Abstract

We used a Michelson-type interferometer to observe the waveform of the accumulated photon echoes in a 3,3-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide–doped poly(vinyl alcohol) film. By Fourier analysis of the measured interferograms we obtained the shapes of the burned population grating and the phase grating in the sample. From the frequency distribution of the dye molecules, that is efficient for persistent spectral hole burning, we estimated the inhomogeneous frequency distribution of the 0–0 transition from S0 to S1 levels of the dye molecules in the poly(vinyl alcohol) film.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. K. Duppen and D. A. Wiersma, “Picosecond multiple-pulse experiments involving spatial and frequency gratings: a unifying nonperturbation approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 614–621 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. H. Hesselink and D. A. Wiersma, “Picosecond photon echoes stimulated from an accumulated grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1991–1994 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J.-Y. Bibot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, “Instantaneous frequency dynamics of coherent wave in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307–3310 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. S. Pshenichnikov, K. Duppen, and D. A. Wiersma, “Time-resolved femtosecond photon echo probes bimodal solvent dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 674–677 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J.-P. Likforman, M. Joffre, and V. T. Mieg, “Measurement of photon echoes by use of femtosecond Fourier-transform spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1104–1106 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. M. F. Emade, W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Spectral interferometry as an alternative to time-domain heterodyning,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1338–1340 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. M. Gallagher, A. W. Albrecht, J. D. Hybl, B. L. Landin, B. Rajaram, and D. M. Jones, “Heterodyne detection of the complete electric field of femtosecond four-wave mixing signal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2338–2345 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Tsurumachi, T. Fuji, S. Kawato, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “Interferometric observation of femtosecond free induction decay,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1867–1869 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. T. Fuji, M. Miyata, S. Kawato, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “Linear propagation of light investigated with a white-light Michelson interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1074–1078 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Fuji, M. Arakawa, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “A white-light Michelson interferometer in the visible and near infrared regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2854–2858 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Uemura, M. Okada, A. Wakamiya, and H. Nakatsuka, “Host-structure-dependent non-Lorentzian persistent-hole shapes in organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 10, 641–10, 649 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  13. L. Shu and G. J. Small, “Dispersive kinetics of nonphotochemical hole burning and spontaneous hole filling: Cresyl Violet in polyvinyl films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 733–737 (1992).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

S. M. Gallagher, A. W. Albrecht, J. D. Hybl, B. L. Landin, B. Rajaram, and D. M. Jones, “Heterodyne detection of the complete electric field of femtosecond four-wave mixing signal,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 2338–2345 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, M. Arakawa, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “A white-light Michelson interferometer in the visible and near infrared regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2854–2858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (3)

1995 (1)

M. S. Pshenichnikov, K. Duppen, and D. A. Wiersma, “Time-resolved femtosecond photon echo probes bimodal solvent dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 674–677 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

1993 (1)

J.-Y. Bibot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, “Instantaneous frequency dynamics of coherent wave in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307–3310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

S. Uemura, M. Okada, A. Wakamiya, and H. Nakatsuka, “Host-structure-dependent non-Lorentzian persistent-hole shapes in organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 10, 641–10, 649 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Shu and G. J. Small, “Dispersive kinetics of nonphotochemical hole burning and spontaneous hole filling: Cresyl Violet in polyvinyl films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 733–737 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1979 (1)

W. H. Hesselink and D. A. Wiersma, “Picosecond photon echoes stimulated from an accumulated grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1991–1994 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Albrecht, A. W.

Arakawa, M.

T. Fuji, M. Arakawa, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “A white-light Michelson interferometer in the visible and near infrared regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2854–2858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Bibot, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Bibot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, “Instantaneous frequency dynamics of coherent wave in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307–3310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carlson, R. J.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

J.-Y. Bibot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, “Instantaneous frequency dynamics of coherent wave in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307–3310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cina, J. A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

de Boeij, W. P.

Du, M.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Duppen, K.

M. S. Pshenichnikov, K. Duppen, and D. A. Wiersma, “Time-resolved femtosecond photon echo probes bimodal solvent dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 674–677 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Duppen and D. A. Wiersma, “Picosecond multiple-pulse experiments involving spatial and frequency gratings: a unifying nonperturbation approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 614–621 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Emade, M. F.

Fleming, G. R.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fuji, T.

Gallagher, S. M.

Hattori, T.

Hesselink, W. H.

W. H. Hesselink and D. A. Wiersma, “Picosecond photon echoes stimulated from an accumulated grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1991–1994 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Hybl, J. D.

Joffre, M.

Jones, D. M.

Kawato, S.

Landin, B. L.

Likforman, J.-P.

Matro, A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mieg, V. T.

Miyata, M.

Mycek, M.-A.

J.-Y. Bibot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, “Instantaneous frequency dynamics of coherent wave in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307–3310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakatsuka, H.

T. Fuji, M. Arakawa, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “A white-light Michelson interferometer in the visible and near infrared regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2854–2858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Fuji, M. Miyata, S. Kawato, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “Linear propagation of light investigated with a white-light Michelson interferometer,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1074–1078 (1997).
[CrossRef]

N. Tsurumachi, T. Fuji, S. Kawato, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “Interferometric observation of femtosecond free induction decay,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1867–1869 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Uemura, M. Okada, A. Wakamiya, and H. Nakatsuka, “Host-structure-dependent non-Lorentzian persistent-hole shapes in organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 10, 641–10, 649 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okada, M.

S. Uemura, M. Okada, A. Wakamiya, and H. Nakatsuka, “Host-structure-dependent non-Lorentzian persistent-hole shapes in organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 10, 641–10, 649 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

M. F. Emade, W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Spectral interferometry as an alternative to time-domain heterodyning,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1338–1340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, K. Duppen, and D. A. Wiersma, “Time-resolved femtosecond photon echo probes bimodal solvent dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 674–677 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajaram, B.

Rice, S. A.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Romero-Rochin, V.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ruggiero, A. J.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, N. F.

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shu, L.

Small, G. J.

Tsurumachi, N.

Uemura, S.

S. Uemura, M. Okada, A. Wakamiya, and H. Nakatsuka, “Host-structure-dependent non-Lorentzian persistent-hole shapes in organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 10, 641–10, 649 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ulbrich, R. G.

J.-Y. Bibot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, “Instantaneous frequency dynamics of coherent wave in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307–3310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wakamiya, A.

S. Uemura, M. Okada, A. Wakamiya, and H. Nakatsuka, “Host-structure-dependent non-Lorentzian persistent-hole shapes in organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 10, 641–10, 649 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S.

J.-Y. Bibot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, “Instantaneous frequency dynamics of coherent wave in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307–3310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. A.

M. F. Emade, W. P. de Boeij, M. S. Pshenichnikov, and D. A. Wiersma, “Spectral interferometry as an alternative to time-domain heterodyning,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1338–1340 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, K. Duppen, and D. A. Wiersma, “Time-resolved femtosecond photon echo probes bimodal solvent dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 674–677 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Duppen and D. A. Wiersma, “Picosecond multiple-pulse experiments involving spatial and frequency gratings: a unifying nonperturbation approach,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 614–621 (1986).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Hesselink and D. A. Wiersma, “Picosecond photon echoes stimulated from an accumulated grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1991–1994 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

N. F. Scherer, R. J. Carlson, A. Matro, M. Du, A. J. Ruggiero, V. Romero-Rochin, J. A. Cina, G. R. Fleming, and S. A. Rice, “Fluorescence-detected wave packet interferometry: time resolved molecular spectroscopy with sequences of femtosecond phase-locked pulse,” J. Chem. Phys. 95, 1487–1511 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Uemura, M. Okada, A. Wakamiya, and H. Nakatsuka, “Host-structure-dependent non-Lorentzian persistent-hole shapes in organic glasses,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 10, 641–10, 649 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

W. H. Hesselink and D. A. Wiersma, “Picosecond photon echoes stimulated from an accumulated grating,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 1991–1994 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J.-Y. Bibot, M.-A. Mycek, S. Weiss, R. G. Ulbrich, and D. S. Chemla, “Instantaneous frequency dynamics of coherent wave in semiconductor quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 3307–3310 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Pshenichnikov, K. Duppen, and D. A. Wiersma, “Time-resolved femtosecond photon echo probes bimodal solvent dynamics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 674–677 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

T. Fuji, M. Arakawa, T. Hattori, and H. Nakatsuka, “A white-light Michelson interferometer in the visible and near infrared regions,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 69, 2854–2858 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experiment: PZT’s, piezoelectric transducers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorption spectra of the DTTCI-doped PVA film (solid curve) and the cw mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser (dashed curve).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Cross-correlation interferograms between input light Ein(t) and output light Eout(t) from the sample measured with the second Michelson interferometer when the two-pulse excitation is (a) off and (b) on.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Power spectra of (a) input light and (b) output light through the burned sample obtained from Fourier analysis of the measured autocorrelation and cross-correlation interferograms.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Extinction coefficient and (b) refractive index of the burned sample obtained from Fourier analysis of the measured autocorrelation and cross-correlation interferograms.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes in (a) the extinction coefficient and (b) the refractive index caused by the population grating burned in the sample.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes in (a) the extinction coefficient and (b) the refractive index caused by the population grating burned in the sample. The phase of the modulation of extinction coefficient is π/2 ahead of that of the refractive index.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Initial extinction coefficient of the DTTCI-doped PVA film (dashed curve) and quantum efficiency of PSHB (dotted curve). The solid curve is the product of the extinction coefficient and the quantum efficiency that represents the frequency distribution of dye molecules that is efficient for PSHB.

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

CA(τ)=Ein*(t)Ein(t+τ),
Eout(t)=-tdth(t-t)Ein(t),
CC(τ)=Ein*(t)Eout(t+τ),
CC(τ)=-τdτh(τ-τ)CA(τ).
Eout(ω)=h(ω)Ein(ω),
CC(ω)=h(ω)CA(ω),

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