Abstract

Optical nonlinearity originating in photothermal effects in guest-host liquid crystals (GHLC’s), which caused self-phase modulation in the GHLC’s, was characterized by use of heat-conduction analysis. The refractive-index distributions that are due to the photothermal optical nonlinearity in the GHLC’s were determined by two different methods. One method (approach 1) is analytical solution of Kirchhoff’s diffraction integral including the higher-order nonlinear phase distribution. Another method (approach 2) is to start by analytical solution of a heat-conducting equation. The refractive-index distributions determined from approach 1 were in good agreement with those from approach 2, and the physical origin of the higher-order optical nonlinearity caused by the photothermal effects in the GHLC’s is discussed.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1999 (2)

H. Ono and Y. Harato, “Higher-order optical nonlinearity observed in host–guest liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 676–680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Strong beam coupling in mesogenic materials with photorefractive Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 130–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (7)

H. Ono, Y. Harato, and N. Kawatsuki, “Photothermal effects in liquid crystals on dye-doped polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4957–4962 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. Saad, T. V. Galstyan, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and M. Dumont, “Photoexcited azo-dye induced torque in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 151, 235–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598–4604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, “Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 149, 89–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 3231–3236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang and K. D. Singer, “Homogeneous photorefractive polymer/nematogen composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2948–2950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, I. Saito, and N. Kawatsuki, “Photorefractive Bragg diffraction in high- and low-molar-mass liquid crystal mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942–1944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (11)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358–3364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive gratings observed in polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with fullerene,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, 6444–6448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolot’ko, and V. F. Kitaeva, “Interaction of light with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 84, 1122–1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Harrison, L. Dambly, D. Yu, and W. Lu, “A new self-diffraction pattern formation in defocusing liquid media,” Opt. Commun. 139, 69–72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Photothermal response characteristics of host–guest liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, 761–766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Self-phase modulation by a He–Ne laser in host–guest liquid crystals with different nematic-isotropic transition temperatures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 36, 353–356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Complex photothermal refractive index change in host–guest liquid crystals determined with a novel interferometric method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2544–2546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. G. LoPresti and I. C. Khoo, “Transient multiwave mixing and diffraction with nonsinusoidal intensity-dependent index grating in a nonlinear medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 804–813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive effects in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1144–1146 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Golemme, B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Photorefractive polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1226–1228 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M.-Y. Shih, “Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1229–1231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (3)

J. Kato, I. Yamaguchi, and H. Tanaka, “Nonlinear spatial filtering with a dye-doped liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 21, 767–769 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794–1797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2137–2139 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, and S.-T. Sun, “Optically controlled alignment of liquid crystals: device and applications,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 191–208 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

T. Ikeda, T. Sasaki, and K. Ichimura, “Photochemical switching of polarization in ferroelectric liquid-crystal films,” Nature (London) 361, 428–430 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

O. Zaplo and J. Stumpe, “Photochemically induced modification of polymer dispersed liquid crystals with photochromic stilbene,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 213, 153–161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Sun, W. M. Gibbons, and P. J. Shannon, “Alignment of guest–host liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Liq. Cryst. 12, 869–874 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Chen and D. J. Brady, “Real-time holography in azo-dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 17, 441–443 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G.-S. Chen and D. J. Brady, “Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1231–1233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

S. Kurihara, T. Ikeda, and S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 178, 117–132 (1990).

1988 (2)

I. C. Khoo, P. Y. Yan, G. M. Finn, T. H. Liu, and R. R. Michael, “Low-power (10.6-μm) laser-beam amplification by thermal-grating-mediated degenerate four-wave mixing in a nematic liquid-crystal film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 202–206 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, and G. M. Finn, “Self-phase modulation and optical limiting of a low-power CO2 laser with a nematic liquid-crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

I. C. Khoo and R. Normandin, “The mechanism and dynamics of transient thermal grating diffraction in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 329–335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, and Y. R. Shen, “Transient laser-induced molecular reorientation and laser heating in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

Arakelian, S. M.

Barnik, M. I.

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolot’ko, and V. F. Kitaeva, “Interaction of light with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 84, 1122–1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bartkiewicz, S.

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, “Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 149, 89–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D. J.

Chen, A. G.

Chen, A. G.-S.

Chen, P.

Dambly, L.

R. G. Harrison, L. Dambly, D. Yu, and W. Lu, “A new self-diffraction pattern formation in defocusing liquid media,” Opt. Commun. 139, 69–72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Denariez-Roberge, M. M.

S. Saad, T. V. Galstyan, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and M. Dumont, “Photoexcited azo-dye induced torque in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 151, 235–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

S. Saad, T. V. Galstyan, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and M. Dumont, “Photoexcited azo-dye induced torque in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 151, 235–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Durbin, S. D.

Finn, G. M.

Galstyan, T. V.

S. Saad, T. V. Galstyan, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and M. Dumont, “Photoexcited azo-dye induced torque in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 151, 235–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, and S.-T. Sun, “Optically controlled alignment of liquid crystals: device and applications,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 191–208 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Sun, W. M. Gibbons, and P. J. Shannon, “Alignment of guest–host liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Liq. Cryst. 12, 869–874 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Golemme, A.

Guenther, B. D.

Harato, Y.

H. Ono and Y. Harato, “Higher-order optical nonlinearity observed in host–guest liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 676–680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, Y. Harato, and N. Kawatsuki, “Photothermal effects in liquid crystals on dye-doped polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4957–4962 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, R. G.

R. G. Harrison, L. Dambly, D. Yu, and W. Lu, “A new self-diffraction pattern formation in defocusing liquid media,” Opt. Commun. 139, 69–72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hoffman, H. J.

Hou, J. Y.

Hsiung, H.

H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, and Y. R. Shen, “Transient laser-induced molecular reorientation and laser heating in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Ichimura, K.

T. Ikeda, T. Sasaki, and K. Ichimura, “Photochemical switching of polarization in ferroelectric liquid-crystal films,” Nature (London) 361, 428–430 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ikeda, T.

T. Ikeda, T. Sasaki, and K. Ichimura, “Photochemical switching of polarization in ferroelectric liquid-crystal films,” Nature (London) 361, 428–430 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurihara, T. Ikeda, and S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 178, 117–132 (1990).

Jánossy, I.

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598–4604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kato, J.

Kawatsuki, N.

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Strong beam coupling in mesogenic materials with photorefractive Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 130–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, I. Saito, and N. Kawatsuki, “Photorefractive Bragg diffraction in high- and low-molar-mass liquid crystal mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942–1944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, Y. Harato, and N. Kawatsuki, “Photothermal effects in liquid crystals on dye-doped polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4957–4962 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Complex photothermal refractive index change in host–guest liquid crystals determined with a novel interferometric method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2544–2546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Photothermal response characteristics of host–guest liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, 761–766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Self-phase modulation by a He–Ne laser in host–guest liquid crystals with different nematic-isotropic transition temperatures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 36, 353–356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive gratings observed in polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with fullerene,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, 6444–6448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive effects in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1144–1146 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khoo, I. C.

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M.-Y. Shih, “Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1229–1231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. LoPresti and I. C. Khoo, “Transient multiwave mixing and diffraction with nonsinusoidal intensity-dependent index grating in a nonlinear medium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 804–813 (1997).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2137–2139 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, P. Y. Yan, G. M. Finn, T. H. Liu, and R. R. Michael, “Low-power (10.6-μm) laser-beam amplification by thermal-grating-mediated degenerate four-wave mixing in a nematic liquid-crystal film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 202–206 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, and G. M. Finn, “Self-phase modulation and optical limiting of a low-power CO2 laser with a nematic liquid-crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, J. Y. Hou, T. H. Liu, P. Y. Yan, R. R. Michael, and G. M. Finn, “Transverse self-phase modulation and bistability in the transmission of a beam through a nonlinear thin film,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 886–891 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo and R. Normandin, “The mechanism and dynamics of transient thermal grating diffraction in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 329–335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

Kitaeva, V. F.

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolot’ko, and V. F. Kitaeva, “Interaction of light with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 84, 1122–1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kurihara, S.

S. Kurihara, T. Ikeda, and S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 178, 117–132 (1990).

Li, H.

Liang, Y.

Liu, T. H.

LoPresti, P. G.

Lu, W.

R. G. Harrison, L. Dambly, D. Yu, and W. Lu, “A new self-diffraction pattern formation in defocusing liquid media,” Opt. Commun. 139, 69–72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Michael, R. R.

Miniewicz, A.

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, “Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 149, 89–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Normandin, R.

I. C. Khoo and R. Normandin, “The mechanism and dynamics of transient thermal grating diffraction in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 329–335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ono, H.

H. Ono and Y. Harato, “Higher-order optical nonlinearity observed in host–guest liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 676–680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Strong beam coupling in mesogenic materials with photorefractive Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 130–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, Y. Harato, and N. Kawatsuki, “Photothermal effects in liquid crystals on dye-doped polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4957–4962 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, I. Saito, and N. Kawatsuki, “Photorefractive Bragg diffraction in high- and low-molar-mass liquid crystal mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942–1944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive gratings observed in polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with fullerene,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, 6444–6448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Photothermal response characteristics of host–guest liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, 761–766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Complex photothermal refractive index change in host–guest liquid crystals determined with a novel interferometric method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2544–2546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Self-phase modulation by a He–Ne laser in host–guest liquid crystals with different nematic-isotropic transition temperatures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 36, 353–356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive effects in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1144–1146 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Parka, J.

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, “Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 149, 89–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Saad, S.

S. Saad, T. V. Galstyan, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and M. Dumont, “Photoexcited azo-dye induced torque in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 151, 235–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Saito, I.

H. Ono, I. Saito, and N. Kawatsuki, “Photorefractive Bragg diffraction in high- and low-molar-mass liquid crystal mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942–1944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, T.

T. Ikeda, T. Sasaki, and K. Ichimura, “Photochemical switching of polarization in ferroelectric liquid-crystal films,” Nature (London) 361, 428–430 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, and S.-T. Sun, “Optically controlled alignment of liquid crystals: device and applications,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 191–208 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Sun, W. M. Gibbons, and P. J. Shannon, “Alignment of guest–host liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Liq. Cryst. 12, 869–874 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, and Y. R. Shen, “Transient laser-induced molecular reorientation and laser heating in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, “Laser-induced diffraction rings from a nematic-liquid-crystal films,” Opt. Lett. 6, 411–413 (1981).
[PubMed]

Shi, L. P.

H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, and Y. R. Shen, “Transient laser-induced molecular reorientation and laser heating in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.-Y.

Singer, K. D.

J. Zhang and K. D. Singer, “Homogeneous photorefractive polymer/nematogen composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2948–2950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Stumpe, J.

O. Zaplo and J. Stumpe, “Photochemically induced modification of polymer dispersed liquid crystals with photochromic stilbene,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 213, 153–161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S.-T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, and S.-T. Sun, “Optically controlled alignment of liquid crystals: device and applications,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 191–208 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S.-T. Sun, W. M. Gibbons, and P. J. Shannon, “Alignment of guest–host liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Liq. Cryst. 12, 869–874 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Svec, W. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358–3364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Szabados, L.

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598–4604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, H.

Tazuke, S.

S. Kurihara, T. Ikeda, and S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 178, 117–132 (1990).

Volodin, B. L.

Wasielewski, M. R.

G. P. Wiederrecht and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 3231–3236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358–3364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794–1797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 3231–3236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358–3364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794–1797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. V.

Yamaguchi, I.

Yan, P. Y.

Yoon, B. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358–3364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794–1797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yu, D.

R. G. Harrison, L. Dambly, D. Yu, and W. Lu, “A new self-diffraction pattern formation in defocusing liquid media,” Opt. Commun. 139, 69–72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zaplo, O.

O. Zaplo and J. Stumpe, “Photochemically induced modification of polymer dispersed liquid crystals with photochromic stilbene,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 213, 153–161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang and K. D. Singer, “Homogeneous photorefractive polymer/nematogen composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2948–2950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Zolot’ko, A. S.

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolot’ko, and V. F. Kitaeva, “Interaction of light with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 84, 1122–1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535–539 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Zhang and K. D. Singer, “Homogeneous photorefractive polymer/nematogen composite,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2948–2950 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono, I. Saito, and N. Kawatsuki, “Photorefractive Bragg diffraction in high- and low-molar-mass liquid crystal mixtures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 1942–1944 (1998).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, R. R. Michael, and G. M. Finn, “Self-phase modulation and optical limiting of a low-power CO2 laser with a nematic liquid-crystal film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2108–2110 (1988).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Complex photothermal refractive index change in host–guest liquid crystals determined with a novel interferometric method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 2544–2546 (1997).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

I. C. Khoo and R. Normandin, “The mechanism and dynamics of transient thermal grating diffraction in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 329–335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystal films,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525–534 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358–3364 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in polymer-stabilized nematic liquid crystals,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 120, 3231–3236 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. Ono, Y. Harato, and N. Kawatsuki, “Photothermal effects in liquid crystals on dye-doped polymer films,” J. Appl. Phys. 83, 4957–4962 (1998).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and Y. Harato, “Higher-order optical nonlinearity observed in host–guest liquid crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 85, 676–680 (1999).
[CrossRef]

J. Exp. Theor. Phys. (1)

M. I. Barnik, A. S. Zolot’ko, and V. F. Kitaeva, “Interaction of light with a dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 84, 1122–1130 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (2)

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Photothermal response characteristics of host–guest liquid crystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, 761–766 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive gratings observed in polymer dispersed liquid crystals doped with fullerene,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 36, 6444–6448 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 (1)

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Self-phase modulation by a He–Ne laser in host–guest liquid crystals with different nematic-isotropic transition temperatures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2 36, 353–356 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

S.-T. Sun, W. M. Gibbons, and P. J. Shannon, “Alignment of guest–host liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Liq. Cryst. 12, 869–874 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (3)

O. Zaplo and J. Stumpe, “Photochemically induced modification of polymer dispersed liquid crystals with photochromic stilbene,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 213, 153–161 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, and S.-T. Sun, “Optically controlled alignment of liquid crystals: device and applications,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 251, 191–208 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Kurihara, T. Ikeda, and S. Tazuke, “Photochemically induced isothermal phase transition in liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 178, 117–132 (1990).

Nature (London) (1)

T. Ikeda, T. Sasaki, and K. Ichimura, “Photochemical switching of polarization in ferroelectric liquid-crystal films,” Nature (London) 361, 428–430 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

S. Saad, T. V. Galstyan, M. M. Denariez-Roberge, and M. Dumont, “Photoexcited azo-dye induced torque in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Commun. 151, 235–240 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Miniewicz, S. Bartkiewicz, and J. Parka, “Optical phase conjugation in dye-doped nematic liquid crystal,” Opt. Commun. 149, 89–95 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. G. Harrison, L. Dambly, D. Yu, and W. Lu, “A new self-diffraction pattern formation in defocusing liquid media,” Opt. Commun. 139, 69–72 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (10)

S. D. Durbin, S. M. Arakelian, and Y. R. Shen, “Laser-induced diffraction rings from a nematic-liquid-crystal films,” Opt. Lett. 6, 411–413 (1981).
[PubMed]

A. G. Chen and D. J. Brady, “Real-time holography in azo-dye-doped liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 17, 441–443 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G.-S. Chen and D. J. Brady, “Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye-doped liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1231–1233 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, H. Li, and Y. Liang, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723–1725 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, “Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2137–2139 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Orientational photorefractive effects in polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1144–1146 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Golemme, B. L. Volodin, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Photorefractive polymer-dispersed liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1226–1228 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M.-Y. Shih, “Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1229–1231 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kato, I. Yamaguchi, and H. Tanaka, “Nonlinear spatial filtering with a dye-doped liquid-crystal cell,” Opt. Lett. 21, 767–769 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Ono and N. Kawatsuki, “Strong beam coupling in mesogenic materials with photorefractive Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett. 24, 130–132 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

H. Hsiung, L. P. Shi, and Y. R. Shen, “Transient laser-induced molecular reorientation and laser heating in a nematic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. A 30, 1453–1460 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

I. Jánossy and L. Szabados, “Optical reorientation of nematic liquid crystals in the presence of photoisomerization,” Phys. Rev. E 58, 4598–4604 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794–1797 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

I. C. Khoo, Liquid Crystals (Wiley, New York, 1995).

U. Grigull and H. Sandner, Heat Conduction (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1984).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Geometry of self-diffracted pattern formation from guest–host LC’s.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Geometry of heat-conduction analysis.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the experimental geometry for the refractive-index measurement with varying temperature.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Radial intensity distributions with variation of pump beam intensity. Filled circles, experimental data; solid curves, theoretical curves. Beam intensities were set at (a) 3, (b) 5, and (c) 7 mW.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Density distribution of heat quantity supplied by the He–Ne laser beam. (a) Distribution in the x-axis direction at y=0 and z=1 mm and (b) distribution in the z-axis direction at x=y=0 mm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Calculated temperature distributions with variation of pump beam intensity in the x-axis direction at y=0 and z=1 mm. Beam intensities were set at (a) 3, (b) 5, and (c) 7 mW.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated temperature distributions with variation of pump beam intensity in the z-axis direction at x=y=0. The beam intensities were set at (a) 3, (b) 5, and (c) 7 mW.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Temperature dependence of the extraordinary (ne) and the ordinary (no) refractive indices of the NLC’s.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Calculated extraordinary refractive-index distributions with variation of pump beam intensity in the x-axis direction at y=0 and z=1 mm. Beam intensities were set at (a) 3, (b) 5, and (c) 7 mW.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Calculated extraordinary refractive-index distributions with variation of pump beam intensity in the z-axis direction at x=y=0. Beam intensities were set at (a) 3, (b) 5, and (c) 7 mW.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Extraordinary refractive-index distributions [Δn(x)] obtained from approaches 1 and 2 with variation of pump beam intensity. Beam intensities were set at (a) 3, (b) 5, and (c) 7 mW.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Dependence of the extraordinary refractive-index change on the pump beam intensity. Squares, estimated from approach 1; circles, estimated from approach 2. Solid curves, obtained from the theory.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I(r)=I0 exp-2r2ω2,
I(ρ, Z)=I02πiλZexp(-ik0Z)0xdxJ0k0 rρ2Z×exp-2 r2ω2-iϕ(r)2,
=2πλZ2I00rdrJ0k0 rρ2Z×exp-2 r2ω2-iϕ(r)2,
ϕ(x)=ϕL(x)+ϕNL(x),
ϕL(x)=k0x22Z+x22R,
ϕNL(x)=k00dΔn(x, z)dzk0Δn(x),
Δn(r)=n2I(r)+n4[I(r)]2,
q˙=-k grad T,
ρdc Tt=xkx Tx+yky Ty+zkz Tz,
ρdc Tt=xkx Tx+yky Ty+zkz Tz+Q
=div(k grad T)+Q.
xkx Tx+yky Ty+zkz Tz+Q
=div(k grad T)+Q=0.
-kLCTLCnB=-kGLTGLnB
no=sin[tan-1(Do/L)+γ]sin γ,
ne=sin[tan-1(De/L)+γ]sin γ.

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