Abstract

Hyper-Rayleigh scattering (HRS), or incoherent second-harmonic generation, from Langmuir films of C60 and its derivatives deposited upon fused-quartz substrates is studied experimentally. For C60 and C60-tetracyanoethylene oxide derivative (C60[CN]) films the diffuse second-harmonic signal from a single Langmuir layer is at least ten times larger than that from multilayer films. For C60-indopane derivative (C60[ind]) films no peculiarities in the diffuse second-harmonic signal from a single layer are observed, whereas the ratio of the intensities of specular and diffuse signals is found to be proportional to the thickness of the film. HRS indicatrices are measured; the results yield estimates for the correlation length of fluctuations of nonlinear polarization: 100 nm for C60 and C60[CN] films and 300 nm for C60[ind] films.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  2. D. L. Andrews and P. Allcock, “Polarization analysis of bimolecular excitations mediated by energy transfer: a common theoretical framework for fluorescence migration and sequential Raman scattering,” Chem. Phys. 198, 35–51 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. Olbrechts, E. J. H. Put, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and N. Matsuda, “Probing of spatial orientational correlations between chromophores in polymer films by femtosecond hyper-Rayleigh scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 253, 135–140 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  5. O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–209 (1983).
  6. I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101–112 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film,” Nature (London) 368, 438–440 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Miyata and X. T. Toa, “Recent progress of organic nonlinear optics in Japan,” Synth. Met. 81, 99–115 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–528 (1985).
  12. E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D. Wilk, D. Johansmann, C. Stanners, and Y. R. Shen, “Second-harmonic generation from C60 thin films at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10057–10067 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. B. Koopmans, A. Anema, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatsky, and F. van der Woude, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation from thin C60 films,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2759–2764 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. J. Wang, D. Vaknin, R. Uphaus, K. Kjaer, and M. Maruyama, “Fullerene films and fullerene–dodecylamine adduct monolayers at air–water interfaces studied by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 242, 40–44 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. R. Novak, S. L. Vorob’eva, and I. V. Myagkov, “Investigation of Langmuir films of fullerene derivative resulting by addition of C60 to tetracyanoethylene oxide,” Mol. Mater. 7, 175–178 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. A. Fedirko, M. D. Eremtchenko, V. R. Novak, and S. L. Vorob’eva, “Scanning probe microscopy of fullerene monolayers,” Recent Adv. Chem. Phys. Fullerenes Related Mater. 4, 680–686 (1997).
  18. O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, A. A. Nikulin, V. R. Novak, R. Stolle, and Th. Rasing, “Nonlinear-optical interferometry and second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene-indopane derivative,” Surf. Sci. 402/404, 576–580 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, A. A. Nikulin, V. R. Novak, R. Stolle, and Th. Rasing, “Nonlinear-optical interferometry and second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene-indopane derivative,” Surf. Sci. 402/404, 576–580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997

V. A. Fedirko, M. D. Eremtchenko, V. R. Novak, and S. L. Vorob’eva, “Scanning probe microscopy of fullerene monolayers,” Recent Adv. Chem. Phys. Fullerenes Related Mater. 4, 680–686 (1997).

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. R. Novak, S. L. Vorob’eva, and I. V. Myagkov, “Investigation of Langmuir films of fullerene derivative resulting by addition of C60 to tetracyanoethylene oxide,” Mol. Mater. 7, 175–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Olbrechts, E. J. H. Put, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and N. Matsuda, “Probing of spatial orientational correlations between chromophores in polymer films by femtosecond hyper-Rayleigh scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 253, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Miyata and X. T. Toa, “Recent progress of organic nonlinear optics in Japan,” Synth. Met. 81, 99–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

D. L. Andrews and P. Allcock, “Polarization analysis of bimolecular excitations mediated by energy transfer: a common theoretical framework for fluorescence migration and sequential Raman scattering,” Chem. Phys. 198, 35–51 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Wilk, D. Johansmann, C. Stanners, and Y. R. Shen, “Second-harmonic generation from C60 thin films at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10057–10067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film,” Nature (London) 368, 438–440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. Vaknin, R. Uphaus, K. Kjaer, and M. Maruyama, “Fullerene films and fullerene–dodecylamine adduct monolayers at air–water interfaces studied by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 242, 40–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

B. Koopmans, A. Anema, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatsky, and F. van der Woude, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation from thin C60 films,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2759–2764 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1985

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101–112 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–528 (1985).

1983

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–209 (1983).

Akhmediev, N. N.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–528 (1985).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–209 (1983).

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, A. A. Nikulin, V. R. Novak, R. Stolle, and Th. Rasing, “Nonlinear-optical interferometry and second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene-indopane derivative,” Surf. Sci. 402/404, 576–580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–528 (1985).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–209 (1983).

Allcock, P.

D. L. Andrews and P. Allcock, “Polarization analysis of bimolecular excitations mediated by energy transfer: a common theoretical framework for fluorescence migration and sequential Raman scattering,” Chem. Phys. 198, 35–51 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Allen, S.

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Andrews, D. L.

D. L. Andrews and P. Allcock, “Polarization analysis of bimolecular excitations mediated by energy transfer: a common theoretical framework for fluorescence migration and sequential Raman scattering,” Chem. Phys. 198, 35–51 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Anema, A.

B. Koopmans, A. Anema, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatsky, and F. van der Woude, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation from thin C60 films,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2759–2764 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film,” Nature (London) 368, 438–440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baranova, I. M.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–528 (1985).

Burgess, A.

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cade, N. A.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101–112 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Clays, K.

G. Olbrechts, E. J. H. Put, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and N. Matsuda, “Probing of spatial orientational correlations between chromophores in polymer films by femtosecond hyper-Rayleigh scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 253, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cresswell, J.

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cross, G. H.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101–112 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film,” Nature (London) 368, 438–440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Devillers, M. A. C.

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eaglesham, A.

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Earls, J. D.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101–112 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Eremtchenko, M. D.

V. A. Fedirko, M. D. Eremtchenko, V. R. Novak, and S. L. Vorob’eva, “Scanning probe microscopy of fullerene monolayers,” Recent Adv. Chem. Phys. Fullerenes Related Mater. 4, 680–686 (1997).

Fedirko, V. A.

V. A. Fedirko, M. D. Eremtchenko, V. R. Novak, and S. L. Vorob’eva, “Scanning probe microscopy of fullerene monolayers,” Recent Adv. Chem. Phys. Fullerenes Related Mater. 4, 680–686 (1997).

Fedyanin, A. A.

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferguson, I.

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Girling, I. R.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101–112 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grubb, S.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hutchings, M.

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, P. D.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film,” Nature (London) 368, 438–440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jaworek, T.

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Johansmann, D.

D. Wilk, D. Johansmann, C. Stanners, and Y. R. Shen, “Second-harmonic generation from C60 thin films at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10057–10067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jonkman, H. T.

B. Koopmans, A. Anema, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatsky, and F. van der Woude, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation from thin C60 films,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2759–2764 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kjaer, K.

J. Wang, D. Vaknin, R. Uphaus, K. Kjaer, and M. Maruyama, “Fullerene films and fullerene–dodecylamine adduct monolayers at air–water interfaces studied by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 242, 40–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klimkin, D. A.

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kolinsky, P. V.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101–112 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Koopmans, B.

B. Koopmans, A. Anema, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatsky, and F. van der Woude, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation from thin C60 films,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2759–2764 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Maruyama, M.

J. Wang, D. Vaknin, R. Uphaus, K. Kjaer, and M. Maruyama, “Fullerene films and fullerene–dodecylamine adduct monolayers at air–water interfaces studied by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 242, 40–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, N.

G. Olbrechts, E. J. H. Put, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and N. Matsuda, “Probing of spatial orientational correlations between chromophores in polymer films by femtosecond hyper-Rayleigh scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 253, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, E. D.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, A. A. Nikulin, V. R. Novak, R. Stolle, and Th. Rasing, “Nonlinear-optical interferometry and second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene-indopane derivative,” Surf. Sci. 402/404, 576–580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–528 (1985).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–209 (1983).

Misuryaev, T. V.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, A. A. Nikulin, V. R. Novak, R. Stolle, and Th. Rasing, “Nonlinear-optical interferometry and second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene-indopane derivative,” Surf. Sci. 402/404, 576–580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, S.

S. Miyata and X. T. Toa, “Recent progress of organic nonlinear optics in Japan,” Synth. Met. 81, 99–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Myagkov, I. V.

V. R. Novak, S. L. Vorob’eva, and I. V. Myagkov, “Investigation of Langmuir films of fullerene derivative resulting by addition of C60 to tetracyanoethylene oxide,” Mol. Mater. 7, 175–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nikulin, A. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, A. A. Nikulin, V. R. Novak, R. Stolle, and Th. Rasing, “Nonlinear-optical interferometry and second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene-indopane derivative,” Surf. Sci. 402/404, 576–580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Novak, V. R.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, A. A. Nikulin, V. R. Novak, R. Stolle, and Th. Rasing, “Nonlinear-optical interferometry and second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene-indopane derivative,” Surf. Sci. 402/404, 576–580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

V. A. Fedirko, M. D. Eremtchenko, V. R. Novak, and S. L. Vorob’eva, “Scanning probe microscopy of fullerene monolayers,” Recent Adv. Chem. Phys. Fullerenes Related Mater. 4, 680–686 (1997).

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. R. Novak, S. L. Vorob’eva, and I. V. Myagkov, “Investigation of Langmuir films of fullerene derivative resulting by addition of C60 to tetracyanoethylene oxide,” Mol. Mater. 7, 175–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–528 (1985).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–209 (1983).

Olbrechts, G.

G. Olbrechts, E. J. H. Put, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and N. Matsuda, “Probing of spatial orientational correlations between chromophores in polymer films by femtosecond hyper-Rayleigh scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 253, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

G. Olbrechts, E. J. H. Put, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and N. Matsuda, “Probing of spatial orientational correlations between chromophores in polymer films by femtosecond hyper-Rayleigh scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 253, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, I. R.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101–112 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Petty, M. C.

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Put, E. J. H.

G. Olbrechts, E. J. H. Put, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and N. Matsuda, “Probing of spatial orientational correlations between chromophores in polymer films by femtosecond hyper-Rayleigh scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 253, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, A. A. Nikulin, V. R. Novak, R. Stolle, and Th. Rasing, “Nonlinear-optical interferometry and second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene-indopane derivative,” Surf. Sci. 402/404, 576–580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryan, T. G.

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sawatsky, G. A.

B. Koopmans, A. Anema, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatsky, and F. van der Woude, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation from thin C60 films,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2759–2764 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

D. Wilk, D. Johansmann, C. Stanners, and Y. R. Shen, “Second-harmonic generation from C60 thin films at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10057–10067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sigov, A. S.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stanners, C.

D. Wilk, D. Johansmann, C. Stanners, and Y. R. Shen, “Second-harmonic generation from C60 thin films at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10057–10067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stolle, R.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, A. A. Nikulin, V. R. Novak, R. Stolle, and Th. Rasing, “Nonlinear-optical interferometry and second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene-indopane derivative,” Surf. Sci. 402/404, 576–580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Toa, X. T.

S. Miyata and X. T. Toa, “Recent progress of organic nonlinear optics in Japan,” Synth. Met. 81, 99–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Uphaus, R.

J. Wang, D. Vaknin, R. Uphaus, K. Kjaer, and M. Maruyama, “Fullerene films and fullerene–dodecylamine adduct monolayers at air–water interfaces studied by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 242, 40–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vaknin, D.

J. Wang, D. Vaknin, R. Uphaus, K. Kjaer, and M. Maruyama, “Fullerene films and fullerene–dodecylamine adduct monolayers at air–water interfaces studied by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 242, 40–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

van der Woude, F.

B. Koopmans, A. Anema, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatsky, and F. van der Woude, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation from thin C60 films,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2759–2764 (1993).
[CrossRef]

van Hasselt, C. W.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vorob’eva, S. L.

V. A. Fedirko, M. D. Eremtchenko, V. R. Novak, and S. L. Vorob’eva, “Scanning probe microscopy of fullerene monolayers,” Recent Adv. Chem. Phys. Fullerenes Related Mater. 4, 680–686 (1997).

V. R. Novak, S. L. Vorob’eva, and I. V. Myagkov, “Investigation of Langmuir films of fullerene derivative resulting by addition of C60 to tetracyanoethylene oxide,” Mol. Mater. 7, 175–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Vorobeva, S. L.

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vorotilov, K. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, D. Vaknin, R. Uphaus, K. Kjaer, and M. Maruyama, “Fullerene films and fullerene–dodecylamine adduct monolayers at air–water interfaces studied by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 242, 40–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wilk, D.

D. Wilk, D. Johansmann, C. Stanners, and Y. R. Shen, “Second-harmonic generation from C60 thin films at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10057–10067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yarwood, Y.

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys.

D. L. Andrews and P. Allcock, “Polarization analysis of bimolecular excitations mediated by energy transfer: a common theoretical framework for fluorescence migration and sequential Raman scattering,” Chem. Phys. 198, 35–51 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett.

G. Olbrechts, E. J. H. Put, K. Clays, A. Persoons, and N. Matsuda, “Probing of spatial orientational correlations between chromophores in polymer films by femtosecond hyper-Rayleigh scattering,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 253, 135–140 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

O. A. Aktsipetrov, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, E. D. Mishina, A. S. Sigov, K. A. Vorotilov, C. W. van Hasselt, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Optical second harmonic generation studies of thin ferroelectric films,” Ferroelectrics 186, 215–218 (1996).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Second harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett monolayer,” JETP Lett. 37, 207–209 (1983).

Langmuir

A. Eaglesham, T. Jaworek, J. Cresswell, S. Allen, A. Burgess, I. Ferguson, T. G. Ryan, M. Hutchings, M. C. Petty, and Y. Yarwood, “Structural properties of oligomeric Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” Langmuir 12, 2292–2297 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Mater.

V. R. Novak, S. L. Vorob’eva, and I. V. Myagkov, “Investigation of Langmuir films of fullerene derivative resulting by addition of C60 to tetracyanoethylene oxide,” Mol. Mater. 7, 175–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London)

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film,” Nature (London) 368, 438–440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

D. Wilk, D. Johansmann, C. Stanners, and Y. R. Shen, “Second-harmonic generation from C60 thin films at 1.064 μm,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10057–10067 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Koopmans, A. Anema, H. T. Jonkman, G. A. Sawatsky, and F. van der Woude, “Resonant optical second harmonic generation from thin C60 films,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 2759–2764 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. Kim, and S. Grubb, “Observation of molecular reorientation at a two-dimensional-liquid phase transition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2903–2906 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Recent Adv. Chem. Phys. Fullerenes Related Mater.

V. A. Fedirko, M. D. Eremtchenko, V. R. Novak, and S. L. Vorob’eva, “Scanning probe microscopy of fullerene monolayers,” Recent Adv. Chem. Phys. Fullerenes Related Mater. 4, 680–686 (1997).

Sov. Phys. JETP

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–528 (1985).

Surf. Sci.

E. D. Mishina, A. A. Fedyanin, D. A. Klimkin, A. A. Nikulin, O. A. Aktsipetrov, S. L. Vorobeva, V. R. Novak, M. A. C. Devillers, and Th. Rasing, “Second-harmonic generation spectroscopy and hyper-Rayleigh scattering in Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene,” Surf. Sci. 382, L696–L699 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Misuryaev, A. A. Nikulin, V. R. Novak, R. Stolle, and Th. Rasing, “Nonlinear-optical interferometry and second harmonic generation spectroscopy of Langmuir–Blodgett films of fullerene-indopane derivative,” Surf. Sci. 402/404, 576–580 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Met.

S. Miyata and X. T. Toa, “Recent progress of organic nonlinear optics in Japan,” Synth. Met. 81, 99–115 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101–112 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, D. Vaknin, R. Uphaus, K. Kjaer, and M. Maruyama, “Fullerene films and fullerene–dodecylamine adduct monolayers at air–water interfaces studied by neutron and x-ray diffraction,” Thin Solid Films 242, 40–44 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other

S. Kielich, Molecular Nonlinear Optics (Mir, Moscow, 1974, in Russian).

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Left, intensities of the diffuse Idiff and the specular Ispec (insets) components of SHG from fullerene films measured as functions of film thickness d. For C60[ind] the thickness dependence of the specular signal is taken from Ref. 18. Right, ratio Idiff/Ispec as a function of d. The inset shows the thickness dependence of the inverse quantity Ispec/Idiff for C60[ind] films. Dashed lines are guides for the eye; the solid line in the inset at the right corresponds to a linear approximation of the experimental dependence. The fundamental wavelength is 730 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Top, HRS indicatrix for a ten-Langmuir-layer film of C60[ind]. Solid line, fits to the data from relation (2). Inset, HRS indicatrices for single-Langmuir-layer films of C60 and C60[CN]. 12 Bottom, the diffuse SH component (filled circles) compared with the specular component (open circles) for the ten-layer C60[ind] film.

Equations (2)

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Idiffs-out(θ)ΩF[2ωX(θ)/c],
Idiffs-out(θ)exp[-(2πlcorr X(θ)/λ2ω)2].

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