Abstract

We produced a slow atomic beam of rubidium with a low-velocity intense source (LVIS) and loaded a magneto-optical trap (MOT) in a connected chamber with the beam. The hole for the atomic beam allowed us to keep the MOT chamber at a much lower pressure than that of the LVIS. The LVIS produced an atomic beam with a continuous flux of (4.3±0.4)×109/s and an average velocity of only 11±3 m/s. The MOT captured the atoms with 67±15% efficiency, which was limited by the atomic-beam divergence. The MOT held 6×109 atoms with a typical trap-confinement time of 8 s.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. W. D. Phillips and H. Metcalf, “Laser deceleration of an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 596 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. C. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. J. Myatt, N. R. Newbury, R. W. Ghrist, S. Loutzenhiser, and C. E. Wieman, “Multiply loaded magneto-optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 21, 290 (1996); K. Gibble, S. Chang, and R. Legere, “Direct observation of s-wave atomic collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2666 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Z. T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “A low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Kim, K. I. Lee, H. R. Nho, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Atom trap in an axicon mirror,” Opt. Lett. 22, 117 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. R. S. Williamson III, P. A. Voytas, R. T. Newell, and T. Walker, “A funnel-loaded magneto-optical trap loaded from a pyramidal funnel,” Opt. Express 3, 111 (1998).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. S. Jun, C. Y. Park, and D. Cho, “Low-velocity intense source of rubidium atoms,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 33, 260 (1998).
  11. Baking the ion pump at 350 °C for a day with a sorption pump connected to it could restore the pumping speed.
  12. K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, “Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. E. Wieman, “Collective behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Prentiss, A. Cable, J. E. Bjorkholm, S. Chu, E. L. Raab, and D. E. Pritchard, “Atomic-density-dependent losses in an optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 13, 452 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and E. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (2)

1997 (2)

J. A. Kim, K. I. Lee, H. R. Nho, W. Jhe, and M. Ohtsu, “Atom trap in an axicon mirror,” Opt. Lett. 22, 117 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

Z. T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “A low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. C. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and E. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, “Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. E. Wieman, “Collective behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

W. D. Phillips and H. Metcalf, “Laser deceleration of an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 596 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, M. H.

Z. T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “A low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. C. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjorkholm, J. E.

Blatt, R.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Burt, E. A.

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cable, A.

Cho, D.

M. S. Jun, C. Y. Park, and D. Cho, “Low-velocity intense source of rubidium atoms,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 33, 260 (1998).

Chu, S.

Cornell, E. A.

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “A low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornell, E. C.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. C. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Corwin, K. L.

Z. T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “A low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. B.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and E. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ensher, J. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. C. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ertmer, W.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ghrist, R. W.

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hall, J. L.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jhe, W.

Joffe, M. A.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and E. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jun, M. S.

M. S. Jun, C. Y. Park, and D. Cho, “Low-velocity intense source of rubidium atoms,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 33, 260 (1998).

Ketterle, W.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and E. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J. A.

Lee, K. I.

Lindquist, K.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, “Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, Z. T.

Z. T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “A low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacAdam, K. B.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martin, A.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and E. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, M. R.

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. C. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Metcalf, H.

W. D. Phillips and H. Metcalf, “Laser deceleration of an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 596 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Monroe, C.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Myatt, C. J.

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newell, R. T.

Nho, H. R.

Ohtsu, M.

Park, C. Y.

M. S. Jun, C. Y. Park, and D. Cho, “Low-velocity intense source of rubidium atoms,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 33, 260 (1998).

Phillips, W. D.

W. D. Phillips and H. Metcalf, “Laser deceleration of an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 596 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Prentiss, M.

Pritchard, D. E.

Pritchard, E. E.

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and E. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raab, E. L.

Renn, M. J.

Z. T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “A low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robinson, H.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sesko, D.

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. E. Wieman, “Collective behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Steinbach, A.

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stephens, M.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, “Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W.

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voytas, P. A.

Walker, T.

Wieman, C.

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, “Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wieman, C. E.

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “A low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. C. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. E. Wieman, “Collective behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson III, R. S.

Zhu, M.

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

K. B. MacAdam, A. Steinbach, and C. Wieman, “A narrow band tunable diode laser system with grating feedback, and a saturated absorption spectrometer for Cs and Rb,” Am. J. Phys. 60, 109 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

M. S. Jun, C. Y. Park, and D. Cho, “Low-velocity intense source of rubidium atoms,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 33, 260 (1998).

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

K. Lindquist, M. Stephens, and C. Wieman, “Experimental and theoretical study of the vapor-cell Zeeman optical trap,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 4082 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

T. Walker, D. Sesko, and C. E. Wieman, “Collective behavior of optically trapped neutral atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 408 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Ketterle, K. B. Davis, M. A. Joffe, A. Martin, and E. E. Pritchard, “High densities of cold atoms in a dark spontaneous-force optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2253 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Myatt, E. A. Burt, R. W. Ghrist, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “Production of two overlapping Bose–Einstein condensates by sympathetic cooling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 586 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. T. Lu, K. L. Corwin, M. J. Renn, M. H. Anderson, E. A. Cornell, and C. E. Wieman, “A low-velocity intense source of atoms from a magneto-optical trap,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3331 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Monroe, W. Swann, H. Robinson, and C. Wieman, “Very cold trapped atoms in a vapor cell,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 1571 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. D. Phillips and H. Metcalf, “Laser deceleration of an atomic beam,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 596 (1982).
[CrossRef]

W. Ertmer, R. Blatt, J. L. Hall, and M. Zhu, “Laser manipulation of atomic beam velocities: demonstration of stopped atoms and velocity reversal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 996 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

M. H. Anderson, J. R. Ensher, M. R. Matthews, C. E. Wieman, and E. C. Cornell, “Observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in a dilute atomic vapor,” Science 269, 198 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

C. J. Myatt, N. R. Newbury, R. W. Ghrist, S. Loutzenhiser, and C. E. Wieman, “Multiply loaded magneto-optical trap,” Opt. Lett. 21, 290 (1996); K. Gibble, S. Chang, and R. Legere, “Direct observation of s-wave atomic collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2666 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baking the ion pump at 350 °C for a day with a sorption pump connected to it could restore the pumping speed.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

UHV chamber for the LVIS-MOT system. The whole system was mounted on an optical table for a stable alignment with the laser beams. The ion pump and the ion gauge measured Pc and Po, respectively. The measured values tended to be lower than the real pressure at the cube and the octagon.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Profile of the atomic-beam flux at the site of the lower MOT. We measured the fluorescence as the 1-mm-wide probe laser beam was spatially scanned. The profile is consistent with the picture of a geometric collimation by the hole. We can also fit it to a Gaussian function, and its FWHM is 4 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Number of atoms N trapped in the lower MOT as the LVIS beam is turned on and off. We monitored the fluorescence of the MOT and calibrated it using a separate measurement of the absorption. Curve A shows the data when the LVIS is best optimized, and curve B shows the data with a reduced LVIS flux.

Equations (2)

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dNdt=R-1τN,
1τf=1τd+1τl+1τa.

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