Abstract

By means of a particle-in-cell simulation we study the effect of time-dependent tunneling ionization in the harmonics generated during the formation of a plasma when a laser field impinges on a solid slab. The comparison of our results with preionized plasma calculations and with a simple propagation model, in which the dynamics of ionized charges is neglected, shows the crucial role of the ionization even when the ionization time is a relatively small fraction of the pulse duration. The mechanism for which the harmonics are generated owing to ionization is investigated by means of a moving-mirror model extended to take into account the time-dependent reflectivity.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. An overview of these phenomena can be found in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1992) and in P. W. Milonni and B. Sundaram, “Atoms in strong fields: photoionization and chaos,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), Vol. XXXI.
  2. L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965); F. H. M. Faisal, J. Phys. B 6, L89 (1973); H. R. Reiss, Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 22, 1786 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  3. P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. K. Birdsall and A. B. Langdon, Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation, Plasma Physics Series (IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1991); J. M. Dawson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 55, 403 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. V. Bulanov, N. M. Naumova, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Plasmas 1, 745 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3425 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. von der Linde and K. Rzążewski, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 499 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Plaja, L. Roso, K. Rza¸żewski, and M. Lewenstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1904 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, and W. B. Mori, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 120 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Gibbon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 50 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. See references in P. Gibbon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1915 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. F. Brunel, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 521 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Malyshev, E. Conejero Jarque, and L. Roso, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 163 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  15. W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. F. Cornolti, A. Macchi, and E. Conejero Jarque, “Superstrong fields in plasmas,” AIP Conf. Proc. 426, 55 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Forsman, A. Ng, G. Chiu, and R. M. More, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1248 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  18. D. Bauer, R. R. E. Salomaa, and P. Mulser, Phys. Rev. E 58, 2436 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  19. S. V. Bulanov, A. Macchi, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 245, 439 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  20. D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. Hässner, W. Theobald, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Opt. Lett. 22, 1491 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  22. M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).
  23. D. Bauer and P. Mulser, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
  24. J. M. Wallace, D. W. Forslund, J. M. Kindel, G. L. Olson, and J. C. Comly, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2337 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. Conejero Jarque and L. Plaja, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2724 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1991).
  27. B. M. Penetrante, J. N. Bardsley, W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2032 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A. Bendib, A. Tahraoui, K. Kalache, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, Opt. Commun. 142, 146 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (5)

L. Plaja, L. Roso, K. Rza¸żewski, and M. Lewenstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1904 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornolti, A. Macchi, and E. Conejero Jarque, “Superstrong fields in plasmas,” AIP Conf. Proc. 426, 55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Forsman, A. Ng, G. Chiu, and R. M. More, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Bauer, R. R. E. Salomaa, and P. Mulser, Phys. Rev. E 58, 2436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Bulanov, A. Macchi, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 245, 439 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Hässner, W. Theobald, S. Niedermeier, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, Opt. Lett. 22, 1491 (1997).
[CrossRef]

See references in P. Gibbon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. Malyshev, E. Conejero Jarque, and L. Roso, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 163 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Bendib, A. Tahraoui, K. Kalache, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, Opt. Commun. 142, 146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

E. Conejero Jarque and L. Plaja, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2724 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Gibbon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 50 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde and K. Rzążewski, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. V. Bulanov, N. M. Naumova, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Plasmas 1, 745 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, and W. B. Mori, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. M. Penetrante, J. N. Bardsley, W. M. Wood, C. W. Siders, and M. C. Downer, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2032 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

J. M. Wallace, D. W. Forslund, J. M. Kindel, G. L. Olson, and J. C. Comly, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1986 (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Ammosov, M. V.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bardsley, J. N.

Bauer, D.

D. Bauer, R. R. E. Salomaa, and P. Mulser, Phys. Rev. E 58, 2436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bendib, A.

A. Bendib, A. Tahraoui, K. Kalache, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, Opt. Commun. 142, 146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Brunel, F.

Bulanov, S. V.

S. V. Bulanov, A. Macchi, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 245, 439 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Bulanov, N. M. Naumova, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Plasmas 1, 745 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chambaret, J. P.

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheriaux, G.

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chessa, P.

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Bendib, A. Tahraoui, K. Kalache, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, Opt. Commun. 142, 146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, G.

A. Forsman, A. Ng, G. Chiu, and R. M. More, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clayton, C. E.

W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comly, J. C.

J. M. Wallace, D. W. Forslund, J. M. Kindel, G. L. Olson, and J. C. Comly, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Corkum, P. B.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cornolti, F.

F. Cornolti, A. Macchi, and E. Conejero Jarque, “Superstrong fields in plasmas,” AIP Conf. Proc. 426, 55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Darpentigny, G.

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Delone, N. B.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Downer, M. C.

Dyson, A.

W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Forslund, D. W.

J. M. Wallace, D. W. Forslund, J. M. Kindel, G. L. Olson, and J. C. Comly, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Forsman, A.

A. Forsman, A. Ng, G. Chiu, and R. M. More, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibbon, P.

See references in P. Gibbon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Gibbon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 50 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giulietti, A.

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Giulietti, D.

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gizzi, L. A.

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hässner, R.

Ivanov, M. Yu.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jarque, E. Conejero

Joshi, C.

W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalache, K.

A. Bendib, A. Tahraoui, K. Kalache, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, Opt. Commun. 142, 146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kaw, P. K.

W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kindel, J. M.

J. M. Wallace, D. W. Forslund, J. M. Kindel, G. L. Olson, and J. C. Comly, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Krainov, V. P.

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Kruer, W. L.

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, and W. B. Mori, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leemans, W. P.

W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewenstein, M.

L. Plaja, L. Roso, K. Rza¸żewski, and M. Lewenstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1904 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lichters, R.

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Macchi, A.

S. V. Bulanov, A. Macchi, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 245, 439 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Cornolti, A. Macchi, and E. Conejero Jarque, “Superstrong fields in plasmas,” AIP Conf. Proc. 426, 55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Malyshev, V.

Marsh, K. A.

W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mora, P.

A. Bendib, A. Tahraoui, K. Kalache, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, Opt. Commun. 142, 146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

More, R. M.

A. Forsman, A. Ng, G. Chiu, and R. M. More, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mori, W. B.

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, and W. B. Mori, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mulser, P.

D. Bauer, R. R. E. Salomaa, and P. Mulser, Phys. Rev. E 58, 2436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Naumova, N. M.

S. V. Bulanov, N. M. Naumova, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Plasmas 1, 745 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ng, A.

A. Forsman, A. Ng, G. Chiu, and R. M. More, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Niedermeier, S.

Olson, G. L.

J. M. Wallace, D. W. Forslund, J. M. Kindel, G. L. Olson, and J. C. Comly, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pegoraro, F.

S. V. Bulanov, A. Macchi, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 245, 439 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. V. Bulanov, N. M. Naumova, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Plasmas 1, 745 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Penetrante, B. M.

Plaja, L.

Pukhov, A.

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Roso, L.

Rousse, A.

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rza¸zewski, K.

L. Plaja, L. Roso, K. Rza¸żewski, and M. Lewenstein, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1904 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. von der Linde and K. Rzążewski, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Salomaa, R. R. E.

D. Bauer, R. R. E. Salomaa, and P. Mulser, Phys. Rev. E 58, 2436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

Schillinger, H.

Siders, C. W.

Tahraoui, A.

A. Bendib, A. Tahraoui, K. Kalache, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, Opt. Commun. 142, 146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teychenné, D.

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Theobald, W.

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde and K. Rzążewski, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wallace, J. M.

W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Wallace, D. W. Forslund, J. M. Kindel, G. L. Olson, and J. C. Comly, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wilks, S. C.

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, and W. B. Mori, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wood, W. M.

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

F. Cornolti, A. Macchi, and E. Conejero Jarque, “Superstrong fields in plasmas,” AIP Conf. Proc. 426, 55 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

D. von der Linde and K. Rzążewski, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 63, 499 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

See references in P. Gibbon, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-33, 1915 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. (1)

S. C. Wilks, W. L. Kruer, and W. B. Mori, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 21, 120 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Bendib, A. Tahraoui, K. Kalache, P. Chessa, and P. Mora, Opt. Commun. 142, 146 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Fluids B (1)

J. M. Wallace, D. W. Forslund, J. M. Kindel, G. L. Olson, and J. C. Comly, Phys. Fluids B 3, 2337 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (2)

S. V. Bulanov, N. M. Naumova, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Plasmas 1, 745 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Lichters, J. Meyer-ter-Vehn, and A. Pukhov, Phys. Plasmas 3, 3425 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (2)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. P. Leemans, C. E. Clayton, W. B. Mori, K. A. Marsh, P. K. Kaw, A. Dyson, C. Joshi, and J. M. Wallace, Phys. Rev. A 46, 1091 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

A. Forsman, A. Ng, G. Chiu, and R. M. More, Phys. Rev. E 58, R1248 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Bauer, R. R. E. Salomaa, and P. Mulser, Phys. Rev. E 58, 2436 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. V. Bulanov, A. Macchi, and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Rev. Lett. 245, 439 (1998).
[CrossRef]

D. Giulietti, L. A. Gizzi, A. Giulietti, A. Macchi, D. Teychenné, P. Chessa, A. Rousse, G. Cheriaux, J. P. Chambaret, and G. Darpentigny, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 3194 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Gibbon, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 50 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. B. Corkum, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

M. V. Ammosov, N. B. Delone, and V. P. Krainov, Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 1191 (1986).

Other (5)

D. Bauer and P. Mulser, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1991).

C. K. Birdsall and A. B. Langdon, Plasma Physics via Computer Simulation, Plasma Physics Series (IOP Publishing, Bristol, UK, 1991); J. M. Dawson, Rev. Mod. Phys. 55, 403 (1983).
[CrossRef]

An overview of these phenomena can be found in Atoms in Intense Laser Fields, M. Gavrila, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1992) and in P. W. Milonni and B. Sundaram, “Atoms in strong fields: photoionization and chaos,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1993), Vol. XXXI.

L. V. Keldysh, Sov. Phys. JETP 20, 1307 (1965); F. H. M. Faisal, J. Phys. B 6, L89 (1973); H. R. Reiss, Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 22, 1786 (1980).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectra of the reflected field for an incident pulse of maximum amplitude E0=0.1 a.u. (a) Results obtained with the full PIC calculations including ionization, (b) the result of the simple propagation model, (c) calculation with a PIC code for a completely preionized plasma. The dashed curve in (c) shows the result of the moving-mirror model, introducing a stationary reflectivity corresponding to the fully ionized target.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Same as Fig. 1 plot for E0=0.4 a.u.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Same as Fig. 1 plots for E0=4 a.u.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Bound-electron density in the middle of the foil as a function of time. The field amplitudes are E0=4 a.u. (solid curve), 0.4 a.u. (dashed curve), and 0.1 a.u. (dotted curve).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectra of the reflected field when the incident pulse has a maximum amplitude of E0=4 a.u. and a length of 40 optical cycles (solid curve) and 20 optical cycles (dotted curve).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evolution of the free-electron density during the interaction with the pulse when (a) E0=0.1 a.u. and (b) E0=4 a.u.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Harmonic spectrum calculated from the moving-mirror model, extended to incorporate a time-dependent reflectivity. Laser and target parameters are the same as in Fig. 2.

Equations (7)

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W(x, t)=4|E(x, t)|exp-23|E(x, t)|,
2Ex2-1c22Et2=4πc2e2mNE,
N t=W(N0-N),
dd tp(t)=-E[t-x(t)/c]×ez+1cv(t)×ey-ωp2(t)x(t)ex,
ER[t+x(t)/c]=R[t-x(t)/c]E[t-x(t)/c],
R(t)=r(t)1-exp[in(t)k2d]1-r2(t)exp[in(t)k2d],
n(t)=[1-ωp2(t)/ω02]1/2,

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