Abstract

Solid-state laser mode locking by semiconductor quantum-well absorbers (QWA’s) is investigated, with the coherent polarization response of the absorbers taken into account. It is shown that femtosecond pulses with durations below the response time and the dephasing time can be generated that are stabilized by Rabi flopping of the absorber population. The shortest pulses are found when the effects of self-phase modulation (SPM) and group-velocity dispersion (GVD) are not present, whereby highly stable 2π pulses are formed inside the absorber. In the presence of SPM and GVD the pulse area deviates from 2π; nevertheless, the absorber’s coherent response results in incomplete Rabi flopping of the population. In agreement with experimental observations, we found limited femtosecond pulse operation regions for the pump rate and the GVD. These parameter regions are bounded by Q-switching instabilities and multiple-pulse operation. Further, the influence of inhomogeneous broadening of the carriers, dynamic bandgap renormalization owing to Coulomb exchange, and excitation-dependent dephasing of highly excited semiconductors is studied. The key absorber parameters are predicted that should permit a reduction of the shortest possible pulse durations.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1998 (4)

V. P. Kalosha, M. Müller, and J. Herrmann, “Coherent-absorber mode locking of solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 117–119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, V. P. Kalosha, and J. Herrmann, “2π-pulse laser using an intracavity quantum-well absorber,” Opt. Commun. 150, 147–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kalosha, M. Müller, J. Herrmann, and S. Gatz, “Spatiotemporal model of femtosecond pulse generation in Kerr-lens mode locked solid-state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 535–550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, V. P. Kalosha, and J. Herrmann, “Intracavity self-induced transparency of a multilevel absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 1372–1381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (5)

1996 (4)

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Yanovsky, A. Korytin, F. W. Wise, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSGAF lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 465–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 540–556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

1994 (5)

J. Zhou, G. Taft, C. P. Huang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Pulse evolution in a broad-bandwidth Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1149–1151 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Herrmann, “Theory of Kerr-lens mode locking: role of self-focusing and radially varying gain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 498–512 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Snoke, “Density dependence of electron scattering at low density,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11, 583–11, 591 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Ippen, “Principles of passive mode locking,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 48, 159–170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (5)

T. Östreich and A. Knorr, “Various appearances of Rabi oscillations for 2π-pulse excitation in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17, 811–17, 817 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, “Starting dynamic, self-starting condition and mode-locking threshold in passive, coupled-cavity or Kerr-lens mode-locked solid-state lasers,” Opt. Commun. 98, 111–116 (1993).
[CrossRef]

E. A. DeSouza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Dliebel, B. H. Stolen, M. N. Islam, J. R. Simpton, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Saturable absorber modelocked polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Generation of pulses as short as 93 fs from self-starting femtosecond Cr:LiSrAlF6 lasers by exploiting multiple-quantum-well absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 983–985 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piche and F. Salin, “Self-mode locking of solid-state lasers without apertures,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1041–1043 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (4)

D. Georgiev, J. Herrmann, and U. Stamm, “Cavity design for optimum nonlinear absorption in Kerr-lens modelocked solid-state lasers,” Opt. Commun. 92, 368–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Th. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, and F. Krausz, “Kerr lens mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1292–1294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry–Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (6)

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, G. W. ’t Hooft, W. H. Knox, and J. E. Cunningham, “Femtosecond pulses from a continuously self-starting passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1022–1024 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piche, “Beam reshaping and self-mode-locking in nonlinear laser resonators,” Opt. Commun. 86, 156–160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, and H. Kubota, “Coexistance of self-induced transparency solitons and nonlinear Schrödinger solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2625–2628 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Bigot, M. T. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, J. E. Cunningham, and C. V. Shank, “Two-dimensional carrier–carrier screening in a quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 636–639 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

R. Binder, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ultrafast adiabatic following in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 899–902 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, W. H. Knox, and H. Roskos, “Coupled-cavity resonant passive mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1377–1379 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg-reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 455–464 (1990).

1989 (1)

M. N. Islam, E. R. Sunderman, C. E. Soccolich, I. Bar-Joseph, N. Sauer, T. Y. Chang, and B. I. Miller, “Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2454–2463 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito-Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. G. Benedict and E. D. Trifonov, “Coherent reflection as superradiation from the boundary of a resonant medium,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2854–2862 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (2)

1981 (1)

J. P. v. d. Ziel, W. T. Tsang, R. A. Logan, R. M. Mikulyak, and W. M. Augustyniak, “Subpicosecond pulses from a passively modelocked GaAs buried optical guide semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 525–527 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

E. P. Ippen, D. J. Eichenberger, and R. W. Dixon, “Picosecond pulse generation by passive mode locking of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 267–269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. A. Haus, “Theory of mode locking with a fast saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3049–3058 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. G. Kryukov and V. S. Lethokov, “Fluctuation mechanism of ultrashort pulse generation by lasers with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 766–782 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

S. L. McCall and E. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908–911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self mode-locking of lasers with saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174–176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

H. W. Mocker and R. J. Collins, “Mode competition and self-locking effects in a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 270–273 (1965).
[CrossRef]

’t Hooft, G. W.

Asom, M. T.

Augustyniak, W. M.

J. P. v. d. Ziel, W. T. Tsang, R. A. Logan, R. M. Mikulyak, and W. M. Augustyniak, “Subpicosecond pulses from a passively modelocked GaAs buried optical guide semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 525–527 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aus der Au, J.

J. Aus der Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Joseph, I.

M. N. Islam, E. R. Sunderman, C. E. Soccolich, I. Bar-Joseph, N. Sauer, T. Y. Chang, and B. I. Miller, “Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2454–2463 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito-Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Benedict, M. G.

M. G. Benedict and E. D. Trifonov, “Coherent reflection as superradiation from the boundary of a resonant medium,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2854–2862 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bigot, J. Y.

J. Y. Bigot, M. T. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, J. E. Cunningham, and C. V. Shank, “Two-dimensional carrier–carrier screening in a quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 636–639 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Binder, R.

R. Binder, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ultrafast adiabatic following in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 899–902 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, G. D.

Brabec, T.

Brabec, Th.

Braun, B.

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Cruz, C. H.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito-Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brovelli, L. R.

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Self-starting soliton modelocked Ti:sapphire laser using a thin semiconductor saturable absorber,” Electron. Lett. 31, 287–289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cassanho, A.

V. P. Yanovsky, A. Korytin, F. W. Wise, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSGAF lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 465–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

M. N. Islam, E. R. Sunderman, C. E. Soccolich, I. Bar-Joseph, N. Sauer, T. Y. Chang, and B. I. Miller, “Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2454–2463 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, T. H.

Christov, I. P.

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H. W. Mocker and R. J. Collins, “Mode competition and self-locking effects in a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 270–273 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, J. T.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg-reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 455–464 (1990).

Cundiff, S. T.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. d. Souza, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode locking in solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1406–1408 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, G. W. ’t Hooft, W. H. Knox, and J. E. Cunningham, “Femtosecond pulses from a continuously self-starting passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1022–1024 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Bigot, M. T. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, J. E. Cunningham, and C. V. Shank, “Two-dimensional carrier–carrier screening in a quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 636–639 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg-reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 455–464 (1990).

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito-Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Curley, P. F.

d. Souza, E. A.

Delfyett, P. J.

DeMaria, A. J.

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self mode-locking of lasers with saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174–176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

DeSouza, E. A.

E. A. DeSouza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Dliebel, B. H. Stolen, M. N. Islam, J. R. Simpton, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Saturable absorber modelocked polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

E. A. DeSouza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Dliebel, B. H. Stolen, M. N. Islam, J. R. Simpton, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Saturable absorber modelocked polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dixon, R. W.

E. P. Ippen, D. J. Eichenberger, and R. W. Dixon, “Picosecond pulse generation by passive mode locking of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 267–269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Dliebel, W.

E. A. DeSouza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Dliebel, B. H. Stolen, M. N. Islam, J. R. Simpton, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Saturable absorber modelocked polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eichenberger, D. J.

E. P. Ippen, D. J. Eichenberger, and R. W. Dixon, “Picosecond pulse generation by passive mode locking of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 267–269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Eilenberger, D. J.

Elsaesser, T.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feldmann, J.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ferguson, J. F.

Florez, L. T.

Fluck, R.

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fork, R. L.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito-Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fradkin, E. E.

V. V. Kozlov and E. E. Fradkin, “Theory of mode locking with a coherent absorber. 1. Generation of soliton-like 2π pulses,” JETP 80, 32–40 (1995).

Fragnito, H. L.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito-Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

French, P. M. W.

Fujimoto, J. G.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gatz, S.

Georgiev, D.

D. Georgiev, J. Herrmann, and U. Stamm, “Cavity design for optimum nonlinear absorption in Kerr-lens modelocked solid-state lasers,” Opt. Commun. 92, 368–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Göbel, E. O.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gossard, A. C.

Hahn, E.

S. L. McCall and E. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908–911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Haus, “Theory of mode locking with a fast saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3049–3058 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Henry, J. E.

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito-Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Herrmann, J.

V. P. Kalosha, M. Müller, and J. Herrmann, “Coherent-absorber mode locking of solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 117–119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, V. P. Kalosha, and J. Herrmann, “2π-pulse laser using an intracavity quantum-well absorber,” Opt. Commun. 150, 147–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kalosha, M. Müller, J. Herrmann, and S. Gatz, “Spatiotemporal model of femtosecond pulse generation in Kerr-lens mode locked solid-state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 535–550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, V. P. Kalosha, and J. Herrmann, “Intracavity self-induced transparency of a multilevel absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 1372–1381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, “Theory of Kerr-lens mode locking: role of self-focusing and radially varying gain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 498–512 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, “Starting dynamic, self-starting condition and mode-locking threshold in passive, coupled-cavity or Kerr-lens mode-locked solid-state lasers,” Opt. Commun. 98, 111–116 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Georgiev, J. Herrmann, and U. Stamm, “Cavity design for optimum nonlinear absorption in Kerr-lens modelocked solid-state lasers,” Opt. Commun. 92, 368–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Heynau, H.

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self mode-locking of lasers with saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174–176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Hönninher, C.

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. P.

Ippen, E. P.

H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, D. J. Eichenberger, and R. W. Dixon, “Picosecond pulse generation by passive mode locking of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 267–269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, J. P.

J. P. Ippen, “Principles of passive mode locking,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 48, 159–170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Islam, M. N.

E. A. DeSouza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Dliebel, B. H. Stolen, M. N. Islam, J. R. Simpton, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Saturable absorber modelocked polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, E. R. Sunderman, C. E. Soccolich, I. Bar-Joseph, N. Sauer, T. Y. Chang, and B. I. Miller, “Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2454–2463 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jan, W. Y.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. d. Souza, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode locking in solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1406–1408 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg-reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 455–464 (1990).

Jenssen, H. P.

V. P. Yanovsky, A. Korytin, F. W. Wise, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSGAF lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 465–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jung, I. D.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Self-starting 6.5-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1009–1011 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 540–556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Self-starting soliton modelocked Ti:sapphire laser using a thin semiconductor saturable absorber,” Electron. Lett. 31, 287–289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kalosha, V. P.

M. Müller, V. P. Kalosha, and J. Herrmann, “Intracavity self-induced transparency of a multilevel absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 1372–1381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, V. P. Kalosha, and J. Herrmann, “2π-pulse laser using an intracavity quantum-well absorber,” Opt. Commun. 150, 147–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kalosha, M. Müller, J. Herrmann, and S. Gatz, “Spatiotemporal model of femtosecond pulse generation in Kerr-lens mode locked solid-state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 535–550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kalosha, M. Müller, and J. Herrmann, “Coherent-absorber mode locking of solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 117–119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kamp, M.

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Self-starting soliton modelocked Ti:sapphire laser using a thin semiconductor saturable absorber,” Electron. Lett. 31, 287–289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kärtner, F. X.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Self-starting 6.5-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1009–1011 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 540–556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 16–18 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Self-starting soliton modelocked Ti:sapphire laser using a thin semiconductor saturable absorber,” Electron. Lett. 31, 287–289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kean, P. N.

Keller, U.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Self-starting 6.5-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1009–1011 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Aus der Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 540–556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Self-starting soliton modelocked Ti:sapphire laser using a thin semiconductor saturable absorber,” Electron. Lett. 31, 287–289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 16–18 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry–Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, G. W. ’t Hooft, W. H. Knox, and J. E. Cunningham, “Femtosecond pulses from a continuously self-starting passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1022–1024 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, W. H. Knox, and H. Roskos, “Coupled-cavity resonant passive mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1377–1379 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knorr, A.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Östreich and A. Knorr, “Various appearances of Rabi oscillations for 2π-pulse excitation in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17, 811–17, 817 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Knox, W. H.

Koch, S. W.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Binder, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ultrafast adiabatic following in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 899–902 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Komarov, K. P.

K. P. Komarov and V. D. Ugozhaev, “Steady-state 2π-pulses under passive mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 787–792 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kopf, D.

J. Aus der Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Self-starting soliton modelocked Ti:sapphire laser using a thin semiconductor saturable absorber,” Electron. Lett. 31, 287–289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Korytin, A.

V. P. Yanovsky, A. Korytin, F. W. Wise, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSGAF lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 465–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V. V.

V. V. Kozlov and E. E. Fradkin, “Theory of mode locking with a coherent absorber. 1. Generation of soliton-like 2π pulses,” JETP 80, 32–40 (1995).

Krausz, F.

Kryukov, P. G.

P. G. Kryukov and V. S. Lethokov, “Fluctuation mechanism of ultrashort pulse generation by lasers with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 766–782 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, H.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, and H. Kubota, “Coexistance of self-induced transparency solitons and nonlinear Schrödinger solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2625–2628 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lenzner, M.

Lethokov, V. S.

P. G. Kryukov and V. S. Lethokov, “Fluctuation mechanism of ultrashort pulse generation by lasers with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 766–782 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, M.

R. Binder, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ultrafast adiabatic following in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 899–902 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Logan, R. A.

J. P. v. d. Ziel, W. T. Tsang, R. A. Logan, R. M. Mikulyak, and W. M. Augustyniak, “Subpicosecond pulses from a passively modelocked GaAs buried optical guide semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 525–527 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lugli, P.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matuschek, N.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Self-starting 6.5-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1009–1011 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McCall, S. L.

S. L. McCall and E. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908–911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Mikulyak, R. M.

J. P. v. d. Ziel, W. T. Tsang, R. A. Logan, R. M. Mikulyak, and W. M. Augustyniak, “Subpicosecond pulses from a passively modelocked GaAs buried optical guide semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 525–527 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

M. N. Islam, E. R. Sunderman, C. E. Soccolich, I. Bar-Joseph, N. Sauer, T. Y. Chang, and B. I. Miller, “Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2454–2463 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

Mocker, H. W.

H. W. Mocker and R. J. Collins, “Mode competition and self-locking effects in a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 270–273 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

Moser, M.

J. Aus der Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Self-starting soliton modelocked Ti:sapphire laser using a thin semiconductor saturable absorber,” Electron. Lett. 31, 287–289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M.

M. Müller, V. P. Kalosha, and J. Herrmann, “Intracavity self-induced transparency of a multilevel absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 1372–1381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kalosha, M. Müller, and J. Herrmann, “Coherent-absorber mode locking of solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 117–119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kalosha, M. Müller, J. Herrmann, and S. Gatz, “Spatiotemporal model of femtosecond pulse generation in Kerr-lens mode locked solid-state lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 535–550 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Müller, V. P. Kalosha, and J. Herrmann, “2π-pulse laser using an intracavity quantum-well absorber,” Opt. Commun. 150, 147–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Murnane, M. M.

Nakazawa, M.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, and H. Kubota, “Coexistance of self-induced transparency solitons and nonlinear Schrödinger solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2625–2628 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickel, H.

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Östreich, T.

T. Östreich and A. Knorr, “Various appearances of Rabi oscillations for 2π-pulse excitation in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17, 811–17, 817 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

R. Binder, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ultrafast adiabatic following in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 899–902 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Piche, M.

M. Piche and F. Salin, “Self-mode locking of solid-state lasers without apertures,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1041–1043 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piche, “Beam reshaping and self-mode-locking in nonlinear laser resonators,” Opt. Commun. 86, 156–160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Portella, M. T.

J. Y. Bigot, M. T. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, J. E. Cunningham, and C. V. Shank, “Two-dimensional carrier–carrier screening in a quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 636–639 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rizvi, N. H.

Roskos, H.

Rota, L.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salin, F.

Sauer, N.

M. N. Islam, E. R. Sunderman, C. E. Soccolich, I. Bar-Joseph, N. Sauer, T. Y. Chang, and B. I. Miller, “Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2454–2463 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Scheuer, V.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Self-starting 6.5-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1009–1011 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schoenlein, R. W.

J. Y. Bigot, M. T. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, J. E. Cunningham, and C. V. Shank, “Two-dimensional carrier–carrier screening in a quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 636–639 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

J. Y. Bigot, M. T. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, J. E. Cunningham, and C. V. Shank, “Two-dimensional carrier–carrier screening in a quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 636–639 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito-Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, Z.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Sibbett, W.

Silberberg, Y.

Simpton, J. R.

E. A. DeSouza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Dliebel, B. H. Stolen, M. N. Islam, J. R. Simpton, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Saturable absorber modelocked polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smith, R. W.

Snoke, D. W.

D. W. Snoke, “Density dependence of electron scattering at low density,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11, 583–11, 591 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soccolich, C. E.

E. A. DeSouza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Dliebel, B. H. Stolen, M. N. Islam, J. R. Simpton, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Saturable absorber modelocked polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Islam, E. R. Sunderman, C. E. Soccolich, I. Bar-Joseph, N. Sauer, T. Y. Chang, and B. I. Miller, “Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2454–2463 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Spence, D. E.

Spielman, Ch.

Spielmann, Ch.

Stamm, U.

D. Georgiev, J. Herrmann, and U. Stamm, “Cavity design for optimum nonlinear absorption in Kerr-lens modelocked solid-state lasers,” Opt. Commun. 92, 368–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stetser, D. A.

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self mode-locking of lasers with saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174–176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Stingel, A.

Stolen, B. H.

E. A. DeSouza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Dliebel, B. H. Stolen, M. N. Islam, J. R. Simpton, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Saturable absorber modelocked polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sunderman, E. R.

M. N. Islam, E. R. Sunderman, C. E. Soccolich, I. Bar-Joseph, N. Sauer, T. Y. Chang, and B. I. Miller, “Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2454–2463 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sutter, D. H.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Self-starting 6.5-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1009–1011 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Szipöcs, R.

Taft, G.

Taylor, J. R.

Tilsch, M.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Self-starting 6.5-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1009–1011 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trifonov, E. D.

M. G. Benedict and E. D. Trifonov, “Coherent reflection as superradiation from the boundary of a resonant medium,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2854–2862 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tsang, W. T.

J. P. v. d. Ziel, W. T. Tsang, R. A. Logan, R. M. Mikulyak, and W. M. Augustyniak, “Subpicosecond pulses from a passively modelocked GaAs buried optical guide semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 525–527 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Tschudi, T.

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Self-starting 6.5-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1009–1011 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tsuda, S.

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. d. Souza, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode locking in solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1406–1408 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg-reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 455–464 (1990).

Ugozhaev, V. D.

K. P. Komarov and V. D. Ugozhaev, “Steady-state 2π-pulses under passive mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 787–792 (1984).
[CrossRef]

v. d. Ziel, J. P.

J. P. v. d. Ziel, W. T. Tsang, R. A. Logan, R. M. Mikulyak, and W. M. Augustyniak, “Subpicosecond pulses from a passively modelocked GaAs buried optical guide semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 525–527 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, H. J.

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wiegmann, W.

Wise, F. W.

V. P. Yanovsky, A. Korytin, F. W. Wise, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSGAF lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 465–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, E.

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, and H. Kubota, “Coexistance of self-induced transparency solitons and nonlinear Schrödinger solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2625–2628 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yanovsky, V. P.

V. P. Yanovsky, A. Korytin, F. W. Wise, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSGAF lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 465–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G.

Zhou, J.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, Z. Shi, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, T. Tschudi, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors supporting sub-10fs pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 65, 137–150 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

J. P. Ippen, “Principles of passive mode locking,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 48, 159–170 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

H. W. Mocker and R. J. Collins, “Mode competition and self-locking effects in a Q-switched ruby laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 7, 270–273 (1965).
[CrossRef]

A. J. DeMaria, D. A. Stetser, and H. Heynau, “Self mode-locking of lasers with saturable absorbers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 8, 174–176 (1966).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Ippen, D. J. Eichenberger, and R. W. Dixon, “Picosecond pulse generation by passive mode locking of diode lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 267–269 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. P. v. d. Ziel, W. T. Tsang, R. A. Logan, R. M. Mikulyak, and W. M. Augustyniak, “Subpicosecond pulses from a passively modelocked GaAs buried optical guide semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 525–527 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

E. A. DeSouza, C. E. Soccolich, W. Dliebel, B. H. Stolen, M. N. Islam, J. R. Simpton, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Saturable absorber modelocked polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber laser,” Electron. Lett. 29, 447–449 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Brovelli, I. D. Jung, D. Kopf, M. Kamp, M. Moser, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Self-starting soliton modelocked Ti:sapphire laser using a thin semiconductor saturable absorber,” Electron. Lett. 31, 287–289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. N. Islam, E. R. Sunderman, C. E. Soccolich, I. Bar-Joseph, N. Sauer, T. Y. Chang, and B. I. Miller, “Color center lasers passively mode locked by quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2454–2463 (1989).
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P. G. Kryukov and V. S. Lethokov, “Fluctuation mechanism of ultrashort pulse generation by lasers with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-8, 766–782 (1972).
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H. A. Haus, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Analytic theory of additive pulse and Kerr lens mode locking,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2086–2096 (1992).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (4)

U. Keller, H. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninher, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, J. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Mode locking ultrafast solid-state lasers with saturable Bragg-reflectors,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 455–464 (1990).

F. X. Kärtner, I. D. Jung, and U. Keller, “Soliton mode-locking with saturable absorbers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 540–556 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Yanovsky, A. Korytin, F. W. Wise, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, “Femtosecond diode-pumped Cr:LiSGAF lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 3, 465–472 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. A. Haus, “Theory of mode locking with a fast saturable absorber,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3049–3058 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

JETP (1)

V. V. Kozlov and E. E. Fradkin, “Theory of mode locking with a coherent absorber. 1. Generation of soliton-like 2π pulses,” JETP 80, 32–40 (1995).

Opt. Commun. (4)

M. Müller, V. P. Kalosha, and J. Herrmann, “2π-pulse laser using an intracavity quantum-well absorber,” Opt. Commun. 150, 147–152 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Herrmann, “Starting dynamic, self-starting condition and mode-locking threshold in passive, coupled-cavity or Kerr-lens mode-locked solid-state lasers,” Opt. Commun. 98, 111–116 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Piche, “Beam reshaping and self-mode-locking in nonlinear laser resonators,” Opt. Commun. 86, 156–160 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Georgiev, J. Herrmann, and U. Stamm, “Cavity design for optimum nonlinear absorption in Kerr-lens modelocked solid-state lasers,” Opt. Commun. 92, 368–375 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (18)

Th. Brabec, Ch. Spielmann, P. F. Curley, and F. Krausz, “Kerr lens mode locking,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1292–1294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Piche and F. Salin, “Self-mode locking of solid-state lasers without apertures,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1041–1043 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhou, G. Taft, C. P. Huang, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, and I. P. Christov, “Pulse evolution in a broad-bandwidth Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1149–1151 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Stingel, M. Lenzner, Ch. Spielmann, F. Krausz, and R. Szipöcs, “Sub-10-fs mirror-dispersion-controlled Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 602–604 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. D. Jung, F. X. Kärtner, N. Matuschek, D. H. Sutter, F. Morier-Genoud, G. Zhang, U. Keller, V. Scheuer, M. Tilsch, and T. Tschudi, “Self-starting 6.5-fs pulses from a Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1009–1011 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. E. Spence, P. N. Kean, and W. Sibbett, “60-fsec pulse generation from a self-mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 42–44 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, G. W. ’t Hooft, W. H. Knox, and J. E. Cunningham, “Femtosecond pulses from a continuously self-starting passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1022–1024 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Silberberg, R. W. Smith, D. J. Eilenberger, D. A. B. Miller, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Passive mode locking of a semiconductor diode laser,” Opt. Lett. 9, 507–509 (1984).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Fluck, I. D. Jung, G. Zhang, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Broadband saturable absorber for 10-fs pulse generation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 743–745 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, E. A. d. Souza, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, “Low-loss intracavity AlAs/AlGaAs saturable Bragg reflector for femtosecond mode locking in solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1406–1408 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, W. H. Knox, and H. Roskos, “Coupled-cavity resonant passive mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1377–1379 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Keller, D. A. B. Miller, G. D. Boyd, T. H. Chiu, J. F. Ferguson, and M. T. Asom, “Solid-state low-loss intracavity absorber for Nd:YLF lasers: an antiresonant semiconductor Fabry–Perot saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 17, 505–507 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. H. Rizvi, P. M. W. French, J. R. Taylor, P. J. Delfyett, and L. T. Florez, “Generation of pulses as short as 93 fs from self-starting femtosecond Cr:LiSrAlF6 lasers by exploiting multiple-quantum-well absorbers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 983–985 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, “Stabilization of solitonlike pulses with a slow saturable absorber,” Opt. Lett. 20, 16–18 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. P. Christov, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Comment on ‘Sub-10-fs mirror-dispersion-controlled Ti:sapphire laser’ and ‘Ultrabroadband ring oscillator for sub-10-fs pulse generation, ’ ” Opt. Lett. 22, 1882–1883 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielman, T. Brabec, and F. Krausz, “Reply to comment on ‘Sub-10-fs mirror-dispersion-controlled Ti:sapphire laser’ and ‘Ultrabroadband ring oscillator for sub-10-fs pulse generation, ’ ” Opt. Lett. 22, 1884–1886 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. P. Kalosha, M. Müller, and J. Herrmann, “Coherent-absorber mode locking of solid-state lasers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 117–119 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Aus der Au, D. Kopf, F. Morier-Genoud, M. Moser, and U. Keller, “60-fs pulses from a diode-pumped Nd:glass laser,” Opt. Lett. 22, 307–309 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. G. Benedict and E. D. Trifonov, “Coherent reflection as superradiation from the boundary of a resonant medium,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2854–2862 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Müller, V. P. Kalosha, and J. Herrmann, “Intracavity self-induced transparency of a multilevel absorber,” Phys. Rev. B 58, 1372–1381 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Östreich and A. Knorr, “Various appearances of Rabi oscillations for 2π-pulse excitation in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17, 811–17, 817 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Snoke, “Density dependence of electron scattering at low density,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11, 583–11, 591 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (7)

S. L. McCall and E. Hahn, “Self-induced transparency by pulsed coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 908–911 (1967).
[CrossRef]

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. C. Becker, H. L. Fragnito, C. H. Brito-Cruz, R. L. Fork, J. E. Cunningham, J. E. Henry, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond photon echoes from band-to-band transitions in GaAs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 1647–1649 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Y. Bigot, M. T. Portella, R. W. Schoenlein, J. E. Cunningham, and C. V. Shank, “Two-dimensional carrier–carrier screening in a quantum-well,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 636–639 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, A. Knorr, J. Feldmann, S. W. Koch, E. O. Göbel, and H. Nickel, “Rabi flopping in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 1178–1181 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Binder, S. W. Koch, M. Lindberg, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ultrafast adiabatic following in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 899–902 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nakazawa, E. Yamada, and H. Kubota, “Coexistance of self-induced transparency solitons and nonlinear Schrödinger solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2625–2628 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. P. Komarov and V. D. Ugozhaev, “Steady-state 2π-pulses under passive mode locking,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 787–792 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

J. Herrmann, V. P. Kalosha, and M. Müller, “Coherent saturable absorber modelocking by use of semiconductor quantum wells,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), Vol. 11 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), paper JTuA4, pp. 191–192.

H. Haug and S. W. Koch, Quantum Theory of the Optical and Electronic Properties of Semiconductors, 2nd ed. (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993).

L. Allen and J. H. Eberly, Optical Resonance and Two-Level Atoms (Wiley, New York, 1975).

J. Herrmann and B. Wilhelmi, Lasers for Ultrashort Pulses (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1987).

D. K. Negus, L. Spinelli, N. Goldblatt, and G. Feugnet, “Sub-100 fs pulse generation by Kerr lens mode locking in Ti:Al2O3,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, G. Dube and L. Chase, eds., Vol. 10 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1991), postdeadline paper PDP4, pp. 120–124.

Cited By

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Figures (18)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the mode-locking mechanism caused by (a) fast saturable absorption and (b) self-induced transparency.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Laser resonator setup and illustration of the round-trip model for mode locking by a QWA. At the current round trip the incident field reflects coherently from coherent absorber CA, is transformed successively by gain medium Ĝ, dispersive element , and output loss Ô, and returns to the CA at the next round trip. M is the end mirror.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulse evolution in a Ti:sapphire laser that is mode locked by a single QWA and with T1=100 fs, T2=50 fs, and Tc=1 ps without GVD and SPM for two steady-state pulse energies and durations: (a) 191 nJ, 8.0 fs; (b) 235 nJ, 7.2 fs. Other laser parameters are given in text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of the pulse area for mode locking without GVD and SPM for five steady-state pulse energies and durations: 1, 49 nJ, cw operation; 2, 96 nJ, 13.2 fs; 3, 145 nJ, 9.6 fs; 4, 191 nJ, 8.0 fs; 5, 235 nJ, 7.2 fs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Steady-state pulse duration versus pulse energy for four absorber cooperative times Tc: 1, 5 ps; 2, 1 ps; 3, 200 fs; 4, 50 fs. Squares, Tc=1 ps and no relaxation in the absorber (T1, T2). Lower and upper dashed curves, duration versus energy for one and two 2π-secant pulses, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Steady-state pulse duration and pulse area versus pulse energy for three dephasing times T2: 1, 200 fs; 2, 10 fs; 3, 5 fs. Other absorber parameters are T1=100 fs and Tc=1 ps. Dotted curves, transitions to multiple-2π-pulse operation. Insets, intrinsic pulse intensity in units of I0=1.22 TW/cm2 (solid curves) and inversion (dotted curves) with parameters at the marked points (open diamonds).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Steady-state pulse duration versus pulse energy for four dephasing times T2: 1, 200 fs; 2, 25 fs; 3, 10 fs; 4, 5 fs. Other absorber parameters are T1=1 ps and Tc=1 ps. Dotted lines, transitions to multiple-2π-pulse operation.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Steady-state pulse duration versus pulse energy with the addition of SPM and GVD for absorber parameters T1=100 fs, T2=50 fs, and Tc=1 ps, for four GVD parameters D: 1, -6.25 fs2; 2, -9.375 fs2; 3, -12.5 fs2; 4, -18.75 fs2, and for Lg=1 mm, n2=3.2×10-16 cm2/W, and κ/Tf2=0.9π. Dashed curve, duration versus energy for the case without GVD and SPM.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Steady-state pulse area versus pulse energy with the addition of SPM and GVD for the same GVD parameters as in Fig. 8.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Pulse intensity in units of I0 (solid curves) and inversion (dashed curves) at the same marked points (a–d) as in Fig. 8. In the double-pulse regime (e) the parameters beyond the end of the dashed curve in Fig. 8 are chosen. Note the different time and intensity scales.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Steady-state pulse duration versus pulse energy with the addition of SPM and GVD for absorber parameters T1=200 fs, T2=200 fs, and Tc=10 ps and for four GVD parameters D: 1, -6.25 fs2; 2, -7.5 fs2; 3, -10.6 fs2; 4, -12.5 fs2. The other parameters are the same as in Fig. 8. Dashed curve, shows duration versus energy for the case without SPM and GVD.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Pulse intensity in units of I0 (solid curves) and inversion (dashed curves) at the same marked points (a–d) of curve 3 as in Fig. 11. In the double-pulse regime (e) the parameters beyond the end of curve 3 in Fig. 11 are chosen. Note the different time and intensity scales.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Steady-state pulse duration versus GVD parameter for fixed pulse energy of 60 nJ. The absorber and laser parameters are as in Fig. 8.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

(a) 2π-pulse intensity I(t) (in units of I0), (b) normalized Fermi-level β(t)μ(t), (c) Rabi flopping of total carrier density N(t) for T1=100 fs, constant dephasing T2=50 fs, Tc=1 ps, excitation energy ωL=1.494 eV (830 nm), and four steady-state pulse energies and durations: 1, 131 nJ, 11.8 fs; 2, 186 nJ, 8.0 fs; 3, 329 nJ, 4.2 fs. Other Ti:sapphire laser and GaAs QWA parameters are given in text.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Temporal development of the carrier distribution n(, t) inside the single QWA during a steady-state 2π pulse for T1=100 fs, constant dephasing T2=50 fs, Tc=1 ps, and excitation energy 1.653 eV (750 m) in the absence of SPM and GVD. Pulse energy and duration are 68 nJ and 15.2 fs, respectively. Front plot, temporal pulse shape I(t) in units of 0.4 TW/cm2. Back plot, Rabi flopping of the total carrier density N(t) in units of 2.7×1020 cm-3.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Temporal development of the carrier distribution n(, t) (in units of N0) inside the single QWA for T1=100 fs, constant dephasing T2=50 fs, Tc=1 ps, excitation energy 1.494 eV (830 nm), SPM coefficient as in Fig. 8, and GVD parameter D=-6.25 fs2. The steady-state pulse parameters are 127 nJ and 12.6 fs.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Pulse intensity (solid curves) and instantaneous frequency shift (dotted curves) of a steady-state 2π pulse inside an absorber for T1=100 fs, T2=50 fs, Tc=1 ps, excitation energy 1.494 eV (830 nm), and two values of SPM coefficient κ and GVD D: 1, κ=0, D=0, pulse energy and duration 131 nJ and 11.8 fs; 2, κ=5.6 π fs2, D=-6.25 fs2, pulse energy and duration 127 nJ and 12.6 fs. Dotted curves belong to the right-hand scale.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Temporal development of the carrier distribution n(, t) inside a single QWA for T1=100 fs, density-dependent dephasing, Tc=5 ps, and excitation energy 1.653 eV (750 m) and in the absence of SPM and GVD. Pulse energy and duration are 254 nJ and 5.3 fs, respectively. Front plot, temporal pulse shape I(t) in units of 3.2 TW/cm2. Back plot, Rabi flopping of the total carrier density N(t) in units of 8.4×1020 cm-3.

Equations (34)

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E>3.52dT2,
En+1(t)=GˆDˆOˆDˆGˆAˆEn(t),
2z2-1c22t2E=μ02P t2.
E(z, t)=½ E (z, t)exp(iωLt)+c.c.,
P(z, t)=½ P (z, t)exp(iωLt)+c.c.
d2d z2+kL2E (z, t)=-μ0ωL2P (z, t),
E (z, t)=C1 exp(ikL z)+C2 exp(-ikLz)+μ0ωL2k0zP (z, t)sin[kL(z-z)]d z,
Eref=REtr(t-Δt)-iμ0ωL22kL0LP (z, t)×exp[-ikL(z-z)]d z,
Etr=Ein(t)-iμ0ωL22kL0LP (z, t)×exp[+ikL(z-z)]d z,
Ωref (t)=RΩtr(t-Δt)-i p(t)Tc,
Ωtr (t)=Ωin(t)-i p(t)Tc,
Ωintr (t)=Ωtr(t)+RΩtr(t-Δt),
dpd t+pT2=iΩintrw,
dwd t+w+1T1=i2(pΩintr*-p*Ωintr),
zΩ˜n(η, z)=1Tf-η exp-(1+iΔ) η-ηTf
×gn(z)Ω˜n(η, z)dη
-iκ|Ω˜n(η, z)|2Ω˜n(η, z)
+iDg 2η2Ω˜n(η, z),
gn+1
=g0+gn exp-TsTcavTg-|Ωn(η, z)|2dη-g0
×exp-TcavTg,
gs=g01+Ts-|Ω(η)|2dη-1.
Dˆ(ω)=exp[i(D2pω2+D3pω3+D4pω4)],
t+i(ωL-ωk)+1T2pk=iΩk(nke+nkh-1),
tnke,h+ηke,h-fke,hT1=i(pkΩk*-pk*Ωk).
Ωk=Ωintr+1qkV|k-q|pq,
δg=-qkV|k-q|(nqe+nqh)+qk(V|k-q|-V|k-q|0),
T2(N)=T0(N0/N)1/3,
d g(k)d k=TcavTg[g0-g(k)]-σLTcav I¯(k).
γγML=σL13.2ωLSgRTcavTg gthr2g01/2,
α(t)=α0S+α0F-α0FFsatF-t exp-t-tT1FI(t)dt-α0SFsatS-t exp-t-tT1SI(t)dt.
γF γML=σL(TcavTggthr)1/213.2ωLSgR(2g0)1/2×1+α0SSgTcav3/2g01/2FsatFgthrTg1/2SaT1SFsatS-1.
1ln2(1+F)0F ln(1+η)ηd η=WN2,
ϑ=ln(1+F)N.

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