Abstract

The performance of photorefractive (PR) polymers strongly depends on the incorporated nonlinear-optical chromophores. We compare three polysiloxane-based PR guest–host polymers with an azo, a stilbene, and a tolane type of chromophore. Characteristic properties such as diffraction efficiency η, gain coefficient Γ, phase shift ϕ, modulation of the index of refraction Δn, and response time are measured as a function of the external electric field. Orientational enhancement as well as the influence of photoisomerization is observed and analyzed quantitatively. The materials show high performance with Δn>1×10-2, corresponding to external diffraction efficiencies of 60% for samples of only 40-μm thickness.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandolphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  2. O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  3. A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, and R. Sens, “Merocyaninfarbstoffe im Cyanlimit: eine neue Chromophorklasse für photorefraktive Materialien,” Angew. Chem. (to be published).
  5. W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu Rev. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. A. Walsh and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1642 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Schloter and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 9, 991 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, and D. M. Burland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Strohriegl, Makromol. Chem. 7, 771 (1986).
  11. G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1038 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A. B. Padias, and H. K. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 68 (1994).

1997 (3)

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Schloter and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 9, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu Rev. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, and D. M. Burland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1038 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

1992 (1)

1986 (1)

P. Strohriegl, Makromol. Chem. 7, 771 (1986).

Bjorklund, G. C.

Bolink, H. J.

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1038 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, and D. M. Burland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Eckl, M.

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu Rev. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haarer, D.

S. Schloter and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 9, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Hadziioannou, G.

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1038 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hall, H. K.

Kippelen, B.

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A. B. Padias, and H. K. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 68 (1994).

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandolphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krasnikov, V. V.

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1038 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lee, V.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, and D. M. Burland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lundquist, P. M.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, and D. M. Burland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lyon, S. R.

Malliaras, G. G.

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1038 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandolphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu Rev. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. A. Walsh and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1642 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Padias, A. B.

Peyghambarian, N.

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A. B. Padias, and H. K. Hall, Opt. Lett. 19, 68 (1994).

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandolphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poga, C.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, and D. M. Burland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon,

Sandolphon,

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandolphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schloter, S.

S. Schloter and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 9, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Shelby, R. M.

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, and D. M. Burland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Silence, S. M.

Strohriegl, P.

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Strohriegl, Makromol. Chem. 7, 771 (1986).

Thompson, C. L.

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu Rev. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, and D. M. Burland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Volodin, B. L.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandolphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

Zobel, O.

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Schloter and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 9, 991 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Annu Rev. Sci. (1)

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu Rev. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

C. Poga, P. M. Lundquist, V. Lee, R. M. Shelby, R. J. Twieg, and D. M. Burland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1047 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Malliaras, V. V. Krasnikov, H. J. Bolink, and G. Hadziioannou, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1038 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Makromol. Chem. (1)

P. Strohriegl, Makromol. Chem. 7, 771 (1986).

Nature (London) (1)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandolphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (1)

F. Würthner, R. Wortmann, R. Matschiner, K. Lukaszuk, K. Meerholz, Y. DeNardin, R. Bittner, C. Bräuchle, and R. Sens, “Merocyaninfarbstoffe im Cyanlimit: eine neue Chromophorklasse für photorefraktive Materialien,” Angew. Chem. (to be published).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Nonlinear-optical chromophores incorporated into our systems.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Gain coefficient Γ versus external electric field for p- and s-polarized writing beams for the system PSX–azo–TNF.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Absolute value of refractive-index modulation Δns for the systems PSX–azo–TNF (left), PSX–stilbene–TNF (middle), and PSX–tolane–TNF (right).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

External diffraction efficiency η for the system PSX–stilbene–TNF for s- and p-polarized reading beams (sample thickness, 40 μm). Inset, values of Δn as determined from Eq. (2). Curves indicate the corresponding fits.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of Photorefractive Properties of the Investigated Guest–Host Systemsa

Equations (2)

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ϕ=arctanE02+EDEqE0Eq,
η=sin2Δnπde^1e^2λ(cos Θ1 cos Θ2)1/2,

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