Abstract

We present the results of recording of amplitude gratings in SrxBa1-xNb2O6 (SBN) crystals. To eliminate the photorefractive effect we used nonpoled samples. A simple technique defined the susceptibility of doped SBN to amplitude gratings recording. It was shown that, of SBN crystals doped with Ce, Cr, and Co, SBN:Co is the most effective material for use in investigating the photochromic effect. This material has a strong dichroism in linear and photoinduced absorption. The steady-state and dynamic behavior of absorption gratings in nonpoled SBN:Co crystals was studied by the two-wave mixing technique. The study is important both for the optimization of doped SBN for photorefractive applications and for characterization of the electronic structure of defects in these materials.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. R. B. Bylsma, D. H. Olson, and A. M. Glass, “Photochromic gratings in photorefractive materials,” Opt. Lett. 13, 853–855 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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  3. M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.
  4. R. S. Cudney, R. M. Pierce, G. D. Bacher, and J. Feinberg, “Absorption gratings in photorefractive crystals with multiple levels,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1326–1332 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  5. L. I. Ivleva, N. V. Bogodaev, N. M. Polozkov, and V. V. Osiko, “Growth of SBN single crystals by Stepanov technique for photorefractive applications,” Opt. Mater. 4, 168–173 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. R. A. Vazquez, R. R. Neurgaonkar, and M. D. Ewbank, “Photorefractive properties of SBN:60 systematically doped with rhodium,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1416–1427 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Motes and J. J. Kim, “Intensity-dependent absorption coefficient in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 1379–1381 (1987).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

1995 (1)

L. I. Ivleva, N. V. Bogodaev, N. M. Polozkov, and V. V. Osiko, “Growth of SBN single crystals by Stepanov technique for photorefractive applications,” Opt. Mater. 4, 168–173 (1995).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

1985 (1)

A. V. Knyaz’kov and M. N. Lobanov, “Peculiarities of the interaction of light beams in electrooptical media with phase-amplitude recording of dynamic holograms,” Opt. Spectrosk. 59, 1286–1289 (1985).

1966 (1)

V. George and J. W. Matthews, “Holographic diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 212–215 (1966).
[Crossref]

Bacher, G. D.

Bogodaev, N. V.

L. I. Ivleva, N. V. Bogodaev, N. M. Polozkov, and V. V. Osiko, “Growth of SBN single crystals by Stepanov technique for photorefractive applications,” Opt. Mater. 4, 168–173 (1995).
[Crossref]

Bylsma, R. B.

Cudney, R. S.

Damzen, M. J.

M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.

Eason, R. W.

M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.

Ewbank, M. D.

Feinberg, J.

Garrett, M. H.

M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.

George, V.

V. George and J. W. Matthews, “Holographic diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 212–215 (1966).
[Crossref]

Glass, A. M.

Ivleva, L. I.

L. I. Ivleva, N. V. Bogodaev, N. M. Polozkov, and V. V. Osiko, “Growth of SBN single crystals by Stepanov technique for photorefractive applications,” Opt. Mater. 4, 168–173 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jeffrey, P. M.

M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.

Kaczmarek, M.

M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.

Kim, J. J.

Knyaz’kov, A. V.

A. V. Knyaz’kov and M. N. Lobanov, “Peculiarities of the interaction of light beams in electrooptical media with phase-amplitude recording of dynamic holograms,” Opt. Spectrosk. 59, 1286–1289 (1985).

Lobanov, M. N.

A. V. Knyaz’kov and M. N. Lobanov, “Peculiarities of the interaction of light beams in electrooptical media with phase-amplitude recording of dynamic holograms,” Opt. Spectrosk. 59, 1286–1289 (1985).

Matthews, J. W.

V. George and J. W. Matthews, “Holographic diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 212–215 (1966).
[Crossref]

Motes, A.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

Olson, D. H.

Osiko, V. V.

L. I. Ivleva, N. V. Bogodaev, N. M. Polozkov, and V. V. Osiko, “Growth of SBN single crystals by Stepanov technique for photorefractive applications,” Opt. Mater. 4, 168–173 (1995).
[Crossref]

Pierce, R. M.

Polozkov, N. M.

L. I. Ivleva, N. V. Bogodaev, N. M. Polozkov, and V. V. Osiko, “Growth of SBN single crystals by Stepanov technique for photorefractive applications,” Opt. Mater. 4, 168–173 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ramos-Garsia, R.

M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.

Ross, G. W.

M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.

Rytz, D.

M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.

Troth, R.

M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.

Vazquez, R. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

V. George and J. W. Matthews, “Holographic diffraction grating,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 9, 212–215 (1966).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Mater. (1)

L. I. Ivleva, N. V. Bogodaev, N. M. Polozkov, and V. V. Osiko, “Growth of SBN single crystals by Stepanov technique for photorefractive applications,” Opt. Mater. 4, 168–173 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Spectrosk. (1)

A. V. Knyaz’kov and M. N. Lobanov, “Peculiarities of the interaction of light beams in electrooptical media with phase-amplitude recording of dynamic holograms,” Opt. Spectrosk. 59, 1286–1289 (1985).

Other (1)

M. Kaczmarek, G. W. Ross, P. M. Jeffrey, R. W. Eason, M. J. Damzen, R. Ramos-Garsia, R. Troth, M. H. Garrett, and D. Rytz, “Dual wavelength characterization of shallow traps in Rh:doped ‘blue’ BaTiO3,” presented at the Symposium on Photorefractive Materials: Growth and Doping, Optical and Electrical Characterisations, Charge Transfer Processes and Space Charge Field Effects, Applications held by the European Materials Research Society, May 24–27, 1994.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of absorption on concentration for SBN:60:Co crystals at 488 nm: 1, αe; 2, αo and at 514.5 nm: 3, αe; 4, αo.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of absorption on concentration coefficient for SBN:60 crystals at 488 nm doped with Co: 1, αe; 2, αo; doped with Cr: 3, αe, αo; and doped with Ce: 4, αe; 5, αo.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Spectral dependence of optical transmission on wavelength for the series of four Co-doped samples of SBN:60 with a thickness of 6 mm and Co concentrations of 1, 0.002 wt. %; 2, 0.005 wt. %; 3, 0.01 wt. %, and 4, 0.05 wt. % (concentration of Co3O4 in the melt).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Characteristic curves observed with a two-coordinate recorder for SBN:60 samples doped with 1, Cr; 2, Ce; and 3, 4, 5, Co of 0.002, 0.01, and 0.05 wt. %, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependence of photoinduced absorption on intensity for SBN:60:Co samples at 514.5 nm: 1, 0.002 wt. %; 2, 0.01 wt. %; 3, 0.05 wt. %. Filled circles, Δαe; filled squares, Δαo.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of photoinduced absorption on concentration for SBN:60:Co samples at 1, 514.5 nm and at 2, 488 nm. Filled circles, Δαe; filled squares, Δαo.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of testing beam intensity (633 nm) on time for SBN:60:Co crystal.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Kinetics of formation of an amplitude grating.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Intensity dependence of diffraction efficiency for an amplitude grating.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Diffraction efficiency measured as a function of external beam-crossing angle 2Θ: 1, measured; 2, calculated (I=1.0 W/cm2; Δα=0.13 cm-1).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Dependence of the Change in Absorption (Δα) on Intensity for SBN:60:0.05 wt. % CO3O4 at 488 nm

Equations (3)

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Δα=ln(I0/I)/L,
ηα=ItestItest 100%,
ηα=exp-2αdcos Θsech Δαd2 cos Θ,

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