Abstract

We report the first results obtained at the Istituto Elettrotecnico Nazionale Galileo Ferraris of quantum-efficiency measurements of actively quenched avalanche photodiodes in the photon-counting regime. The measurements were performed with the technique of correlated photons generated by a parametric downconversion process in a nonlinear crystal of lithium iodate, an absolute technique that does not require any standard. We pay special attention to the problem of alignment of the optical bench and to the implementation of a parametric amplifier scheme with a diode-laser source. The technique is described, and results of quantum-efficiency measurements of two photodiodes are presented.

© 1999 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. A 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
    [CrossRef]
  2. S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, and R. L. Byer, “Observation of tunable parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732–734 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Rogier, “Experimental tests of realistic local theories via Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 460–463 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2924 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. Y. H. Shih and A. V. Sergienko, “Two-photon anti-correlation in a Hanbury–Brown–Twiss experiment,” Phys. Lett. A 186, 29–34 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weimberg, “Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of optical photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84–87 (1970); D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988); V. M. Ginzburg, N. G. Keratishvili, Ye. L. Korzhenevich, G. V. Lunev, and A. N. Penin, “Absolute measurement of quantum efficiency based on parametric down conversion effect,” Metrologia 29, 95–112 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Toward picosecond resolution with single photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408–412 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Parametric amplification for radiance measurements,” Metrologia 35, 247–250 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. G. Kwiat, A. M. Steinberg, R. Y. Chiao, P. H. Eberhard, and M. D. Petroff, “Absolute efficiency and time-response measurement of single-photon detectors,” Appl. Opt. 33, 1844–1853 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Measurement of the quantum efficiency of photodetectors by parametric fluorescence,” Metrologia 35, 397–401 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (2)

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Parametric amplification for radiance measurements,” Metrologia 35, 247–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Measurement of the quantum efficiency of photodetectors by parametric fluorescence,” Metrologia 35, 397–401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1988 (1)

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (2)

A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Rogier, “Experimental tests of realistic local theories via Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 460–463 (1981).
[CrossRef]

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Toward picosecond resolution with single photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, and R. L. Byer, “Observation of tunable parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732–734 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

1961 (1)

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. A 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Alley, C. O.

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Toward picosecond resolution with single photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Rogier, “Experimental tests of realistic local theories via Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 460–463 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Brida, G.

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Parametric amplification for radiance measurements,” Metrologia 35, 247–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Measurement of the quantum efficiency of photodetectors by parametric fluorescence,” Metrologia 35, 397–401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Byer, R. L.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, and R. L. Byer, “Observation of tunable parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732–734 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Castelletto, S.

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Measurement of the quantum efficiency of photodetectors by parametric fluorescence,” Metrologia 35, 397–401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Parametric amplification for radiance measurements,” Metrologia 35, 247–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Chiao, R. Y.

Cova, S.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Toward picosecond resolution with single photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, P. H.

Grangier, P.

A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Rogier, “Experimental tests of realistic local theories via Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 460–463 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, and R. L. Byer, “Observation of tunable parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732–734 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Kwiat, P. G.

Longoni, A.

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Toward picosecond resolution with single photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Louisell, W. H.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. A 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Maker, P. D.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Nisenoff, M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Novero, C.

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Parametric amplification for radiance measurements,” Metrologia 35, 247–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Measurement of the quantum efficiency of photodetectors by parametric fluorescence,” Metrologia 35, 397–401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Oshman, M. K.

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, and R. L. Byer, “Observation of tunable parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732–734 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Petroff, M. D.

Rastello, M. L.

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Parametric amplification for radiance measurements,” Metrologia 35, 247–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Measurement of the quantum efficiency of photodetectors by parametric fluorescence,” Metrologia 35, 397–401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Rogier, G.

A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Rogier, “Experimental tests of realistic local theories via Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 460–463 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Savage, C. M.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Sergienko, A. V.

Y. H. Shih and A. V. Sergienko, “Two-photon anti-correlation in a Hanbury–Brown–Twiss experiment,” Phys. Lett. A 186, 29–34 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shih, Y. H.

Y. H. Shih and A. V. Sergienko, “Two-photon anti-correlation in a Hanbury–Brown–Twiss experiment,” Phys. Lett. A 186, 29–34 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegman, A. E.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. A 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Steinberg, A. M.

Terhune, R. W.

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. A 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Metrologia (2)

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Measurement of the quantum efficiency of photodetectors by parametric fluorescence,” Metrologia 35, 397–401 (1998).
[CrossRef]

G. Brida, S. Castelletto, C. Novero, and M. L. Rastello, “Parametric amplification for radiance measurements,” Metrologia 35, 247–250 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Lett. A (1)

Y. H. Shih and A. V. Sergienko, “Two-photon anti-correlation in a Hanbury–Brown–Twiss experiment,” Phys. Lett. A 186, 29–34 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. H. Louisell, A. Yariv, and A. E. Siegman, “Quantum fluctuations and noise in parametric processes. I,” Phys. Rev. A 124, 1646–1654 (1961).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

S. E. Harris, M. K. Oshman, and R. L. Byer, “Observation of tunable parametric fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 18, 732–734 (1967).
[CrossRef]

A. Aspect, P. Grangier, and G. Rogier, “Experimental tests of realistic local theories via Bell’s theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 47, 460–463 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Shih and C. O. Alley, “New type of Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen experiment using pairs of light quanta produced by optical parametric down conversion,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2921–2924 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. D. Maker, R. W. Terhune, M. Nisenoff, and C. M. Savage, “Effects of dispersion and focusing on the production of optical harmonics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 8, 21–22 (1962).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. Cova, A. Longoni, and A. Andreoni, “Toward picosecond resolution with single photon avalanche diodes,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 52, 408–412 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

D. C. Burnham and D. L. Weimberg, “Observation of simultaneity in parametric production of optical photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 25, 84–87 (1970); D. N. Klyshko, Photons and Nonlinear Optics (Gordon & Breach, New York, 1988); V. M. Ginzburg, N. G. Keratishvili, Ye. L. Korzhenevich, G. V. Lunev, and A. N. Penin, “Absolute measurement of quantum efficiency based on parametric down conversion effect,” Metrologia 29, 95–112 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principles of the quantum-efficiency measurements. The constraints of energy and momentum conservation imply that ωp=ωs+ωi and kp=ks+ki; NL, nonlinear crystal.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for quantum-efficiency measurements; PM, powermeter.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Record of coincidence events at the output of a TAC converter. Vertical scale, number of events (5×103 full scale); horizontal scale, time delay between the two channels (50-ns full scale).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Electronics setup; SCA, single-channel analyzer.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental implementation of the parametric amplifier scheme: F1, high-pass filter for blocking of the UV radiation; NF, neutral-density filter; M’s, mirrors; BS, beam splitter. The 788.2-nm radiation is dumped downstream of the crystal, and the wavemeter is a commercial interferometer.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Wavelength Range for the Idler for Several Pump Wavelengths λp and Signal Wavelength Ranges Δλs

Tables Icon

Table 2 Quantum-Efficiency Values of APD’s A and B at 633 and 789 nm

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

M1,λs=η1(λs)Nλs,
M2,λi=η2(λi)Nλi,
Mc=η1(λs)η2(λi)Nλs=η1(λs)η2(λi)Nλi,
Nλs=Nλi=Nc.
η1(λs)=Mc/M2,λi,
η2(λi)=Mc/M1,λs.

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