Abstract

We demonstrate that careful optimization of main-pulse–prepulse time delay and target curvature permits lasing and saturation to be achieved in Ni-like collisionally excited ions at pump energies that are achievable with tabletop systems. Saturation of the 13.9-nm, J=01 line of Ag, which has a gain–length product of 15.3, was obtained by use of a single prepulse pumping scheme and a pump energy of less than 30 J in 100 ps.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. Nilsen and J. C. Moreno, “Lasing at 7.9 nm in nickellike neodymium,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1386–1388 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. H. Daido, S. Ninomiya, T. Imani, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, and Y. Kato, “Nickellike soft-x-ray lasing at the wavelengths between 14 and 7.9 nm,” Opt. Lett. 21, 958–960 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. Y. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S04p1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–R2671 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Y. Li, G. Pretzler, P. Lu, and E. E. Fill, “Demonstration of x-ray lasing in nickel-like tin,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R652–R654 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. D. Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, and S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, and J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. J. L. A. Chilla and J. J. Rocca, “Beam optics of gain-guided soft-x-ray lasers in cylindrical plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2841–2851 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

1999 (1)

R. Tommasini, F. Loewenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1577–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (2)

Y. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S04p1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–R2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

F. Loewenthal, R. Tommasini, and J. E. Balmer, “Observation of saturated lasing on the 3p–3s, J=0–1 transition at 25.5 nm in neon-like iron,” Opt. Commun. 154, 325–328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

J. J. Rocca, D. P. Clark, J. L. A. Chilla, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge-pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476–1479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, P. Lu, and E. E. Fill, “Demonstration of x-ray lasing in nickel-like tin,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R652–R654 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. A. Chilla and J. J. Rocca, “Beam optics of gain-guided soft-x-ray lasers in cylindrical plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2841–2851 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Daido, S. Ninomiya, T. Imani, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, and Y. Kato, “Nickellike soft-x-ray lasing at the wavelengths between 14 and 7.9 nm,” Opt. Lett. 21, 958–960 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

J. Nilsen and J. C. Moreno, “Lasing at 7.9 nm in nickellike neodymium,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1386–1388 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (2)

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. D. Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, and S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

M. H. Key, “XUV Lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 575–585 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

M. H. Key, “Laboratory production of x-ray lasers,” Nature (London) 316, 314–319 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Balmer, J. E.

R. Tommasini, F. Loewenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1577–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Loewenthal, R. Tommasini, and J. E. Balmer, “Observation of saturated lasing on the 3p–3s, J=0–1 transition at 25.5 nm in neon-like iron,” Opt. Commun. 154, 325–328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Batson, P. J.

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. D. Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, and S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carillon, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, H. Z.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chilla, J. L. A.

J. J. Rocca, D. P. Clark, J. L. A. Chilla, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge-pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476–1479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. A. Chilla and J. J. Rocca, “Beam optics of gain-guided soft-x-ray lasers in cylindrical plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2841–2851 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Churilov, S.

Y. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S04p1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–R2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Clark, D. P.

J. J. Rocca, D. P. Clark, J. L. A. Chilla, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge-pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476–1479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

Daido, H.

H. Daido, S. Ninomiya, T. Imani, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, and Y. Kato, “Nickellike soft-x-ray lasing at the wavelengths between 14 and 7.9 nm,” Opt. Lett. 21, 958–960 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Danson, C.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Demir, A.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dunn, J.

Y. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S04p1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–R2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dwivedi, L.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E. E.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, P. Lu, and E. E. Fill, “Demonstration of x-ray lasing in nickel-like tin,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R652–R654 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Imani, T.

Jacoby, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaegle, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamelot, G.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kato, Y.

H. Daido, S. Ninomiya, T. Imani, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, and Y. Kato, “Nickellike soft-x-ray lasing at the wavelengths between 14 and 7.9 nm,” Opt. Lett. 21, 958–960 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Key, M. H.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Key, “XUV Lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 575–585 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Key, “Laboratory production of x-ray lasers,” Nature (London) 316, 314–319 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kidd, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klisnick, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, J. A.

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, and J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. D. Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, and S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodama, R.

H. Daido, S. Ninomiya, T. Imani, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, and Y. Kato, “Nickellike soft-x-ray lasing at the wavelengths between 14 and 7.9 nm,” Opt. Lett. 21, 958–960 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koike, F.

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnan, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, C. L. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S04p1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–R2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, P. Lu, and E. E. Fill, “Demonstration of x-ray lasing in nickel-like tin,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R652–R654 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Linford, G. J.

Loewenthal, F.

R. Tommasini, F. Loewenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1577–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Loewenthal, R. Tommasini, and J. E. Balmer, “Observation of saturated lasing on the 3p–3s, J=0–1 transition at 25.5 nm in neon-like iron,” Opt. Commun. 154, 325–328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

Lu, P.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, P. Lu, and E. E. Fill, “Demonstration of x-ray lasing in nickel-like tin,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R652–R654 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacGowan, B. J.

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, and J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. D. Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, and S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A. G.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D. L.

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, and J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. D. Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, and S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moreno, J. C.

Mrowka, S.

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, and J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. D. Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, and S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murai, K.

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neely, D.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neely, D. O.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

Y. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S04p1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–R2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen and J. C. Moreno, “Lasing at 7.9 nm in nickellike neodymium,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1386–1388 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ninomiya, S.

H. Daido, S. Ninomiya, T. Imani, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, and Y. Kato, “Nickellike soft-x-ray lasing at the wavelengths between 14 and 7.9 nm,” Opt. Lett. 21, 958–960 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norreys, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Neill, D.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oshikane, Y.

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Osterheld, A. L.

Y. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S04p1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–R2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Peressini, E. R.

Pert, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pretzler, G.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, P. Lu, and E. E. Fill, “Demonstration of x-ray lasing in nickel-like tin,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R652–R654 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramsden, S. A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raucourt, J. P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rocca, J. J.

J. J. Rocca, D. P. Clark, J. L. A. Chilla, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge-pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476–1479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. L. A. Chilla and J. J. Rocca, “Beam optics of gain-guided soft-x-ray lasers in cylindrical plasmas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2841–2851 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rourke, R. M. N.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ryabtsev, A.

Y. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S04p1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–R2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Shlyaptsev, V. N.

J. J. Rocca, D. P. Clark, J. L. A. Chilla, and V. N. Shlyaptsev, “Energy extraction and achievement of the saturation limit in a discharge-pumped table-top soft x-ray amplifier,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1476–1479 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silva, L. B. D.

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. D. Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, and S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, R.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sooy, W. R.

Spaeth, M. L.

Takabe, H.

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takagi, M.

H. Daido, S. Ninomiya, T. Imani, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, and Y. Kato, “Nickellike soft-x-ray lasing at the wavelengths between 14 and 7.9 nm,” Opt. Lett. 21, 958–960 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tallents, G. J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tommasini, R.

R. Tommasini, F. Loewenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1577–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

F. Loewenthal, R. Tommasini, and J. E. Balmer, “Observation of saturated lasing on the 3p–3s, J=0–1 transition at 25.5 nm in neon-like iron,” Opt. Commun. 154, 325–328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Uhomoibhi, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Underwood, J. H.

L. B. Da Silva, B. J. MacGowan, S. Mrowka, J. A. Koch, R. A. London, D. L. Matthews, and J. H. Underwood, “Power measurements of a saturated yttrium x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1174–1176 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. D. Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, and S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wark, J. S.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, P. J.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wolfrum, E.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, G.

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

M. H. Key, “XUV Lasers,” J. Mod. Opt. 35, 575–585 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (London) (1)

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[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

F. Loewenthal, R. Tommasini, and J. E. Balmer, “Observation of saturated lasing on the 3p–3s, J=0–1 transition at 25.5 nm in neon-like iron,” Opt. Commun. 154, 325–328 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ge XXIII x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R4653–R4656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Tommasini, F. Loewenthal, and J. E. Balmer, “Saturation in a Ni-like Pd soft-x-ray laser at 14.7 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1577–1581 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, J. Nilsen, J. Dunn, A. L. Osterheld, A. Ryabtsev, and S. Churilov, “Wavelengths of the Ni-like 4d1S04p1P1 x-ray laser line,” Phys. Rev. A 58, R2668–R2671 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, P. Lu, and E. E. Fill, “Demonstration of x-ray lasing in nickel-like tin,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R652–R654 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Nilsen, J. Lin, T. W. J. Barbee, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O. Neely, R. M. N. Rourke, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, J. S. Wark, and E. Wolfrum, “Demonstration of saturation in a Ni-like Ag x-ray laser at 14 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 3856–3859 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. D. Silva, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Underwood, P. J. Batson, and S. Mrowka, “Observation of gain-narrowing and saturation behavior in Se x-ray laser line profiles,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 3291–3294 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Daido, Y. Kato, K. Murai, S. Ninomiya, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, Y. Oshikane, M. Takagi, H. Takabe, and F. Koike, “Efficient soft x-ray lasing at 6 to 8 nm with nickellike lanthanide ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1074–1077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

J. Zhang, A. G. MacPhee, J. Lin, E. Wolfrum, R. Smith, C. Danson, M. H. Key, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “A saturated x-ray laser beam at 7 nanometers,” Science 276, 1097–1100 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, New York, 1975).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Results of measurements for target curvature optimization for a 23-mm-long Ag target.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Results of measurements for optimization of the main-pulse–prepulse time delay in the collisional excitation of Ni-like Ag.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectrum of the 13.9-nm line (4d1S04p1P1 transition) for a 23-mm-long Ni-like Ag target.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Results of gain–length measurements of the 13.9-nm line of Ni-like Ag (squares), together with a curve representing the best fit to the Linford formula (solid line). Dashed line, linear fit to the experimental data. The resultant gain coefficient is 7.3 cm-1. Saturation starts at a target length of 21 mm, yielding a gain–length product of 15.5.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beam divergence versus target length for soft-x-ray laser emission from Ni-like Ag. The beam divergence decreases with increasing target length, reaching its minimum approximately 1 mm before the value that corresponds to the saturation length (shown as a dotted line), and then shows nearly constant behavior for longer target lengths.

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