Abstract

We have developed an all-solid-state tunable continuous-wave coherent light source near 202 nm by using sum-frequency mixing of 266- and 850-nm radiation in β-barium borate (BBO). The 266-nm radiation was generated by frequency doubling of a laser-diode-pumped frequency-doubled Nd:YVO4 laser. The power of the 850-nm radiation, which was provided by a laser-diode-based master-oscillator power-amplifier system, was enhanced in an external cavity. An output power of 59 µW was generated at 202.6 nm. We obtained ultraviolet radiation from 201.5 to 203.1 nm by tuning the wavelength of the master oscillator.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Bona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, “Blue light generation by resonator-enhanced frequency doubling of an extended-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525–527 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, R. Ohmukai, and S. Urabe, “Tunable 397 nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of a diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Matsubara, U. Tanaka, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, R. Ohmukai, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, “An all-solid-state tunable 214.5-nm continuous-wave light source by using two-stage frequency doubling of diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 1–4 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  6. K. Kato, “Second-harmonic generation to 2048 Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. Hemmati, J. C. Bergquist, and W. M. Itano, “Generation of continuous-wave 194-nm radiation by sum-frequency mixing in an external ring cavity,” Opt. Lett. 8, 73–75 (1983).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, J. Umezu, and S. Urabe, “Generation of continuous-wave coherent radiation tunable down to 190.8 nm in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 11–13 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. J. Berkeland, F. C. Cruz, and J. C. Bergquist, “Sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave light at 194 nm,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4159–4162 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. Steinbach, M. Rauner, F. C. Cruz, and J. C. Bergquist, “cw second harmonic generation with elliptical Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 123, 207–214 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. K. Kondo, M. Oka, H. Wada, T. Fukui, N. Umezu, K. Tatsuki, and S. Kubota, “Demonstration of long-term reliability of a 266-nm, continuous-wave, frequency-quadrupled solid-state laser using β-BaB2O4,” Opt. Lett. 23, 195–197 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

K. Matsubara, U. Tanaka, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, R. Ohmukai, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, “An all-solid-state tunable 214.5-nm continuous-wave light source by using two-stage frequency doubling of diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Kondo, M. Oka, H. Wada, T. Fukui, N. Umezu, K. Tatsuki, and S. Kubota, “Demonstration of long-term reliability of a 266-nm, continuous-wave, frequency-quadrupled solid-state laser using β-BaB2O4,” Opt. Lett. 23, 195–197 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

A. Steinbach, M. Rauner, F. C. Cruz, and J. C. Bergquist, “cw second harmonic generation with elliptical Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 123, 207–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Bona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, “Blue light generation by resonator-enhanced frequency doubling of an extended-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, R. Ohmukai, and S. Urabe, “Tunable 397 nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of a diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, J. Umezu, and S. Urabe, “Generation of continuous-wave coherent radiation tunable down to 190.8 nm in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 11–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

K. Kato, “Second-harmonic generation to 2048 Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

1980 (1)

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Bergquist, J. C.

Berkeland, D. J.

Bona, G. L.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Bona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, “Blue light generation by resonator-enhanced frequency doubling of an extended-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Couillaud, B.

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Cruz, F. C.

D. J. Berkeland, F. C. Cruz, and J. C. Bergquist, “Sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave light at 194 nm,” Appl. Opt. 36, 4159–4162 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Steinbach, M. Rauner, F. C. Cruz, and J. C. Bergquist, “cw second harmonic generation with elliptical Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 123, 207–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, T.

Hänsch, T. W.

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Hayasaka, K.

K. Matsubara, U. Tanaka, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, R. Ohmukai, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, “An all-solid-state tunable 214.5-nm continuous-wave light source by using two-stage frequency doubling of diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, R. Ohmukai, and S. Urabe, “Tunable 397 nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of a diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, J. Umezu, and S. Urabe, “Generation of continuous-wave coherent radiation tunable down to 190.8 nm in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 11–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hemmati, H.

Hemmerich, A.

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hollberg, L.

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Imajo, H.

K. Matsubara, U. Tanaka, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, R. Ohmukai, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, “An all-solid-state tunable 214.5-nm continuous-wave light source by using two-stage frequency doubling of diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, R. Ohmukai, and S. Urabe, “Tunable 397 nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of a diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, J. Umezu, and S. Urabe, “Generation of continuous-wave coherent radiation tunable down to 190.8 nm in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 11–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Itano, W. M.

Jaeckel, H.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Bona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, “Blue light generation by resonator-enhanced frequency doubling of an extended-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kato, K.

K. Kato, “Second-harmonic generation to 2048 Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. G.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Bona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, “Blue light generation by resonator-enhanced frequency doubling of an extended-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

Kozlovsky, W. J.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Bona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, “Blue light generation by resonator-enhanced frequency doubling of an extended-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kubota, S.

Lenth, W.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Bona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, “Blue light generation by resonator-enhanced frequency doubling of an extended-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matsubara, K.

K. Matsubara, U. Tanaka, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, R. Ohmukai, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, “An all-solid-state tunable 214.5-nm continuous-wave light source by using two-stage frequency doubling of diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Ohmukai, R.

K. Matsubara, U. Tanaka, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, R. Ohmukai, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, “An all-solid-state tunable 214.5-nm continuous-wave light source by using two-stage frequency doubling of diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, R. Ohmukai, and S. Urabe, “Tunable 397 nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of a diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Oka, M.

Rauner, M.

A. Steinbach, M. Rauner, F. C. Cruz, and J. C. Bergquist, “cw second harmonic generation with elliptical Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 123, 207–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Risk, W. P.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Bona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, “Blue light generation by resonator-enhanced frequency doubling of an extended-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Steinbach, A.

A. Steinbach, M. Rauner, F. C. Cruz, and J. C. Bergquist, “cw second harmonic generation with elliptical Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 123, 207–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, U.

K. Matsubara, U. Tanaka, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, R. Ohmukai, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, “An all-solid-state tunable 214.5-nm continuous-wave light source by using two-stage frequency doubling of diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Tatsuki, K.

Umezu, J.

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, J. Umezu, and S. Urabe, “Generation of continuous-wave coherent radiation tunable down to 190.8 nm in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 11–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Umezu, N.

Urabe, S.

K. Matsubara, U. Tanaka, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, R. Ohmukai, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, “An all-solid-state tunable 214.5-nm continuous-wave light source by using two-stage frequency doubling of diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, R. Ohmukai, and S. Urabe, “Tunable 397 nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of a diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, J. Umezu, and S. Urabe, “Generation of continuous-wave coherent radiation tunable down to 190.8 nm in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 11–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Vuletic, V.

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wada, H.

Watanabe, M.

K. Matsubara, U. Tanaka, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, R. Ohmukai, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, “An all-solid-state tunable 214.5-nm continuous-wave light source by using two-stage frequency doubling of diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, R. Ohmukai, and S. Urabe, “Tunable 397 nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of a diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, J. Umezu, and S. Urabe, “Generation of continuous-wave coherent radiation tunable down to 190.8 nm in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 11–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Webb, D. J.

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Bona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, “Blue light generation by resonator-enhanced frequency doubling of an extended-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wieman, C. E.

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zimmermann, C.

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (2)

K. Matsubara, U. Tanaka, H. Imajo, K. Hayasaka, R. Ohmukai, M. Watanabe, and S. Urabe, “An all-solid-state tunable 214.5-nm continuous-wave light source by using two-stage frequency doubling of diode laser,” Appl. Phys. B 67, 1–4 (1998).
[CrossRef]

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, J. Umezu, and S. Urabe, “Generation of continuous-wave coherent radiation tunable down to 190.8 nm in β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. B 53, 11–13 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. J. Kozlovsky, W. P. Risk, W. Lenth, B. G. Kim, G. L. Bona, H. Jaeckel, and D. J. Webb, “Blue light generation by resonator-enhanced frequency doubling of an extended-cavity diode laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 525–527 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Zimmermann, V. Vuletic, A. Hemmerich, and T. W. Hänsch, “All solid state laser source for tunable blue and ultraviolet radiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2318–2320 (1995).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Kato, “Second-harmonic generation to 2048 Å in β-BaB2O4,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-22, 1013–1014 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

K. Hayasaka, M. Watanabe, H. Imajo, R. Ohmukai, and S. Urabe, “Tunable 397 nm light source for laser cooling of Ca ions based on frequency doubling of a diode laser,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 33, 1595–1598 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. W. Hänsch and B. Couillaud, “Laser frequency stabilization by polarization spectroscopy of a reflecting reference cavity,” Opt. Commun. 35, 441–444 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. Steinbach, M. Rauner, F. C. Cruz, and J. C. Bergquist, “cw second harmonic generation with elliptical Gaussian beams,” Opt. Commun. 123, 207–214 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

C. E. Wieman and L. Hollberg, “Using diode lasers for atomic physics,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 1–20 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup of an all-solid-state light source for generation of cw radiation near 202 nm: PM, phase modulator; DBM, double-balanced mixer; PZT’s, piezoelectric transducers; CF, color filter; CL, cylindrical lenses; PBS, polarized beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

266-nm output power measured as a function of 532-nm input power into the frequency-doubling cavity.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

202.6-nm output power measured as a function of 266-nm input power into the sum-frequency mixing cavity. Open circles, the output power measured when the crystal temperature is not stabilized; filled circles, the output power measured when the temperature is stabilized. The 850-nm input power was 410 mW throughout all measurements.

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