Abstract

An experimental study of third-harmonic generation in methane with a 100-fs, 820-nm, Ti:sapphire laser in a tight focusing geometry is presented. The harmonic intensity and bandwidth were measured in a range of intensities extending from below to far above the first ionization threshold and at pressures as high as 10 atm (1 atm=760 Torr). The harmonic signal follows a power-law dependence on the laser intensity with an exponent of ∼7 and saturates at an intensity Is4×1014 W/cm2. The conversion efficiency was found to increase with the pressure for laser intensities smaller than the saturation intensity Is and to decrease with the pressure at larger intensities. At laser intensities larger than the saturation intensity a substantial modification in the third-harmonic bandwidth and structure was observed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1999 (1)

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nyguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Peatross, S. Backus, J. Zhou, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “Spectral-spatial measurements of fundamental and third-harmonic light of intense 25-fs laser pulses focused in a cell gas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 186–192 (1998).
[Crossref]

E. C. Jarque and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation with ionizing two-level atoms,” J. Phys. B 31, 1687–1694 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

1996 (7)

E. T. J. Nibbering, P. F. Curley, G. Grillon, B. S. Prade, M. A. Franco, F. Salin, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Conical emission from self-guided femtosecond pulses in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 62–64 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, B. S. Prade, G. Grillon, J. P. Chambaret, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Spectral determination of the amplitude and the phase of intense ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 317–329 (1996).
[Crossref]

D. M. Mittleman, D. C. Douglass, Z. Henis, O. R. Wood, R. R. Freeman, and T. J. McIrath, “High-field harmonic generation in the tight-focusing limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 170–179 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “16-fs, 1-µJ ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 665–667 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 330 (1996).
[Crossref]

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320–4326 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. G. Wahlstrom, B. Carre, and A. L’Huillier, “Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 148–156 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier supression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

W. Becker, S. Long, and J. K. McIver, “Modeling harmonic generation by a zero-range potential,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1540–1560 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. G. Tisch, R. A. Smith, J. E. Muffett, M. Ciarroca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Angular resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R28–R31 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Superdressed two-level atom: very high harmonic generation and multiresonances,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1275–1280 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (6)

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, “Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90–94 (1993).
[Crossref]

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” JETP Lett. 58, 905 (1993).

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1995–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1 ps 1053 laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. G. Wahlstrom, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (6)

J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, “High field harmonic generation in helium,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Faldon, M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. P. Marangos, J. E. Muffett, R. A. Smith, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Studies of time-resolved harmonic generation in intense laser fields in xenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2094–2099 (1992).
[Crossref]

G. Bandarage, A. Maquet, T. Menis, R. Taieb, V. Veniard, and J. Cooper, “Harmonic generation by laser-driven classical hydrogen atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 380–390 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Plaja and L. Roso-Franco, “Adiabatic theory of high-order harmonic generation in a two-level model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2210–2213 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. C. Rae, “Ionization induced defocusing of intense laser pulses in high pressure gases,” Opt. Commun. 89, 1091 (1992).

1991 (3)

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schaefer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[Crossref]

P. L. Shkolnikov and A. E. Kaplan, “X-ray third-harmonic generation in plasmas of alkalilike ions,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1973–1975 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

B. Sundaram and P. W. Milonni, “High-order harmonic generation: simplified model and relevance of single-atom theories to experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 6571–6573 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, “Anomalies in optical harmonic generations using high intensity radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

R. M. Potvliege and R. Shakeshaft, “Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field: harmonic generation and total ionization rates for atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 3061–3079 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, and J. Javanainen, “Nonlinear light scattering accompanying multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 881–884 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (3)

R. Rosman, G. Gibson, K. Boyer, H. Jara, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, and C. K. Rhodes, “Fifth-harmonic production in neon and argon with picosecond 248-nm radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1237–1242 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell,” Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–605 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 25, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

1979 (1)

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Meyerscough, and D. W. Koopman, “Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44–451 (1979).

1969 (1)

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

Ph. Balcou, A. L’Huillier, and D. Escande, “High-order harmonic generation process in classical and quantum anharmonic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3456–3468 (1966).
[Crossref]

Adachi, T.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Altucci, C.

Babine, A.

Backus, S.

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1 ps 1053 laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[Crossref]

C. G. Wahlstrom, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ph. Balcou, A. L’Huillier, and D. Escande, “High-order harmonic generation process in classical and quantum anharmonic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3456–3468 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bandarage, G.

G. Bandarage, A. Maquet, T. Menis, R. Taieb, V. Veniard, and J. Cooper, “Harmonic generation by laser-driven classical hydrogen atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 380–390 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Becker, W.

W. Becker, S. Long, and J. K. McIver, “Modeling harmonic generation by a zero-range potential,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1540–1560 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, “Anomalies in optical harmonic generations using high intensity radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boyer, K.

Burnett, K.

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320–4326 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carre, B.

Chambaret, J. P.

Chambers, D. M.

S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chang, Z.

H. W. Wang, Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Spectral structure in high harmonic emission,” Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 78.

Christov, I. P.

H. W. Wang, Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Spectral structure in high harmonic emission,” Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 78.

Ciarroca, M.

J. W. G. Tisch, R. A. Smith, J. E. Muffett, M. Ciarroca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Angular resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R28–R31 (1994).
[Crossref]

Cooper, J.

G. Bandarage, A. Maquet, T. Menis, R. Taieb, V. Veniard, and J. Cooper, “Harmonic generation by laser-driven classical hydrogen atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 380–390 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1995–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

Crane, J. K.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nyguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1999).
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J. K. Crane, M. D. Perry, S. Herman, and R. W. Falcone, “High field harmonic generation in helium,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1256–1258 (1992).
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Curley, P. F.

DaSilva, L. B.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nyguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1999).
[Crossref]

Davis, W. V.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, “Anomalies in optical harmonic generations using high intensity radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
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De Silvestri, S.

Ditmire, T.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nyguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1999).
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Douglass, D. C.

Downer, M. C.

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 330 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” JETP Lett. 58, 905 (1993).

Eberly, J. H.

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, and J. Javanainen, “Nonlinear light scattering accompanying multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 881–884 (1989).
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Esarey, E.

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, “Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90–94 (1993).
[Crossref]

Escande, D.

Ph. Balcou, A. L’Huillier, and D. Escande, “High-order harmonic generation process in classical and quantum anharmonic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3456–3468 (1966).
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S. Evans and L. D. Van Woerkom, “High order harmonic generation with molecules,” in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 00–00.

Falcone, R. W.

Faldon, M. E.

Ferray, M.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell,” Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–605 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 25, L31–L35 (1988).
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Franco, M. A.

Freeman, R. R.

Gibson, G.

Gordon, C. L.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Grillon, G.

Hata, K.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henis, Z.

Herman, S.

Hutchinson, M. H. R.

J. W. G. Tisch, R. A. Smith, J. E. Muffett, M. Ciarroca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Angular resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R28–R31 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. E. Faldon, M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. P. Marangos, J. E. Muffett, R. A. Smith, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Studies of time-resolved harmonic generation in intense laser fields in xenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2094–2099 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
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Jara, H.

Jarque, E. C.

E. C. Jarque and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation with ionizing two-level atoms,” J. Phys. B 31, 1687–1694 (1998).
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J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, and J. Javanainen, “Nonlinear light scattering accompanying multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 881–884 (1989).
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A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Superdressed two-level atom: very high harmonic generation and multiresonances,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1275–1280 (1994).
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H. W. Wang, Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Spectral structure in high harmonic emission,” Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 78.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Key, M. H.

S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
[Crossref]

Kim, A. V.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” JETP Lett. 58, 905 (1993).

Kmetec, J. D.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koopman, D. W.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Meyerscough, and D. W. Koopman, “Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44–451 (1979).

Krause, J. L.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schaffer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamic of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonics conversion,” in Super Intense Laser Atom Physics, B. Piraux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzazewski, eds., NATO Advanced Science Institute Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1993), Vol. 316, p. 95.

Krausz, F.

Kulander, K. C.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schaefer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schaffer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamic of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonics conversion,” in Super Intense Laser Atom Physics, B. Piraux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzazewski, eds., NATO Advanced Science Institute Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1993), Vol. 316, p. 95.

L’Huillier, A.

C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. G. Wahlstrom, B. Carre, and A. L’Huillier, “Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 148–156 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Wahlstrom, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1 ps 1053 laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schaefer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell,” Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–605 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 25, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ph. Balcou, A. L’Huillier, and D. Escande, “High-order harmonic generation process in classical and quantum anharmonic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3456–3468 (1966).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L.-A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases,” in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1992), pp. 139–206, and references therein.

Larsson, J.

C. G. Wahlstrom, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320–4326 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, X. F.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 25, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell,” Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–605 (1988).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, “Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90–94 (1993).
[Crossref]

Lompre, A.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 25, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lompre, L. A.

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell,” Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–605 (1988).
[Crossref]

Lompre, L.-A.

A. L’Huillier, L.-A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases,” in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1992), pp. 139–206, and references therein.

Long, S.

W. Becker, S. Long, and J. K. McIver, “Modeling harmonic generation by a zero-range potential,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1540–1560 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luk, T. S.

Macklin, J. J.

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mahon, R.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Meyerscough, and D. W. Koopman, “Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44–451 (1979).

Mainfray, G.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 25, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell,” Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–605 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L.-A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases,” in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1992), pp. 139–206, and references therein.

Malcuit, M. S.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, “Anomalies in optical harmonic generations using high intensity radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Malyshev, V.

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier supression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manus, C.

M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 25, L31–L35 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L. A. Lompre, M. Ferray, X. F. Li, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Third-harmonic generation in xenon in a pulsed jet and a gas cell,” Europhys. Lett. 5, 601–605 (1988).
[Crossref]

A. L’Huillier, L.-A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases,” in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1992), pp. 139–206, and references therein.

Maquet, A.

G. Bandarage, A. Maquet, T. Menis, R. Taieb, V. Veniard, and J. Cooper, “Harmonic generation by laser-driven classical hydrogen atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 380–390 (1992).
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Marangos, J. P.

J. W. G. Tisch, R. A. Smith, J. E. Muffett, M. Ciarroca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Angular resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R28–R31 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. E. Faldon, M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. P. Marangos, J. E. Muffett, R. A. Smith, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Studies of time-resolved harmonic generation in intense laser fields in xenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2094–2099 (1992).
[Crossref]

Marjoribanks, R. S.

S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
[Crossref]

McIlrath, T. J.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Meyerscough, and D. W. Koopman, “Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44–451 (1979).

McIntyre, I. A.

McIrath, T. J.

McIver, J. K.

W. Becker, S. Long, and J. K. McIver, “Modeling harmonic generation by a zero-range potential,” Phys. Rev. A 50, 1540–1560 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

McPherson, A.

Menis, T.

G. Bandarage, A. Maquet, T. Menis, R. Taieb, V. Veniard, and J. Cooper, “Harmonic generation by laser-driven classical hydrogen atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 380–390 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mevel, E.

Meyerscough, V. P.

R. Mahon, T. J. McIlrath, V. P. Meyerscough, and D. W. Koopman, “Third-harmonic generation in argon, krypton and xenon: bandwidth limitations in the vicinity of Lyman-α,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-15, 44–451 (1979).

Milonni, P. W.

B. Sundaram and P. W. Milonni, “High-order harmonic generation: simplified model and relevance of single-atom theories to experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 6571–6573 (1990).
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Moreno, P.

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier supression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Muffett, J. E.

J. W. G. Tisch, R. A. Smith, J. E. Muffett, M. Ciarroca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Angular resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R28–R31 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. E. Faldon, M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. P. Marangos, J. E. Muffett, R. A. Smith, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Studies of time-resolved harmonic generation in intense laser fields in xenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2094–2099 (1992).
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Murnane, M.

H. W. Wang, Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Spectral structure in high harmonic emission,” Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 78.

Murnane, M. M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

Neely, D.

S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
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J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
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Nisoli, M.

Nodomi, R.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Norreys, P. A.

S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
[Crossref]

Nyguyen, H.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nyguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1999).
[Crossref]

Peatross, J.

Perry, M.

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nyguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1999).
[Crossref]

Perry, M. D.

Persson, A.

C. G. Wahlstrom, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Plaja, L.

E. C. Jarque and L. Plaja, “Harmonic generation with ionizing two-level atoms,” J. Phys. B 31, 1687–1694 (1998).
[Crossref]

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier supression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
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L. Plaja and L. Roso-Franco, “Adiabatic theory of high-order harmonic generation in a two-level model,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2210–2213 (1992).
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Preston, S. G.

S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
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J. Reintjes, Nonlinear Optical Parametric Processes in Liquids and Gases (Academic, New York, 1984), Chap. 3.

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Rosman, R.

Roso, L.

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier supression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
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Roso-Franco, L.

Rundquist, A.

S. Backus, J. Peatross, Z. Zeek, A. Rundquist, G. Taft, M. M. Murnane, and H. C. Kapteyn, “16-fs, 1-µJ ultraviolet pulses generated by third-harmonic conversion in air,” Opt. Lett. 21, 665–667 (1996).
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H. W. Wang, Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Spectral structure in high harmonic emission,” Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 78.

Rzazewski, K.

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, “Anomalies in optical harmonic generations using high intensity radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
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Salin, F.

Sanpera, A.

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320–4326 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sartania, S.

Sarukura, N.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaefer, K. J.

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schaefer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315–3341 (1991).
[Crossref]

Schafer, K. J.

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schaffer, K. J.

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schaffer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamic of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonics conversion,” in Super Intense Laser Atom Physics, B. Piraux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzazewski, eds., NATO Advanced Science Institute Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1993), Vol. 316, p. 95.

Sergeev, A. M.

C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 330 (1996).
[Crossref]

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” JETP Lett. 58, 905 (1993).

Shakeshaft, R.

R. M. Potvliege and R. Shakeshaft, “Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field: harmonic generation and total ionization rates for atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 3061–3079 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shkolnikov, P. L.

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Superdressed two-level atom: very high harmonic generation and multiresonances,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1275–1280 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. L. Shkolnikov and A. E. Kaplan, “X-ray third-harmonic generation in plasmas of alkalilike ions,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1973–1975 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siders, C. W.

Smith, R. A.

J. W. G. Tisch, R. A. Smith, J. E. Muffett, M. Ciarroca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Angular resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R28–R31 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. E. Faldon, M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. P. Marangos, J. E. Muffett, R. A. Smith, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Studies of time-resolved harmonic generation in intense laser fields in xenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2094–2099 (1992).
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Spielmann, Ch.

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C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. G. Wahlstrom, B. Carre, and A. L’Huillier, “Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 148–156 (1996).
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C. G. Wahlstrom, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
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J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, and J. Javanainen, “Nonlinear light scattering accompanying multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 881–884 (1989).
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B. Sundaram and P. W. Milonni, “High-order harmonic generation: simplified model and relevance of single-atom theories to experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 6571–6573 (1990).
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C. G. Wahlstrom, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
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Svelto, O.

Taft, G.

Taieb, R.

G. Bandarage, A. Maquet, T. Menis, R. Taieb, V. Veniard, and J. Cooper, “Harmonic generation by laser-driven classical hydrogen atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 380–390 (1992).
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Ting, A.

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, “Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90–94 (1993).
[Crossref]

Tisch, J. W. G.

J. W. G. Tisch, R. A. Smith, J. E. Muffett, M. Ciarroca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Angular resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R28–R31 (1994).
[Crossref]

M. E. Faldon, M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. P. Marangos, J. E. Muffett, R. A. Smith, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Studies of time-resolved harmonic generation in intense laser fields in xenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2094–2099 (1992).
[Crossref]

Turner, N. C.

Umstadter, D.

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, “Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90–94 (1993).
[Crossref]

Van Woerkom, L. D.

S. Evans and L. D. Van Woerkom, “High order harmonic generation with molecules,” in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 00–00.

Vanin, E. V.

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” JETP Lett. 58, 905 (1993).

Veniard, V.

G. Bandarage, A. Maquet, T. Menis, R. Taieb, V. Veniard, and J. Cooper, “Harmonic generation by laser-driven classical hydrogen atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 380–390 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wahlstrom, C. G.

C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. G. Wahlstrom, B. Carre, and A. L’Huillier, “Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 148–156 (1996).
[Crossref]

C. G. Wahlstrom, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H. W.

H. W. Wang, Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Spectral structure in high harmonic emission,” Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 78.

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J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
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Wark, J. S.

S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, M.

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
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N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
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A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320–4326 (1996).
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Zeek, Z.

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S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
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Zhou, J.

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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

X. Liu, D. Umstadter, E. Esarey, and A. Ting, “Harmonic generation by an intense laser pulse in neutral and ionized gases,” IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 90–94 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (9)

R. Rosman, G. Gibson, K. Boyer, H. Jara, T. S. Luk, I. A. McIntyre, A. McPherson, J. C. Solem, and C. K. Rhodes, “Fifth-harmonic production in neon and argon with picosecond 248-nm radiation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 1237–1242 (1988).
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C. W. Siders, N. C. Turner, M. C. Downer, A. Babine, A. Stepanov, and A. M. Sergeev, “Blue-shifted third-harmonic generation and correlated self-guiding during ultrafast barrier suppression ionization of subatmospheric density noble gases,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 330 (1996).
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C. Altucci, T. Starczewski, E. Mevel, C. G. Wahlstrom, B. Carre, and A. L’Huillier, “Influence of atomic density in high-order harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 148–156 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. E. Faldon, M. H. R. Hutchinson, J. P. Marangos, J. E. Muffett, R. A. Smith, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Studies of time-resolved harmonic generation in intense laser fields in xenon,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2094–2099 (1992).
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J. Phys. B (4)

S. G. Preston, D. M. Chambers, R. S. Marjoribanks, P. A. Norreys, D. Neely, M. Zepf, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, and J. S. Wark, “Generation of bright, extreme-ultraviolet harmonic radiation from a krypton fluoride laser,” J. Phys. B 31, 1069–1082 (1998).
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M. Ferray, A. L’Huillier, X. F. Li, A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiple harmonic conversion of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” J. Phys. B 25, L31–L35 (1988).
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JETP Lett. (1)

E. V. Vanin, A. V. Kim, A. M. Sergeev, and M. C. Downer, “Excitation of ultrashort bursts of harmonics of the radiation during ionization of a gas by an intense light pulse,” JETP Lett. 58, 905 (1993).

Opt. Commun. (1)

S. C. Rae, “Ionization induced defocusing of intense laser pulses in high pressure gases,” Opt. Commun. 89, 1091 (1992).

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. (1)

J. F. Ward and G. H. C. New, “Optical third harmonic generation in gases by a focused laser beam,” Phys. Rev. 185, 57–72 (1969).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. A (14)

A. E. Kaplan and P. L. Shkolnikov, “Superdressed two-level atom: very high harmonic generation and multiresonances,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1275–1280 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. M. Potvliege and R. Shakeshaft, “Multiphoton processes in an intense laser field: harmonic generation and total ionization rates for atomic hydrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 3061–3079 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Wahlstrom, J. Larsson, A. Persson, T. Starczewski, S. Svanberg, Ph. Balcou, and A. L’Huillier, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with an intense short-pulse laser,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4709–4720 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Ditmire, J. K. Crane, H. Nyguyen, L. B. DaSilva, and M. Perry, “Energy-yield and conversion-efficiency measurements of high-order harmonic radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R902–R905 (1999).
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[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117–2132 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Sundaram and P. W. Milonni, “High-order harmonic generation: simplified model and relevance of single-atom theories to experiment,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 6571–6573 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Moreno, L. Plaja, V. Malyshev, and L. Roso, “Influence of barrier supression in high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 4746–4753 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ph. Balcou, A. L’Huillier, and D. Escande, “High-order harmonic generation process in classical and quantum anharmonic oscillators,” Phys. Rev. A 53, 3456–3468 (1966).
[Crossref]

A. Sanpera, J. B. Watson, M. Lewenstein, and K. Burnett, “Harmonic-generation control,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 4320–4326 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. G. Tisch, R. A. Smith, J. E. Muffett, M. Ciarroca, J. P. Marangos, and M. H. R. Hutchinson, “Angular resolved high-order harmonic generation in helium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R28–R31 (1994).
[Crossref]

N. Sarukura, K. Hata, T. Adachi, R. Nodomi, M. Watanabe, and S. Watanabe, “Coherent soft x-ray generation by the harmonics of 1064 nm radiation in rare gases,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1669–1672 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. S. Malcuit, R. W. Boyd, W. V. Davis, and K. Rzazewski, “Anomalies in optical harmonic generations using high intensity radiation,” Phys. Rev. A 41, 3822 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Bandarage, A. Maquet, T. Menis, R. Taieb, V. Veniard, and J. Cooper, “Harmonic generation by laser-driven classical hydrogen atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 46, 380–390 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. J. Macklin, J. D. Kmetec, and C. L. Gordon, “High-order harmonic generation using femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 766–769 (1993).
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A. L’Huillier and Ph. Balcou, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases with a 1 ps 1053 laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 774–777 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. L. Krause, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “High-order harmonic generation from atoms and ions in the high intensity regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3535–3538 (1992).
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P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong-field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1995–1997 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. H. Eberly, Q. Su, and J. Javanainen, “Nonlinear light scattering accompanying multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 881–884 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (5)

S. Evans and L. D. Van Woerkom, “High order harmonic generation with molecules,” in Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 00–00.

J. Reintjes, Nonlinear Optical Parametric Processes in Liquids and Gases (Academic, New York, 1984), Chap. 3.

A. L’Huillier, L.-A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “High-order harmonic generation in rare gases,” in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1992), pp. 139–206, and references therein.

H. W. Wang, Z. Chang, A. Rundquist, H. Kapteyn, M. Murnane, and I. P. Christov, “Spectral structure in high harmonic emission,” Applications of High Field and Short Wavelength Sources VII, Vol. 7 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), p. 78.

K. C. Kulander, K. J. Schaffer, and J. L. Krause, “Dynamic of short-pulse excitation, ionization and harmonics conversion,” in Super Intense Laser Atom Physics, B. Piraux, A. L’Huillier, and K. Rzazewski, eds., NATO Advanced Science Institute Series B: Physics (Plenum, New York, 1993), Vol. 316, p. 95.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup for measuring the third harmonic.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Third-harmonic signal in CH4 as a function of the laser intensity at various gas pressures.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity of the third harmonic radiation in CH4 at different values of the laser irradiance as a function of pressure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectra of the radiation emitted in the vicinity of 275.3 nm (2753 Å) for various laser intensities.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectra of the third-harmonic at various gas pressures, measured at a laser intensity I=1.15×1014 W/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectra of the third harmonic at various gas pressures, measured at a laser intensity I=4.5×1014 W/cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Harmonic signal in xenon, argon, and methane measured at 30 psi as a function of the laser intensity.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I3I13|χ(3)|2N2|F3(bΔk)|2,
F3(bΔk)=2πbΔk2expbΔk2,Δk<0,
F3(bΔk)=0,Δk>0.
Δk=32πλ(n3-n1),n3-n1=2πN Re[χ(1)(3ω)].
Wcr=(1.22λ)2c256Nχ3,
NeNcrλ2zR.
Δλλ=zRcdndt,

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