Abstract

We present an experimental study of the influence of frequency chirp in 20-fs optical pulses on broadband semiconductor continuum nonlinearities. Differential-transmission (DT) measurements were performed in which either the exciting pump pulse or the readout probe pulse, or both pump and probe, were chirped. We demonstrate that in certain chirp configurations the spectrally integrated DT is enhanced on an ultrafast time scale compared with measurements with unchirped pulses. Therefore pulse chirping has the potential to improve and optimize all-optical ultrafast switching. Spectrally resolved DT measurements explain these findings. Positive and negative DT contributions are observed in different spectral ranges. The spectral position and the magnitude of these contributions change in time. Proper chirping of the pulses optimizes the readout of the positive contributions and maximizes the spectrally integrated DT. A simple quantitative model confirms these considerations.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).
  2. R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm all-optical switching using low-temperature-grown multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 153–155 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. H. S. Loka and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in an asymmetric Fabry–Pérot device using low-temperature-grown GaAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1733–1735 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in III–V semiconductors grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at very low substrate temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464–2472 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond optical pulse shaping and processing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161–237 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. J. Baumberg, B. Huttner, R. A. Taylor, and J. F. Ryan, “Dynamic contributions to the optical Stark effect in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 4695–4706 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J.-P. Foing, M. Joffre, J.-L. Oudar, and D. Hulin, “Coherence effects in pump–probe experiments with chirped pump pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1143–1148 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Kunde, U. Siegner, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Chirp-controlled ultrafast optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3025–3027 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Analytical design of double-chirped mirrors with custom-tailored dispersion characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 129–137 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  12. K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, “Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206–2215 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  13. W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J.-P. Foing, D. Hulin, M. Joffre, M. K. Jackson, J.-L. Oudar, C. Tanguy, and M. Combescot, “Absorption edge singularities in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 110–113 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, A. Ewertz, H. Kurz, and J. H. Collet, “Spectral-hole burning and carrier thermalization in GaAs at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17818–17826 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. J. H. Collet, S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Influence of electron-hole correlations on the absorption of GaAs in the presence of nonthermalized carriers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 10649–10655 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Bar-Ad, P. Kner, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and K. El Sayed, “Carrier dynamics in the quantum kinetic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3177–3180 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. X. Camescasse, A. Alexandrou, D. Hulin, L. Bányai, D. B. Tran Thoai, and H. Haug, “Ultrafast electron redistribution through Coulomb scattering in undoped GaAs: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5429–5432 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. El Sayed and C. J. Stanton, “Line-shape analysis of differential transmission spectra in the coherent regime,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9671–9678 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  21. H. Haug and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Basic mechanisms of the optical nonlinearities of semiconductors near the band edge,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1135–1142 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, “Dynamics of spectral hole burning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261–266 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  23. J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Z. Vardeny and J. Tauc, “Picosecond coherence coupling in the pump and probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 39, 396–400 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. The slight deviation between experimental and calculated SI DT curves for pump chirp may be caused by the underestimation of chirp effects owing to the grating-coupling term, previously observed in SR DT measurements.8 Underestimating grating-coupling-term effects may lead to small but noticeable deviations for pump chirp for which chirp effects owing to the direct-probe transmission term are weakest.

1999

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Analytical design of double-chirped mirrors with custom-tailored dispersion characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 129–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998

J. Kunde, U. Siegner, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Chirp-controlled ultrafast optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3025–3027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. S. Loka and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in an asymmetric Fabry–Pérot device using low-temperature-grown GaAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1733–1735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

K. El Sayed and C. J. Stanton, “Line-shape analysis of differential transmission spectra in the coherent regime,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9671–9678 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm all-optical switching using low-temperature-grown multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 153–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Bar-Ad, P. Kner, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and K. El Sayed, “Carrier dynamics in the quantum kinetic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3177–3180 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Camescasse, A. Alexandrou, D. Hulin, L. Bányai, D. B. Tran Thoai, and H. Haug, “Ultrafast electron redistribution through Coulomb scattering in undoped GaAs: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5429–5432 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond optical pulse shaping and processing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

J. H. Collet, S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Influence of electron-hole correlations on the absorption of GaAs in the presence of nonthermalized carriers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 10649–10655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, “Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of second-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206–2215 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J.-P. Foing, M. Joffre, J.-L. Oudar, and D. Hulin, “Coherence effects in pump–probe experiments with chirped pump pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1143–1148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, B. Huttner, R. A. Taylor, and J. F. Ryan, “Dynamic contributions to the optical Stark effect in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 4695–4706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, A. Ewertz, H. Kurz, and J. H. Collet, “Spectral-hole burning and carrier thermalization in GaAs at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17818–17826 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

J.-P. Foing, D. Hulin, M. Joffre, M. K. Jackson, J.-L. Oudar, C. Tanguy, and M. Combescot, “Absorption edge singularities in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 110–113 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in III–V semiconductors grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at very low substrate temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464–2472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, “Dynamics of spectral hole burning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985

1984

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981

Z. Vardeny and J. Tauc, “Picosecond coherence coupling in the pump and probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 39, 396–400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Alexandrou, A.

F. X. Camescasse, A. Alexandrou, D. Hulin, L. Bányai, D. B. Tran Thoai, and H. Haug, “Ultrafast electron redistribution through Coulomb scattering in undoped GaAs: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5429–5432 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Antonetti, A.

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arlt, S.

J. Kunde, U. Siegner, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Chirp-controlled ultrafast optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3025–3027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Aus der Au, J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bányai, L.

F. X. Camescasse, A. Alexandrou, D. Hulin, L. Bányai, D. B. Tran Thoai, and H. Haug, “Ultrafast electron redistribution through Coulomb scattering in undoped GaAs: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5429–5432 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bar-Ad, S.

S. Bar-Ad, P. Kner, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and K. El Sayed, “Carrier dynamics in the quantum kinetic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3177–3180 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumberg, J. J.

J. J. Baumberg, B. Huttner, R. A. Taylor, and J. F. Ryan, “Dynamic contributions to the optical Stark effect in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 4695–4706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Becker, P. C.

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, “Dynamics of spectral hole burning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Braun, B.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brito Cruz, C. H.

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, “Dynamics of spectral hole burning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Camescasse, F. X.

F. X. Camescasse, A. Alexandrou, D. Hulin, L. Bányai, D. B. Tran Thoai, and H. Haug, “Ultrafast electron redistribution through Coulomb scattering in undoped GaAs: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5429–5432 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

S. Bar-Ad, P. Kner, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and K. El Sayed, “Carrier dynamics in the quantum kinetic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3177–3180 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Collet, J. H.

J. H. Collet, S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Influence of electron-hole correlations on the absorption of GaAs in the presence of nonthermalized carriers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 10649–10655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, A. Ewertz, H. Kurz, and J. H. Collet, “Spectral-hole burning and carrier thermalization in GaAs at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17818–17826 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Combescot, M.

J.-P. Foing, D. Hulin, M. Joffre, M. K. Jackson, J.-L. Oudar, C. Tanguy, and M. Combescot, “Absorption edge singularities in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 110–113 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DeLong, K. W.

El Sayed, K.

K. El Sayed and C. J. Stanton, “Line-shape analysis of differential transmission spectra in the coherent regime,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9671–9678 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Bar-Ad, P. Kner, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and K. El Sayed, “Carrier dynamics in the quantum kinetic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3177–3180 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Elsaesser, T.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ewertz, A.

S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, A. Ewertz, H. Kurz, and J. H. Collet, “Spectral-hole burning and carrier thermalization in GaAs at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17818–17826 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fluck, R.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fluegel, B.

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Foing, J.-P.

J.-P. Foing, M. Joffre, J.-L. Oudar, and D. Hulin, “Coherence effects in pump–probe experiments with chirped pump pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1143–1148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Foing, D. Hulin, M. Joffre, M. K. Jackson, J.-L. Oudar, C. Tanguy, and M. Combescot, “Absorption edge singularities in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 110–113 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fork, R. L.

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, “Dynamics of spectral hole burning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, J. P.

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, “Dynamics of spectral hole burning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gossard, A. C.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Gupta, S.

S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in III–V semiconductors grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at very low substrate temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464–2472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Haug, H.

F. X. Camescasse, A. Alexandrou, D. Hulin, L. Bányai, D. B. Tran Thoai, and H. Haug, “Ultrafast electron redistribution through Coulomb scattering in undoped GaAs: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5429–5432 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Haug and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Basic mechanisms of the optical nonlinearities of semiconductors near the band edge,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 2, 1135–1142 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Heesel, H.

J. H. Collet, S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Influence of electron-hole correlations on the absorption of GaAs in the presence of nonthermalized carriers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 10649–10655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, A. Ewertz, H. Kurz, and J. H. Collet, “Spectral-hole burning and carrier thermalization in GaAs at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17818–17826 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hirlimann, C.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hönninger, C.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hulin, D.

F. X. Camescasse, A. Alexandrou, D. Hulin, L. Bányai, D. B. Tran Thoai, and H. Haug, “Ultrafast electron redistribution through Coulomb scattering in undoped GaAs: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5429–5432 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Foing, M. Joffre, J.-L. Oudar, and D. Hulin, “Coherence effects in pump–probe experiments with chirped pump pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1143–1148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Foing, D. Hulin, M. Joffre, M. K. Jackson, J.-L. Oudar, C. Tanguy, and M. Combescot, “Absorption edge singularities in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 110–113 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hunsche, S.

J. H. Collet, S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Influence of electron-hole correlations on the absorption of GaAs in the presence of nonthermalized carriers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 10649–10655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, A. Ewertz, H. Kurz, and J. H. Collet, “Spectral-hole burning and carrier thermalization in GaAs at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17818–17826 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hunter, J.

Huttner, B.

J. J. Baumberg, B. Huttner, R. A. Taylor, and J. F. Ryan, “Dynamic contributions to the optical Stark effect in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 4695–4706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Iwamura, H.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm all-optical switching using low-temperature-grown multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 153–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, M. K.

J.-P. Foing, D. Hulin, M. Joffre, M. K. Jackson, J.-L. Oudar, C. Tanguy, and M. Combescot, “Absorption edge singularities in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 110–113 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joffre, M.

J.-P. Foing, M. Joffre, J.-L. Oudar, and D. Hulin, “Coherence effects in pump–probe experiments with chirped pump pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1143–1148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Foing, D. Hulin, M. Joffre, M. K. Jackson, J.-L. Oudar, C. Tanguy, and M. Combescot, “Absorption edge singularities in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 110–113 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, I. D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Analytical design of double-chirped mirrors with custom-tailored dispersion characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 129–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kawamura, Y.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm all-optical switching using low-temperature-grown multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 153–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, U.

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Analytical design of double-chirped mirrors with custom-tailored dispersion characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 129–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Kunde, U. Siegner, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Chirp-controlled ultrafast optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3025–3027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kner, P.

S. Bar-Ad, P. Kner, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and K. El Sayed, “Carrier dynamics in the quantum kinetic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3177–3180 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knox, W. H.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kopf, D.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kunde, J.

J. Kunde, U. Siegner, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Chirp-controlled ultrafast optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3025–3027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kurz, H.

J. H. Collet, S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Influence of electron-hole correlations on the absorption of GaAs in the presence of nonthermalized carriers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 10649–10655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, A. Ewertz, H. Kurz, and J. H. Collet, “Spectral-hole burning and carrier thermalization in GaAs at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17818–17826 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lindberg, M.

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Loka, H. S.

H. S. Loka and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in an asymmetric Fabry–Pérot device using low-temperature-grown GaAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1733–1735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lugli, P.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marquezini, M. V.

S. Bar-Ad, P. Kner, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and K. El Sayed, “Carrier dynamics in the quantum kinetic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3177–3180 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matuschek, N.

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Analytical design of double-chirped mirrors with custom-tailored dispersion characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 129–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Migus, A.

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miller, D. A. B.

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Morier-Genoud, F.

J. Kunde, U. Siegner, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Chirp-controlled ultrafast optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3025–3027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G. A.

S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in III–V semiconductors grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at very low substrate temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464–2472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Olbright, G.

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oudar, J.-L.

J.-P. Foing, M. Joffre, J.-L. Oudar, and D. Hulin, “Coherence effects in pump–probe experiments with chirped pump pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1143–1148 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Foing, D. Hulin, M. Joffre, M. K. Jackson, J.-L. Oudar, C. Tanguy, and M. Combescot, “Absorption edge singularities in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 110–113 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peyghambarian, N.

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rota, L.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, J. F.

J. J. Baumberg, B. Huttner, R. A. Taylor, and J. F. Ryan, “Dynamic contributions to the optical Stark effect in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 4695–4706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

Shah, J.

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shank, C. V.

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, “Dynamics of spectral hole burning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegner, U.

J. Kunde, U. Siegner, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Chirp-controlled ultrafast optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3025–3027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W. E.

H. S. Loka and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in an asymmetric Fabry–Pérot device using low-temperature-grown GaAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1733–1735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sokoloff, J. P.

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Stanton, C. J.

K. El Sayed and C. J. Stanton, “Line-shape analysis of differential transmission spectra in the coherent regime,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9671–9678 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, R.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm all-optical switching using low-temperature-grown multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 153–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanguy, C.

J.-P. Foing, D. Hulin, M. Joffre, M. K. Jackson, J.-L. Oudar, C. Tanguy, and M. Combescot, “Absorption edge singularities in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 110–113 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauc, J.

Z. Vardeny and J. Tauc, “Picosecond coherence coupling in the pump and probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 39, 396–400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. A.

J. J. Baumberg, B. Huttner, R. A. Taylor, and J. F. Ryan, “Dynamic contributions to the optical Stark effect in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 4695–4706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tran Thoai, D. B.

F. X. Camescasse, A. Alexandrou, D. Hulin, L. Bányai, D. B. Tran Thoai, and H. Haug, “Ultrafast electron redistribution through Coulomb scattering in undoped GaAs: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5429–5432 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trebino, R.

Vardeny, Z.

Z. Vardeny and J. Tauc, “Picosecond coherence coupling in the pump and probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 39, 396–400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond optical pulse shaping and processing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weingarten, K. J.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Whitaker, J. F.

S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in III–V semiconductors grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at very low substrate temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464–2472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

White, W. E.

Wiegmann, W.

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. Takahashi, Y. Kawamura, and H. Iwamura, “Ultrafast 1.55 μm all-optical switching using low-temperature-grown multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 153–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Kunde, U. Siegner, S. Arlt, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “Chirp-controlled ultrafast optical nonlinearities in semiconductors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 3025–3027 (1998).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

S. Gupta, J. F. Whitaker, and G. A. Mourou, “Ultrafast carrier dynamics in III–V semiconductors grown by molecular-beam epitaxy at very low substrate temperatures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 2464–2472 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Chemla, D. A. B. Miller, P. W. Smith, A. C. Gossard, and W. Wiegmann, “Room temperature excitonic nonlinear absorption and refraction in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 265–275 (1984).
[CrossRef]

N. Matuschek, F. X. Kärtner, and U. Keller, “Analytical design of double-chirped mirrors with custom-tailored dispersion characteristics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 35, 129–137 (1999).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Brito Cruz, J. P. Gordon, P. C. Becker, R. L. Fork, and C. V. Shank, “Dynamics of spectral hole burning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 261–266 (1988).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

U. Keller, K. J. Weingarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM’s) for femtosecond to nanosecond pulse generation in solid-state lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435–453 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

H. S. Loka and P. W. E. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in an asymmetric Fabry–Pérot device using low-temperature-grown GaAs,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 10, 1733–1735 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

Z. Vardeny and J. Tauc, “Picosecond coherence coupling in the pump and probe technique,” Opt. Commun. 39, 396–400 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

J. P. Sokoloff, M. Joffre, B. Fluegel, D. Hulin, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, A. Migus, A. Antonetti, and N. Peyghambarian, “Transient oscillations in the vicinity of excitons and in the band of semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 7615–7621 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Baumberg, B. Huttner, R. A. Taylor, and J. F. Ryan, “Dynamic contributions to the optical Stark effect in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 4695–4706 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. El Sayed and C. J. Stanton, “Line-shape analysis of differential transmission spectra in the coherent regime,” Phys. Rev. B 55, 9671–9678 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, A. Ewertz, H. Kurz, and J. H. Collet, “Spectral-hole burning and carrier thermalization in GaAs at room temperature,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17818–17826 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Collet, S. Hunsche, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Influence of electron-hole correlations on the absorption of GaAs in the presence of nonthermalized carriers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 10649–10655 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

S. Bar-Ad, P. Kner, M. V. Marquezini, D. S. Chemla, and K. El Sayed, “Carrier dynamics in the quantum kinetic regime,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3177–3180 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. X. Camescasse, A. Alexandrou, D. Hulin, L. Bányai, D. B. Tran Thoai, and H. Haug, “Ultrafast electron redistribution through Coulomb scattering in undoped GaAs: experiment and theory,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 5429–5432 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. H. Knox, C. Hirlimann, D. A. B. Miller, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, and C. V. Shank, “Femtosecond excitation of nonthermal carrier populations in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1191–1193 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Fluegel, N. Peyghambarian, G. Olbright, M. Lindberg, S. W. Koch, M. Joffre, D. Hulin, A. Migus, and A. Antonetti, “Femtosecond studies of coherent transients in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2588–2591 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-P. Foing, D. Hulin, M. Joffre, M. K. Jackson, J.-L. Oudar, C. Tanguy, and M. Combescot, “Absorption edge singularities in highly excited semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 110–113 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Elsaesser, J. Shah, L. Rota, and P. Lugli, “Initial thermalization of photoexcited carriers in GaAs studied by femtosecond luminescence spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1757–1760 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prog. Quantum Electron.

A. M. Weiner, “Femtosecond optical pulse shaping and processing,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 19, 161–237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

The slight deviation between experimental and calculated SI DT curves for pump chirp may be caused by the underestimation of chirp effects owing to the grating-coupling term, previously observed in SR DT measurements.8 Underestimating grating-coupling-term effects may lead to small but noticeable deviations for pump chirp for which chirp effects owing to the direct-probe transmission term are weakest.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spectrally integrated differential transmission (SI DT) for (a) pump chirp, (b) probe chirp, and (c) equal chirp. In (d) the SI DT maxima for equal-downchirp and probe-downchirp are compared. In the logarithmic plot (e) the equal-chirp SI DT data have been normalized. Solid curves: downchirp. Dashed curves: upchirp. Dotted curves: no chirp. Excitation density is 2×1017 cm-3; T=300 K. Inset in the upper plot: absorption spectrum at room temperature (solid curve) and the excitation spectrum.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Equal-chirp configuration: spectrally integrated differential transmission for different magnitudes of the chirp. Excess GDD is -300 fs2 (highest maximum), -150 fs2, 0 fs2, +300 fs2, and +600 fs2 (lowest maximum).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Differential-transmission spectra ΔTIprobe for unchirped pump and probe pulses at two pump–probe time delays τ. Shaded area: excitation-pulse spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Differential-transmission spectra at small negative time delay τ for equal downchirp and equal upchirp. Shaded area: excitation-pulse spectrum. Insets: schematic pictures of the pulse energy components versus time for equal downchirp and equal upchirp.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Differential-transmission spectra at small positive time delay τ for equal downchirp and equal upchirp. Insets: schematic pictures of the pulse energy components versus time for equal downchirp and equal upchirp.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Contour plots of the differential transmission ΔTIprobe in the plane of time delay and photon energy for equal downchirp and equal upchirp. Solid curves: spectrally integrated differential transmission.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Equal-chirp configuration: differences of the differential transmission ΔTIprobe-contour plots in Fig. 6 (downchirp minus upchirp) in the plane of time delay and photon energy. Shown are contour lines representing equal heights in arbitrary units. Solid curves: positive differences. Dashed curves: negative differences. Thick curve: spectrally integrated differential transmission for equal downchirp.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Differential-transmission spectra at small negative time delay τ for pump downchirp and pump upchirp. Shaded area: excitation-pulse spectrum.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Differences of the differential transmission ΔTIprobe contours (downchirp minus upchirp) in the plane of time delay and photon energy for (a) pump chirp and (c) probe chirp. Shown are contour curves representing equal heights in arbitrary units. Solid curves: positive differences. Dashed curves: negative differences. In (a) and (c) the same arbitrary units are used as in Fig. 7. Thick curves: spectrally integrated differential transmission for downchirp. The schematic pictures show the pump and probe pulse energy components versus time for (a) pump downchirp, (b) pump downchirp and probe upchirp, and (c) probe downchirp.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Model function for the transmission changes ΔT induced by the shaded pump-energy component versus the excess energy above the band edge at four different time delays τ.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated differential-transmission spectra for equal downchirp and equal upchirp at a delay corresponding to the rising edge of the SI DT. Shaded area: excitation-pulse spectrum assumed for the calculation.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Calculated spectrally integrated differential transmission (SI DT) for (a) pump chirp, (b) probe chirp, and (c) equal chirp. Solid curves: downchirp. Dashed curves: upchirp. Dotted curves: no chirp. The inset compares the calculated SI DT maxima for equal downchirp (solid curve) and probe downchirp (dashed–dotted line).

Equations (3)

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τ0=tprobe(E0)-tpump(E0).
τsp(Eprobe, Epump)=tprobe(Eprobe)-tpump(Epump),
ΔT(Epump, Eprobe, τsp)=-M(Epump, Eprobe, t)×exp-4 ln 2(τsp-t)2Tpulse2dt.

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