Spiess, and R. J. Newport, “Structural properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (III)—NMR investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 846–852 (1994).

Gusoni, M.

C. Castiglioni, M. Gusoni, and G. Zerbi, “A simple way to obtain information on charge distribution in molecules directly from infrared spectra: the case of C—H bonds,” J. Mol. Struct. 198, 475–488 (1989).

Heitz, T.

C. Godet, T. Heitz, J. E. Bourée, B. Drévillon, and C. Clerc, “Growth and composition of dual-plasma polymer-like amorphous carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3919–3932 (1998).

T. Heitz and B. Drévillon, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 704–707 (1998).

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, C. Godet, and J. E. Bourée, “Quantitative study of C—H bonding in polymer-like amorphous carbon films using in-situ infrared ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 13957–73 (1998).

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, J. E. Bourée, and C. Godet, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of hydrogenated amorphous carbon/Si interface formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 780–782 (1998).

Huc, J.

R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).

Jäger, C.

C. Jäger, J. Gottwald, H. W. Spiess, and R. J. Newport, “Structural properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (III)—NMR investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 846–852 (1994).

Kalbitzer, S.

H. Shanks, C. J. Fang, L. Ley, M. Cardona, F. J. Demond, and S. Kalbitzer, “Infrared spectrum and structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 100, 43–56 (1980).

Koch, A.

A. Friedl, W. Fukarek, W. Möller, and A. Koch, “In situ characterization of plasma-deposited a-C:H thin films spectroscopic infrared ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2882–2889 (1994).

Koidl, P.

B. Dischler, C. Wild, W. Müller-Sebert, and P. Koidl, “Hydrogen in polycrystalline diamond,” Physica B 185, 217–221 (1993).

Ley, L.

R. Stief, J. Schäfer, J. Riestein, L. Ley, and W. Beyer, “Hydrogen bonding analysis in amorphous hydrogenated carbon by a combination of infrared absorption and thermal effusion experiments,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 636–640 (1996).

H. Shanks, C. J. Fang, L. Ley, M. Cardona, F. J. Demond, and S. Kalbitzer, “Infrared spectrum and structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 100, 43–56 (1980).

Möller, W.

A. Friedl, W. Fukarek, W. Möller, and A. Koch, “In situ characterization of plasma-deposited a-C:H thin films spectroscopic infrared ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2882–2889 (1994).

Müller-Sebert, W.

B. Dischler, C. Wild, W. Müller-Sebert, and P. Koidl, “Hydrogen in polycrystalline diamond,” Physica B 185, 217–221 (1993).

Newport, R. J.

C. Jäger, J. Gottwald, H. W. Spiess, and R. J. Newport, “Structural properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (III)—NMR investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 846–852 (1994).

Ossikovski, R.

R. Ossikovski and B. Drévillon, “Infrared-ellipsometry evidence of disorder-induced vibrational frequency shift in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 10530–42 (1996).

Parey, J. Y.

R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).

Pascual, E.

A. Canillas, E. Pascual, and B. Drévillon, “Phase-modulated ellipsometer using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for real-time applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2153–2159 (1993).

Perrin, J.

R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).

Riestein, J.

R. Stief, J. Schäfer, J. Riestein, L. Ley, and W. Beyer, “Hydrogen bonding analysis in amorphous hydrogenated carbon by a combination of infrared absorption and thermal effusion experiments,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 636–640 (1996).

Robertson, J.

J. Robertson, “Hard amorphous diamond-like carbons,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 21, 199–333 (1991).

Rostaing, J. C.

R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).

Schäfer, J.

R. Stief, J. Schäfer, J. Riestein, L. Ley, and W. Beyer, “Hydrogen bonding analysis in amorphous hydrogenated carbon by a combination of infrared absorption and thermal effusion experiments,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 636–640 (1996).

Shanks, H.

H. Shanks, C. J. Fang, L. Ley, M. Cardona, F. J. Demond, and S. Kalbitzer, “Infrared spectrum and structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 100, 43–56 (1980).

Spiess, H. W.

C. Jäger, J. Gottwald, H. W. Spiess, and R. J. Newport, “Structural properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (III)—NMR investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 846–852 (1994).

Stief, R.

R. Stief, J. Schäfer, J. Riestein, L. Ley, and W. Beyer, “Hydrogen bonding analysis in amorphous hydrogenated carbon by a combination of infrared absorption and thermal effusion experiments,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 636–640 (1996).

Vallon, S.

S. Vallon, E. Compain, and B. Drévillon, “Improvements of Fourier transform phase-modulated ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3269–3272 (1995).

Wexler, A. S.

A. S. Wexler, “Infrared determination of structural units in organic compounds by integrated intensity measurements: alkanes, alkenes, and monosubstituted alkyl benzenes,” Spectrochim. Acta 21, 1725–1742 (1965).

Wild, C.

B. Dischler, C. Wild, W. Müller-Sebert, and P. Koidl, “Hydrogen in polycrystalline diamond,” Physica B 185, 217–221 (1993).

Zerbi, G.

C. Castiglioni, M. Gusoni, and G. Zerbi, “A simple way to obtain information on charge distribution in molecules directly from infrared spectra: the case of C—H bonds,” J. Mol. Struct. 198, 475–488 (1989).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

N. Blayo and B. Drévillon, “In situ study of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon by infrared ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 950–952 (1991).

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, J. E. Bourée, and C. Godet, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of hydrogenated amorphous carbon/Si interface formation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 780–782 (1998).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. Godet, T. Heitz, J. E. Bourée, B. Drévillon, and C. Clerc, “Growth and composition of dual-plasma polymer-like amorphous carbon films,” J. Appl. Phys. 84, 3919–3932 (1998).

J. Mol. Struct. (1)

C. Castiglioni, M. Gusoni, and G. Zerbi, “A simple way to obtain information on charge distribution in molecules directly from infrared spectra: the case of C—H bonds,” J. Mol. Struct. 198, 475–488 (1989).

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (1)

R. Stief, J. Schäfer, J. Riestein, L. Ley, and W. Beyer, “Hydrogen bonding analysis in amorphous hydrogenated carbon by a combination of infrared absorption and thermal effusion experiments,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 636–640 (1996).

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A (1)

R. Etemadi, C. Godet, J. Perrin, B. Drévillon, J. Huc, J. Y. Parey, J. C. Rostaing, and F. Coeuret, “Dual-plasma reactor for low temperature deposition of wide band-gap silicon alloys,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 15, 320–330 (1997).

Phys. Rev. B (3)

R. Ossikovski and B. Drévillon, “Infrared-ellipsometry evidence of disorder-induced vibrational frequency shift in hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin films,” Phys. Rev. B 54, 10530–42 (1996).

T. Heitz, B. Drévillon, C. Godet, and J. E. Bourée, “Quantitative study of C—H bonding in polymer-like amorphous carbon films using in-situ infrared ellipsometry,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 13957–73 (1998).

C. Jäger, J. Gottwald, H. W. Spiess, and R. J. Newport, “Structural properties of amorphous hydrogenated carbon (III)—NMR investigation,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 846–852 (1994).

Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

H. Shanks, C. J. Fang, L. Ley, M. Cardona, F. J. Demond, and S. Kalbitzer, “Infrared spectrum and structure of hydrogenated amorphous silicon,” Phys. Status Solidi B 100, 43–56 (1980).

Physica B (1)

B. Dischler, C. Wild, W. Müller-Sebert, and P. Koidl, “Hydrogen in polycrystalline diamond,” Physica B 185, 217–221 (1993).

Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. (1)

B. Drévillon, “Phase modulated ellipsometry from the ultraviolet to the infrared: in situ application to the growth of semiconductors,” Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 27, 1–87 (1993).

Prog. Solid State Chem. (1)

J. Robertson, “Hard amorphous diamond-like carbons,” Prog. Solid State Chem. 21, 199–333 (1991).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

A. Friedl, W. Fukarek, W. Möller, and A. Koch, “In situ characterization of plasma-deposited a-C:H thin films spectroscopic infrared ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 2882–2889 (1994).

A. Canillas, E. Pascual, and B. Drévillon, “Phase-modulated ellipsometer using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for real-time applications,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 2153–2159 (1993).

S. Vallon, E. Compain, and B. Drévillon, “Improvements of Fourier transform phase-modulated ellipsometry,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3269–3272 (1995).

Spectrochim. Acta (1)

A. S. Wexler, “Infrared determination of structural units in organic compounds by integrated intensity measurements: alkanes, alkenes, and monosubstituted alkyl benzenes,” Spectrochim. Acta 21, 1725–1742 (1965).

Thin Solid Films (1)

T. Heitz and B. Drévillon, “In situ infrared ellipsometry study of the growth of hydrogenated amorphous carbon films,” Thin Solid Films 313–314, 704–707 (1998).

Other (2)

D. E. Aspnes, “Modulation spectroscopy/electric field effects on the dielectric function of semiconductors,” in Optical Properties of Solids, M. Balkanski and T. S. Moss, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), Vol. 2, pp. 109–154.

N. J. Harrick, Internal Reflection Spectroscopy (Wiley, New York, 1967).

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