Abstract

We have measured intensity-dependent prism coupling of poly(p-phenylenevinylene) thin films with picosecond laser pulses in the range 750–1600 nm. We developed a refined evaluation method that yields the signs and absolute values of the nonlinear refractive index n2 and the nonlinear absorption coefficient α2. Strong two-photon absorption levels were found at 2.8 and 3.1 eV. We observed a resonance at 1.3 eV that behaves as saturable absorption, and several additional resonances and sign changes of n2 at even lower photon energies. We demonstrate reversible refractive-index changes Δn=+0.002 at 910–950 nm on a picosecond time scale. Even larger Δn appear feasible.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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1998 (2)

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, Y. De Nardin, R. Bittner, R. Wortmann, and F. Würthner, “Improved performance of photorefractive polymers based on merocyanine dyes in a polar matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 4–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half bandgap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

W. Schmid, T. Vogtmann, and M. Schwoerer, “Influence of two-photon processes on the nonlinear optical response of polydiacetylene single crystals in the near-resonant spectral range,” Chem. Phys. 204, 147–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Samoc, A. Samoc, B. Luther-Davies, and M. Woodruff, “The concept of guiding light with light and negative third-order optical nonlinearities of organics,” Pure Appl. Opt. 5, 681–687 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. J. Rothberg, M. Yan, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Photophysics of phenylenevinylene polymers,” Synth. Met. 80, 41–58 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (5)

1994 (7)

B. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, M. Cha, M. L. Sundheimer, G. I. Stegemann, J. Meth, S. Etemad, and G. Baker, “Identification and role of two-photon excited states in a π-conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 597–600 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Chandross, S. Mazumdar, S. Jeglinski, X. Wei, Z. V. Vardeny, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Excitons in poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14702–14705 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. W. P. Hsu, M. Yan, T. M. Jedju, L. J. Rothberg, and B. R. Hsieh, “Assignment of the picosecond photoinduced absorption in phenylene vinylene polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 712–715 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Leng, S. Jeglinski, X. Wei, R. E. Benner, Z. V. Vardeny, F. Guo, and S. Mazumdar, “Optical probes of excited states in poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 156–159 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. A. Mizes and E. M. Conwell, “Photoinduced charge transfer in poly(p-phenylene vinylene),” Phys. Rev. B 50, 11243–11246 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (5)

I. D. W. Samuel, F. Raksi, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, A. B. Holmes, H. Murata, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Femtosecond transient absorption measurements in poly(arylenevinylene)s,” Synth. Met. 55–57, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Pichler, D. A. Halliday, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Photoinduced absorption of structurally improved poly(p-phenylene vinylene)—no evidence for bipolarons,” Synth. Met. 55–57, 230–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and F. E. Karasz, “Anisotropy in the complex refractive index and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of a stretch-oriented film of poly(p-phenylene vinylene),” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 525–530 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Baker, O. M. Gelsen, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Location of the lowest even parity excited singlet state in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) by two-photon fluorescence spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 201, 127–131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

U. Lemmer, R. Fischer, J. Feldmann, R. F. Mahrt, J. Yang, A. Greiner, H. Bässler, E. O. Göbel, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Time-resolved studies of two-photon absorption processes in poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 203, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (9)

Z. G. Soos, S. Etemad, D. S. Galvao, and S. Ramasesha, “Fluorescence and topological gap of conjugated phenylene polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 194, 341–346 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. B. Sinclair, D. McBranch, T. W. Hagler, and A. J. Heeger, “Subpicosecond photoinduced absorption in poly(2, 5-thienylene vinylene) and poly(3-methoxy-6-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy) phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 49–50, 593–602 (1992).
[CrossRef]

X. Wei, B. C. Hess, Z. V. Vardeny, and F. Wudl, “Studies of photoexcited states in polyacetylene and poly(paraphenylenevinylene) by absorption detected magnetic resonance: the case of neutral photoexcitations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 666–669 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

C. H. Seager, M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, A. J. Heeger, and G. L. Baker, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy of conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 91–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Rodenberger, J. R. Heflin, and A. F. Garito, “Excited-state enhancement of optical nonlinearities in linear conjugated molecules,” Nature 359, 309–311 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Deussen and H. Bässler, “Anion and cation absorption spectra of conjugated oligomers and polymers,” Chem. Phys. 164, 247–257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Staromlynska, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Electronic versus thermal response for nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1170–1172 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Vanherzeele, J. S. Meth, S. A. Jenekhe, and M. F. Roberts, “Dispersion of the third-order nonlinear-optical properties of poly(p-phenylene benzobisthiazole) and its molecular composites with polyamides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 524–533 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (7)

B. Rossi, H. J. Byrne, W. Blau, G. Pratesi, and S. Sottini, “Linear and nonlinear waveguiding in Rhodamine-doped epoxy films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2449–2452 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Enhanced nonresonant nonlinear optical processes from populated electronic states,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673–1676 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Mathy, H.-U. Simmrock, and C. Bubeck, “Optical waveguiding in thin films of polyelectrolytes,” J. Phys. D 24, 1003–1008 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Oberski, A. Greiner, and H. Bässler, “Absorption spectra of the anions of phenylenevinylene oligomers and polymer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 184, 391–397 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω; ω, ω, ω) in poly(2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Pang, M. Samoc, and P. N. Prasad, “Third-order nonlinearity and two-photon-induced molecular dynamics: femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption, Kerr gate, and degenerate four-wave mixing studies in poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel silica film,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 5282–5290 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. McKay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Colaneri, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, A. B. Holmes, and C. W. Spangler, “Photoexcited states in poly(p-phenylene vinylene): comparison with trans, trans-distyrylbenzene, a model oligomer,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 11670–11681 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, and F. E. Karasz, “Large optical birefringence in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films measured by optical waveguide techniques,” Polymer 31, 627–630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (9)

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. McBranch, M. Sinclair, A. J. Heeger, A. O. Patil, S. Shi, S. Askari, and F. Wudl, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 29, E85–E90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and R. H. Stolen, “Waveguides and fibers for nonlinear optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. T. Boyd, “Applications requirements for nonlinear-optical devices and the status of organic materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 685–692 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. W. Lenz, and G. Wegner, “Spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) prepared from two different sulphonium salt precursor polymers,” Polymer 30, 1048–1053 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. D. C. Bradley and Y. Mori, “Third harmonic generation in precursor route poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 174–177 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. D. C. Bradley, N. F. Colaneri, and R. H. Friend, “Photoexcitation in poly(p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 29, E121–E127 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High sensitivity single beam n2 measurement,” Opt. Lett. 14, 955–957 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. Mizrahi, K. W. DeLong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejco, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1140–1142 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (7)

B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, and F. E. Karasz, “Third-order non-linear optical properties of oriented films of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) investigated by femtosecond degenerate four wave mixing,” Polymer 29, 1940–1942 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953–970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Sinclair, D. Mc Branch, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Time-resolved waveguide modulation of a conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2374–2376 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Fortenberry, G. Assanto, R. Moshefzadeh, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Pulsed excitation of nonlinear distributed coupling into zinc oxide optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 425–431 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, R. M. Fortenberry, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegemann, “Theory of pulsed excitation of nonlinear distributed prism couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 432–442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (5)

D. D. C. Bradley, “Precursor-route poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): polymer characterization and control of electronic properties,” J. Phys. D 20, 1389–1410 (1987).
[CrossRef]

T. Kaino, K.-I. Kubodera, S. Tomaru, and T. Kurihara, “Optical third-harmonic generation from poly(p-phenylenevinylene) thin films,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1095–1097 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. Pardo, H. Chellil, A. Koster, N. Paraire, and S. Laval, “Experimental and theoretical study of ultrafast switching using guided mode excitation in silicon on sapphire,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 545–549 (1987).
[CrossRef]

G. Vitrant and P. Arlot, “Demonstration of optical bistability with a nonlinear prism coupler,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4744–4748 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Friend, D. D. C. Bradley, and P. D. Townsend, “Photo-excitation in conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. D 20, 1367–1384 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (4)

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, and J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear optical coupling to planar GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272–274 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Fortenberry, R. Moshefzadeh, G. Assanto, X. Mai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Power-dependent coupling and fast switching in distributed coupling to ZnO waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 687–689 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155–181 (1986).

G. Assanto, B. Svensson, D. Kuchibhatla, U. J. Gibson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Prism coupling into ZnS waveguides: a classic example of a nonlinear coupler,” Opt. Lett. 11, 644–646 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

C. Liao and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear prism coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 164–166 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1983 (2)

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, and S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity dependent index of refraction in multilayers of polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Carter and Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear optical coupling between radiation and confined modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643–645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

Y. J. Chen and G. M. Carter, “Measurement of third order nonlinear susceptibilities by surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 307–309 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1977 (2)

P. K. Tien, “Integrated optics and new wave phenomena in optical waveguides,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 49, 361–420 (1977).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kryukov, Y. A. Matveets, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. V. Sharkov, E. M. Goreev, and S. D. Fanchenko, “Generation of frequency-tunable single ultrashort light pulses in an LiIO3 crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 127–128 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

1970 (2)

Adant, C.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half bandgap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Andrejco, M. J.

Arlot, P.

G. Vitrant and P. Arlot, “Demonstration of optical bistability with a nonlinear prism coupler,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4744–4748 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Askari, S.

D. McBranch, M. Sinclair, A. J. Heeger, A. O. Patil, S. Shi, S. Askari, and F. Wudl, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 29, E85–E90 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Assanto, G.

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Fortenberry, G. Assanto, R. Moshefzadeh, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Pulsed excitation of nonlinear distributed coupling into zinc oxide optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 425–431 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, R. M. Fortenberry, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegemann, “Theory of pulsed excitation of nonlinear distributed prism couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 432–442 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. Assanto, B. Svensson, D. Kuchibhatla, U. J. Gibson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Prism coupling into ZnS waveguides: a classic example of a nonlinear coupler,” Opt. Lett. 11, 644–646 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Fortenberry, R. Moshefzadeh, G. Assanto, X. Mai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Power-dependent coupling and fast switching in distributed coupling to ZnO waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 687–689 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C. J.

C. J. Baker, O. M. Gelsen, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Location of the lowest even parity excited singlet state in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) by two-photon fluorescence spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 201, 127–131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, G.

B. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, M. Cha, M. L. Sundheimer, G. I. Stegemann, J. Meth, S. Etemad, and G. Baker, “Identification and role of two-photon excited states in a π-conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 597–600 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baker, G. L.

C. H. Seager, M. Sinclair, D. McBranch, A. J. Heeger, and G. L. Baker, “Photothermal deflection spectroscopy of conjugated polymers,” Synth. Met. 49–50, 91–97 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ballantyne, J. M.

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, and J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear optical coupling to planar GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272–274 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bartuch, U.

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

Bässler, H.

U. Lemmer, R. Fischer, J. Feldmann, R. F. Mahrt, J. Yang, A. Greiner, H. Bässler, E. O. Göbel, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Time-resolved studies of two-photon absorption processes in poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 203, 28–32 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Deussen and H. Bässler, “Anion and cation absorption spectra of conjugated oligomers and polymers,” Chem. Phys. 164, 247–257 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Oberski, A. Greiner, and H. Bässler, “Absorption spectra of the anions of phenylenevinylene oligomers and polymer,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 184, 391–397 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Benner, R. E.

J. M. Leng, S. Jeglinski, X. Wei, R. E. Benner, Z. V. Vardeny, F. Guo, and S. Mazumdar, “Optical probes of excited states in poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 156–159 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bittner, R.

K. Meerholz, Y. De Nardin, R. Bittner, R. Wortmann, and F. Würthner, “Improved performance of photorefractive polymers based on merocyanine dyes in a polar matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 4–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W.

Boyd, G. T.

Bradley, D. D. C.

I. D. W. Samuel, F. Raksi, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, A. B. Holmes, H. Murata, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Femtosecond transient absorption measurements in poly(arylenevinylene)s,” Synth. Met. 55–57, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. Pichler, D. A. Halliday, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Photoinduced absorption of structurally improved poly(p-phenylene vinylene)—no evidence for bipolarons,” Synth. Met. 55–57, 230–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. J. Baker, O. M. Gelsen, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Location of the lowest even parity excited singlet state in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) by two-photon fluorescence spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 201, 127–131 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. McKay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Colaneri, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, A. B. Holmes, and C. W. Spangler, “Photoexcited states in poly(p-phenylene vinylene): comparison with trans, trans-distyrylbenzene, a model oligomer,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 11670–11681 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. D. C. Bradley, N. F. Colaneri, and R. H. Friend, “Photoexcitation in poly(p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 29, E121–E127 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. D. C. Bradley and Y. Mori, “Third harmonic generation in precursor route poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 28, 174–177 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. D. C. Bradley, “Precursor-route poly(p-phenylene-vinylene): polymer characterization and control of electronic properties,” J. Phys. D 20, 1389–1410 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Friend, D. D. C. Bradley, and P. D. Townsend, “Photo-excitation in conjugated polymers,” J. Phys. D 20, 1367–1384 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bräuer, A.

Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Michelotti, T. Gabler, H.-H. Hörhold, R. Waldhausl, and A. Bräuer, “Prism coupling in DMOP-PPV optical waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 114, 247–254 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

Brédas, J. L.

J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. McKay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bubeck, C.

A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. Mathy, H.-U. Simmrock, and C. Bubeck, “Optical waveguiding in thin films of polyelectrolytes,” J. Phys. D 24, 1003–1008 (1991).
[CrossRef]

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, D. Neher, J. D. Stenger-Smith, G. Wegner, and A. Wolf, “Nonlinear optical properties of thin films of polymers with a one-dimensional conjugated π-electron system,” in Electronic Properties of Conjugated Polymers III, Vol. 19 of Springer Series in Solid-State Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 214–219.
[CrossRef]

Burn, P. L.

K. Pichler, D. A. Halliday, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Photoinduced absorption of structurally improved poly(p-phenylene vinylene)—no evidence for bipolarons,” Synth. Met. 55–57, 230–234 (1993).
[CrossRef]

I. D. W. Samuel, F. Raksi, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, A. B. Holmes, H. Murata, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Femtosecond transient absorption measurements in poly(arylenevinylene)s,” Synth. Met. 55–57, 15–21 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Colaneri, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, A. B. Holmes, and C. W. Spangler, “Photoexcited states in poly(p-phenylene vinylene): comparison with trans, trans-distyrylbenzene, a model oligomer,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 11670–11681 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. McKay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. McKay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 347, 539–541 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burzynski, R.

R. Burzynski, P. N. Prasad, and F. E. Karasz, “Large optical birefringence in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) films measured by optical waveguide techniques,” Polymer 31, 627–630 (1990).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Byrne, H. J.

Carter, G. M.

Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, and J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear optical coupling to planar GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272–274 (1986).
[CrossRef]

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P. G. Kryukov, Y. A. Matveets, D. N. Nikogosyan, A. V. Sharkov, E. M. Goreev, and S. D. Fanchenko, “Generation of frequency-tunable single ultrashort light pulses in an LiIO3 crystal,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 7, 127–128 (1977).
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D. C. Rodenberger, J. R. Heflin, and A. F. Garito, “Excited-state enhancement of third-order optical responses in conjugated organic chains,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 3234–3245 (1995).
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Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Excited state nonlinear optics,” in Organic Molecules for Nonlinear Optics and Photonics, J. Messier, F. Kajzar, and P. Prasad, eds., Vol. 194 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 239–262.
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Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
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C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
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L. J. Rothberg, M. Yan, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Photophysics of phenylenevinylene polymers,” Synth. Met. 80, 41–58 (1996).
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C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, A. Grund, and M. LeClerc, “Resonant degenerate four wave mixing and scaling laws for saturable absorption in thin films of conjugated polymers and Rhodamine 6G,” Chem. Phys. 154, 343–348 (1991).
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K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
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G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953–970 (1988).
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R. M. Fortenberry, G. Assanto, R. Moshefzadeh, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Pulsed excitation of nonlinear distributed coupling into zinc oxide optical waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 425–431 (1988).
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G. Assanto, B. Svensson, D. Kuchibhatla, U. J. Gibson, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Prism coupling into ZnS waveguides: a classic example of a nonlinear coupler,” Opt. Lett. 11, 644–646 (1986).
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R. M. Fortenberry, R. Moshefzadeh, G. Assanto, X. Mai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Power-dependent coupling and fast switching in distributed coupling to ZnO waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 687–689 (1986).
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C. Liao and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear prism coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 164–166 (1984).
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B. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, M. Cha, M. L. Sundheimer, G. I. Stegemann, J. Meth, S. Etemad, and G. Baker, “Identification and role of two-photon excited states in a π-conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 597–600 (1994).
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G. Assanto, R. M. Fortenberry, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegemann, “Theory of pulsed excitation of nonlinear distributed prism couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 432–442 (1988).
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C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, D. Neher, J. D. Stenger-Smith, G. Wegner, and A. Wolf, “Nonlinear optical properties of thin films of polymers with a one-dimensional conjugated π-electron system,” in Electronic Properties of Conjugated Polymers III, Vol. 19 of Springer Series in Solid-State Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 214–219.
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Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
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Stolen, R. H.

Sundheimer, M. L.

B. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, M. Cha, M. L. Sundheimer, G. I. Stegemann, J. Meth, S. Etemad, and G. Baker, “Identification and role of two-photon excited states in a π-conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 597–600 (1994).
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Svensson, B.

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J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155–181 (1986).

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J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and F. E. Karasz, “Anisotropy in the complex refractive index and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of a stretch-oriented film of poly(p-phenylene vinylene),” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 525–530 (1993).
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J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
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T. Kaino, K.-I. Kubodera, S. Tomaru, and T. Kurihara, “Optical third-harmonic generation from poly(p-phenylenevinylene) thin films,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1095–1097 (1987).
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Torge, R.

Torruellas, W. E.

B. Lawrence, W. E. Torruellas, M. Cha, M. L. Sundheimer, G. I. Stegemann, J. Meth, S. Etemad, and G. Baker, “Identification and role of two-photon excited states in a π-conjugated polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 597–600 (1994).
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G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, and S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity dependent index of refraction in multilayers of polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
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I. D. W. Samuel, F. Raksi, D. D. C. Bradley, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, A. B. Holmes, H. Murata, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Femtosecond transient absorption measurements in poly(arylenevinylene)s,” Synth. Met. 55–57, 15–21 (1993).
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T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω; ω, ω, ω) in poly(2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
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A. Mathy, K. Ueberhofen, R. Schenk, H. Gregorius, R. Garay, K. Müllen, and C. Bubeck, “Third-harmonic-generation spectroscopy of poly(p-phenylenevinylene): a comparison with oligomers and scaling laws for conjugated polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 4367–4376 (1996).
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M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
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X. Wei, B. C. Hess, Z. V. Vardeny, and F. Wudl, “Studies of photoexcited states in polyacetylene and poly(paraphenylenevinylene) by absorption detected magnetic resonance: the case of neutral photoexcitations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 666–669 (1992).
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Villeneuve, A.

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half bandgap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
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J. Fick and G. Vitrant, “Fast optical switching in nonlinear prism couplers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1462–1464 (1995).
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G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
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G. Vitrant and P. Arlot, “Demonstration of optical bistability with a nonlinear prism coupler,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4744–4748 (1987).
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W. Schmid, T. Vogtmann, and M. Schwoerer, “Influence of two-photon processes on the nonlinear optical response of polydiacetylene single crystals in the near-resonant spectral range,” Chem. Phys. 204, 147–155 (1996).
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Th. Gabler, A. Bräuer, R. Waldhäusl, U. Bartuch, H.-H. Hörhold, and F. Michelotti, “Nonresonant n2 and TPA coefficient measurement in polymer waveguides by different measurement techniques,” Pure Appl. Opt. 7, 159–168 (1998).
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Th. Gabler, R. Waldhäusl, A. Bräuer, U. Bartuch, R. Stockmann, and H.-H. Hörhold, “Nonresonant n2 and two-photon-absorption dispersion measurements of DPOP-PPV and DP-PPV/DP-DFP polymer strip waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 137, 31–36 (1997).
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J. D. Stenger-Smith, R. W. Lenz, and G. Wegner, “Spectroscopic and cyclic voltammetric studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) prepared from two different sulphonium salt precursor polymers,” Polymer 30, 1048–1053 (1989).
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C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, D. Neher, J. D. Stenger-Smith, G. Wegner, and A. Wolf, “Nonlinear optical properties of thin films of polymers with a one-dimensional conjugated π-electron system,” in Electronic Properties of Conjugated Polymers III, Vol. 19 of Springer Series in Solid-State Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 214–219.
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Wei, T.-H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
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J. M. Leng, S. Jeglinski, X. Wei, R. E. Benner, Z. V. Vardeny, F. Guo, and S. Mazumdar, “Optical probes of excited states in poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 156–159 (1994).
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M. Chandross, S. Mazumdar, S. Jeglinski, X. Wei, Z. V. Vardeny, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Excitons in poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14702–14705 (1994).
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X. Wei, B. C. Hess, Z. V. Vardeny, and F. Wudl, “Studies of photoexcited states in polyacetylene and poly(paraphenylenevinylene) by absorption detected magnetic resonance: the case of neutral photoexcitations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 666–669 (1992).
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Wolf, A.

C. Bubeck, A. Kaltbeitzel, D. Neher, J. D. Stenger-Smith, G. Wegner, and A. Wolf, “Nonlinear optical properties of thin films of polymers with a one-dimensional conjugated π-electron system,” in Electronic Properties of Conjugated Polymers III, Vol. 19 of Springer Series in Solid-State Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989), pp. 214–219.
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Wong, K. Y.

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Enhanced nonresonant nonlinear optical processes from populated electronic states,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673–1676 (1991).
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Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Excited state nonlinear optics,” in Organic Molecules for Nonlinear Optics and Photonics, J. Messier, F. Kajzar, and P. Prasad, eds., Vol. 194 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 239–262.
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K. Meerholz, Y. De Nardin, R. Bittner, R. Wortmann, and F. Würthner, “Improved performance of photorefractive polymers based on merocyanine dyes in a polar matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 4–6 (1998).
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Wright, E. M.

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953–970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Fortenberry, R. Moshefzadeh, G. Assanto, X. Mai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Power-dependent coupling and fast switching in distributed coupling to ZnO waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 687–689 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wudl, F.

X. Wei, B. C. Hess, Z. V. Vardeny, and F. Wudl, “Studies of photoexcited states in polyacetylene and poly(paraphenylenevinylene) by absorption detected magnetic resonance: the case of neutral photoexcitations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 666–669 (1992).
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D. McBranch, M. Sinclair, A. J. Heeger, A. O. Patil, S. Shi, S. Askari, and F. Wudl, “Linear and nonlinear optical studies of poly(p-phenylene vinylene),” Synth. Met. 29, E85–E90 (1989).
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K. Meerholz, Y. De Nardin, R. Bittner, R. Wortmann, and F. Würthner, “Improved performance of photorefractive polymers based on merocyanine dyes in a polar matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 4–6 (1998).
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L. J. Rothberg, M. Yan, F. Papadimitrakopoulos, M. E. Galvin, E. W. Kwock, and T. M. Miller, “Photophysics of phenylenevinylene polymers,” Synth. Met. 80, 41–58 (1996).
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J. W. P. Hsu, M. Yan, T. M. Jedju, L. J. Rothberg, and B. R. Hsieh, “Assignment of the picosecond photoinduced absorption in phenylene vinylene polymers,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 712–715 (1994).
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U. Lemmer, R. Fischer, J. Feldmann, R. F. Mahrt, J. Yang, A. Greiner, H. Bässler, E. O. Göbel, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Time-resolved studies of two-photon absorption processes in poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 203, 28–32 (1993).
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Zamani-Khamiri, O.

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Enhanced nonresonant nonlinear optical processes from populated electronic states,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673–1676 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Excited state nonlinear optics,” in Organic Molecules for Nonlinear Optics and Photonics, J. Messier, F. Kajzar, and P. Prasad, eds., Vol. 194 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 239–262.
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Zanoni, R.

J. Staromlynska, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Electronic versus thermal response for nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Opt. 31, 1170–1172 (1992).
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G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953–970 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Q. L.

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Enhanced nonresonant nonlinear optical processes from populated electronic states,” Phys. Rev. A 43, 1673–1676 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. L. Zhou, J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Khamiri, and A. F. Garito, “Excited state nonlinear optics,” in Organic Molecules for Nonlinear Optics and Photonics, J. Messier, F. Kajzar, and P. Prasad, eds., Vol. 194 of NATO ASI Series E (Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1991), pp. 239–262.
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

K. Meerholz, Y. De Nardin, R. Bittner, R. Wortmann, and F. Würthner, “Improved performance of photorefractive polymers based on merocyanine dyes in a polar matrix,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 4–6 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman, G. Assanto, R. Zanoni, C. T. Seaton, E. Garmire, A. A. Maradudin, R. Reinisch, and G. Vitrant, “Bistability and switching in nonlinear prism coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 869–871 (1988).
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Y. J. Chen and G. M. Carter, “Measurement of third order nonlinear susceptibilities by surface plasmons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 41, 307–309 (1982).
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G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, and S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity dependent index of refraction in multilayers of polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
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Y. J. Chen, G. M. Carter, G. J. Sonek, and J. M. Ballantyne, “Nonlinear optical coupling to planar GaAs/AlGaAs waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 272–274 (1986).
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R. Burzynski, B. P. Singh, P. N. Prasad, R. Zanoni, and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear optical processes in a polymer waveguide: grating coupler measurements of electronic and thermal nonlinearities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2011–2013 (1988).
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G. M. Carter and Y. J. Chen, “Nonlinear optical coupling between radiation and confined modes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 42, 643–645 (1983).
[CrossRef]

C. Liao and G. I. Stegeman, “Nonlinear prism coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 44, 164–166 (1984).
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R. M. Fortenberry, R. Moshefzadeh, G. Assanto, X. Mai, E. M. Wright, C. T. Seaton, and G. I. Stegeman, “Power-dependent coupling and fast switching in distributed coupling to ZnO waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 687–689 (1986).
[CrossRef]

M. Sinclair, D. Mc Branch, D. Moses, and A. J. Heeger, “Time-resolved waveguide modulation of a conjugated polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 2374–2376 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823–1825 (1989).
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Chem. Phys. (3)

M. Deussen and H. Bässler, “Anion and cation absorption spectra of conjugated oligomers and polymers,” Chem. Phys. 164, 247–257 (1992).
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W. Schmid, T. Vogtmann, and M. Schwoerer, “Influence of two-photon processes on the nonlinear optical response of polydiacetylene single crystals in the near-resonant spectral range,” Chem. Phys. 204, 147–155 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (5)

T. Kurihara, Y. Mori, T. Kaino, H. Murata, N. Takada, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Spectra of χ(3)(−3ω; ω, ω, ω) in poly(2, 5-dimethoxy p-phenylene vinylene) (MO-PPV) for various conversion levels,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 183, 534–538 (1991).
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C. J. Baker, O. M. Gelsen, and D. D. C. Bradley, “Location of the lowest even parity excited singlet state in poly(p-phenylenevinylene) by two-photon fluorescence spectroscopy,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 201, 127–131 (1993).
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U. Lemmer, R. Fischer, J. Feldmann, R. F. Mahrt, J. Yang, A. Greiner, H. Bässler, E. O. Göbel, H. Heesel, and H. Kurz, “Time-resolved studies of two-photon absorption processes in poly(p-phenylenevinylene)s,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 203, 28–32 (1993).
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Chem. Rev. (2)

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, “Polymeric photorefractive materials,” Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994).
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J. L. Brédas, C. Adant, P. Tackx, and A. Persoons, “Third-order nonlinear optical response in organic materials: theoretical and experimental aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 243–278 (1994).
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Electron. Lett. (1)

T. Kaino, K.-I. Kubodera, S. Tomaru, and T. Kurihara, “Optical third-harmonic generation from poly(p-phenylenevinylene) thin films,” Electron. Lett. 23, 1095–1097 (1987).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T.-H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, D. C. Hutchings, J. U. Kang, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Villeneuve, “The nonlinear optical properties of AlGaAs at the half bandgap,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 341–348 (1997).
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Int. J. Optoelectron. (1)

U. Bartuch, A. Bräuer, P. Dannberg, H.-H. Hörhold, and D. Raabe, “Measurement of high nonresonant third-order nonlinearity in MP-PPV waveguides,” Int. J. Optoelectron. 7, 275–279 (1992).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

J. Swiatkiewicz, P. N. Prasad, and F. E. Karasz, “Anisotropy in the complex refractive index and the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of a stretch-oriented film of poly(p-phenylene vinylene),” J. Appl. Phys. 74, 525–530 (1993).
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G. Vitrant and P. Arlot, “Demonstration of optical bistability with a nonlinear prism coupler,” J. Appl. Phys. 61, 4744–4748 (1987).
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J. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. Pang, M. Samoc, and P. N. Prasad, “Third-order nonlinearity and two-photon-induced molecular dynamics: femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption, Kerr gate, and degenerate four-wave mixing studies in poly(p-phenylene vinylene)/sol-gel silica film,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 5282–5290 (1991).
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J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

G. I. Stegeman, E. M. Wright, N. Finlayson, R. Zanoni, and C. T. Seaton, “Third order nonlinear integrated optics,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6, 953–970 (1988).
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J. Mol. Electron. (1)

J. D. Swalen, “Optical properties of Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 155–181 (1986).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of PPV.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Prism coupling of a planar waveguide. See text for d efinitions of symbols.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Examples of (a) one-photon and (b) two-photon resonances with a three-level system. The energies of the states g, u, and g are chosen arbitrarily. The spectra of nonlinear absorption α2 and nonlinear refractive index n2 are obtained from a model calculation (see text). They are displayed on wavelength scales for comparison with the measured spectra.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for nonlinear optical waveguide spectroscopy. The OPG consists of LiIO3 crystals upon rotation stages. F, filters; SHG, second-harmonic generation; PC, personal computer. Photodiodes PD1 and PD2 detect the incident and reflected intensities, respectively. A thin-film waveguide is pressed against the prism, which is mounted upon a precision rotation stage to vary incidence angle θ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

TE0 waveguide modes of a 620-nm-thick film of PPV upon a fused-silica substrate that were excited with prism coupling at two laser wavelengths λ. The angular dependencies of the reflected intensities IR were measured at various incident peak intensities I0 as shown. The curves were calculated by means of Eq. (24) and fitted to the experimental points. Gaussian laser beam parameter, σ=0.32 mm; air-gap thicknesses (a) da=120 nm and (b) da=130 nm were held constant. Only n and α of the film were varied to fit the measurements at different intensities.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in (a) refractive index Δn and of (b) absorption coefficient Δα at three laser wavelengths as a function of the average intensity in the waveguide Igw.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical spectra of PPV. (a) Linear absorption spectrum α0(λ) of PPV shown in comparison with the dispersion of (b) α2 and (c) n2, which were measured at the laser wavelengths λL. The different wavelength scales of λ and λL were chosen to illustrate the energy levels of TPA’s I and II with respect to α0(λ). Data indicated by circles, triangles, and diamonds are from different samples and measurement series. The curves in (b) and (c) are a first attempt to model the measured data by TPA (I, II) and by SA (III), as described in the text.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of (a) the linear absorption and the dispersion of (b) α2 and (c) n2 of PPV. (a) The optical density (OD) of four free-standing films of PPV with a total thickness of the order of 20 µm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters and Statistical Errors of the Gaussian Fits to the α2 and n2 Spectra of Fig. 7

Equations (35)

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n=n0+n2I,
α=α0+α2I,
kzp=k0np sin(φ)=k0{cos(γ)sin(θ)+sin(γ)[np2-sin2(θ)]1/2},
t12=2kx1kx1+kx2,
r12=kx1-kx2kx1+kx2.
Ep+Ep-=1τMexp(-iδf)00exp(iδf)Ef+Ef-,
M=m11m12m21m22=1rparpa1exp(-iδa)00exp(iδa)1rafraf1.
δi=δi+iδi=di(kxi+ikxi).
tpf=τm11=|tpf|exp(-2iϕpft),
rpf=m21m11=|rpf|exp(-2iϕfpr),
tfp=1τm22-m12m21m11=|tfp|exp(-2iϕfpt),
rfp=-m12m11=|rfp|exp(-2iϕpfr).
Ef(x)=12tpf exp[i(δf+ϕfsr)]1-rfp exp[2i(δf-ϕfsr)]×2 cos[kxf(df-x)-ϕfsr]Ep++c.c.
If(x)=nfnp|tpf|2 exp(-2δf)1-2|rfp|exp(-2δf)cos 2(dfkxf-ϕfpr-ϕfsr)+|rfp|2 exp(-4δf){2 cosh[2kxf(df-x)]+4f(x)}I0,
f(x)=cos2[kxf(df-x)-ϕfsr].
dfkxf-ϕfpr-ϕfsr=mπ.
IRI0=|rpf|2+|tpftfp|2 exp(-4δf)1-2|rfp|exp(-2δf)cos 2(dfkxf-ϕfpr-ϕfsr)+|rfp|2 exp(-4δf)+2|rpftpftfp|exp(-2δf){cos[2(dfkxf-ϕfpr-ϕfsr+ϕp)]-|rfp|exp(-2δf)cos ϕp}1-2|rfp|exp(-2δf)cos 2(dfkxf-ϕfpr-ϕfsr)+|rfp|2 exp(-4δf),
tin=tpf/(2dfkzf/kxf),
tout=(1-|rfp|)/(2dfkzf/kxf).
ddzagw(y, z, t)=tinain(y, z, t)exp{-i[k0βm(Igw)-kz]z}-tout+αgw(Igw)2agw(y, z, t).
agw(y, z, t)
=tin2ain(y, z, t)expσz2(tout+αgw)22-(tout+αgw)z
×1+erf-σz2(tout+αgw)+z2σz.
aR(y, z, t)=rpfain(y, z, t)-2(rpf/tin)agw(y, z, t).
Igw(y, z, t)=nfcε02|agw(y, z, t)|2.
IR(y, z, t)=npcε02|aR(y, z, t)|2.
Igw(x, y, z, t)=Igw0f(x)g(y)h(z)j(t),
h(z)=|agw(z)|2-+|agw(z)|2dz.
Igw=1df0dff(x)dx×-+ g(y)h(z)j(t)Igw(y, z, t)dydzdt,
Δn=n2Igw,
Δα=α2Igw,
χξξξξ(3)(-ω; ωr, ωp, ωq)=F1(ω)F1(ωr)F1(ωp)F1(ωq) N3P k,l,m,nμlkμkmμmnμnl×(ρl-ρn)(ωkl-ωr-ωp-ωq-iγkl)(ωml-ωr-ωp-iγml)(ωnl-ωr-iγnl)-(ρn-ρm)(ωkl-ωr-ωp-ωq-iγkl)(ωml-ωr-ωp-iγml)(ωmn-ωr-iγmn)+μlkμknμnmμml(ρn-ρk)(ωkl-ωr-ωp-ωq-iγkl)(ωkm-ωr-ωp-iγkm)(ωkl-ωr-iγkl)-(ρm-ρn)(ωkl-ωr-ωp-ωq-iγkl)(ωkm-ωr-ωp-iγkm)(ωnm-ωr-iγnm),
n2(ω)=341n02cε0Re[χ(3)(-ω; ω,-ω, ω)],
α2(ω)=3ω2n02c2ε0Im[χ(3)(-ω; ω,-ω, ω)].
n2=1+i=12 aiλ2λ2-λi2,

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