Abstract

Images of the charge distribution at the surface of a photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystal were obtained by electrostatic force detection with an atomic force microscope. The images show charge gratings with periods of 1.6 and 0.23 μm written by two intersecting laser beams at 514 nm. In addition, they reveal a microstructure in the charge distribution that is caused by surface inhomogeneities. Grating profiles obtained at different writing fluences permit the study of saturation processes. The polarity of the charge carriers was determined by measurement of the phase shift between the light grating and the charge grating.

[Optical Society of America ]

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  2. S. C. Som , S. K. Ghorai , and A. Satpathi , Opt. Quantum Electron. OQELDI 25 , 241 ( 1993
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  3. S. Chiku , T. Horiuchi , T. Shiosaki , and K. Matsushige , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. JAPNDE 34 , 5408 ( 1995
    [CrossRef]
  4. B. D. Terris , J. E. Stern , D. Rugar , and H. J. Mamin , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 63 , 2669 ( 1989
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. Guckenberger , M. Heim , G. Cevc , H. F. Knapp , W. Wiegra be , and A. Hillebrand , Science SCIEAS 266 , 1538 ( 1994
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. Scho nenberger , Phys. Rev. B PRBMDO 45 , 3861 ( 1992
    [CrossRef]
  7. E. Soergel , W. Krieger , and V. Vlad , Appl. Phys. A APAMFC 66 , 337 ( 1998
    [CrossRef]

Cevc, G

R. Guckenberger , M. Heim , G. Cevc , H. F. Knapp , W. Wiegra be , and A. Hillebrand , Science SCIEAS 266 , 1538 ( 1994
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chiku, S

S. Chiku , T. Horiuchi , T. Shiosaki , and K. Matsushige , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. JAPNDE 34 , 5408 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Ghorai, S. K

S. C. Som , S. K. Ghorai , and A. Satpathi , Opt. Quantum Electron. OQELDI 25 , 241 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

Guckenberger, R

R. Guckenberger , M. Heim , G. Cevc , H. F. Knapp , W. Wiegra be , and A. Hillebrand , Science SCIEAS 266 , 1538 ( 1994
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heim, M

R. Guckenberger , M. Heim , G. Cevc , H. F. Knapp , W. Wiegra be , and A. Hillebrand , Science SCIEAS 266 , 1538 ( 1994
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hillebrand, A

R. Guckenberger , M. Heim , G. Cevc , H. F. Knapp , W. Wiegra be , and A. Hillebrand , Science SCIEAS 266 , 1538 ( 1994
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knapp, H. F

R. Guckenberger , M. Heim , G. Cevc , H. F. Knapp , W. Wiegra be , and A. Hillebrand , Science SCIEAS 266 , 1538 ( 1994
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matsushige, K

S. Chiku , T. Horiuchi , T. Shiosaki , and K. Matsushige , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. JAPNDE 34 , 5408 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Satpathi, A

S. C. Som , S. K. Ghorai , and A. Satpathi , Opt. Quantum Electron. OQELDI 25 , 241 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

Schonenberger, C

C. Scho nenberger , Phys. Rev. B PRBMDO 45 , 3861 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

Shiosaki, T

S. Chiku , T. Horiuchi , T. Shiosaki , and K. Matsushige , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. JAPNDE 34 , 5408 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Soergel, E

E. Soergel , W. Krieger , and V. Vlad , Appl. Phys. A APAMFC 66 , 337 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

Stern, J. E

B. D. Terris , J. E. Stern , D. Rugar , and H. J. Mamin , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 63 , 2669 ( 1989
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vlad, V

E. Soergel , W. Krieger , and V. Vlad , Appl. Phys. A APAMFC 66 , 337 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

Wiegrabe, W

R. Guckenberger , M. Heim , G. Cevc , H. F. Knapp , W. Wiegra be , and A. Hillebrand , Science SCIEAS 266 , 1538 ( 1994
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (7)

R. A. Rupp and E. Kra tzig , Phys. Status Solidi A PSSABA 72 , K5 ( 1982
[CrossRef]

S. C. Som , S. K. Ghorai , and A. Satpathi , Opt. Quantum Electron. OQELDI 25 , 241 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

S. Chiku , T. Horiuchi , T. Shiosaki , and K. Matsushige , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. JAPNDE 34 , 5408 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

B. D. Terris , J. E. Stern , D. Rugar , and H. J. Mamin , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 63 , 2669 ( 1989
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Guckenberger , M. Heim , G. Cevc , H. F. Knapp , W. Wiegra be , and A. Hillebrand , Science SCIEAS 266 , 1538 ( 1994
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Scho nenberger , Phys. Rev. B PRBMDO 45 , 3861 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

E. Soergel , W. Krieger , and V. Vlad , Appl. Phys. A APAMFC 66 , 337 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the measurement of electrostatic forces with the AFM. DC, direct current.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Optical setup for the generation of charge gratings in a photorefractive sample. M1, M2, mirrors; M, optional mirror; BS, beam splitter; VA, variable attenuator. (b) Enlarged view of the total-internal-reflection geometry.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Three-dimensional view of a stored charge grating on a BSO crystal (image size, 8 μm×10 μm; scan duration, 20 min). The line scan at the bottom is an average over the first 20 lines of the image. El. stat., electrostatic.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Topography and simultaneously recorded electrostatic force image (b) before and (c) after writing a charge grating. The circles mark identical positions on the crystal (image size, 10 μm×10 μm).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Electrostatic force gradient image and (b) simultaneously recorded topography of the BSO crystal (image size, 1.9 μm×1.9 μm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Electrostatic force images of gratings written at three different laser intensities during 100 ms. (b) Line scans obtained by averaging over the corresponding images in (a).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Simultaneous recording of the evanescent field signal and the charge signal as a function of time. A voltage ramp applied to the piezo of mirror 2 moves the light grating across the crystal.

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