Abstract

Al-doped Bi12SiO20 is investigated with respect to optical absorption, magnetic circular dichroism, and the optical detection of electron paramagnetic resonance. Two paramagnetic centers are formed under near-bandgap illumination at low temperatures. Magneto-optics permits their description in terms of holes more or less delocalized (slightly different environment) on the oxygens next to Al at the tetrahedral Si site. We demonstrate that the photoinduced optical absorption in the 0.5–1.2-eV spectral range is due to the charge-transfer transitions Al0+hνAl-+hv. The thermal energies associated with the two Al-/0 acceptor levels are found to be 0.16 and 0.40 eV above the valence-band edge by monitoring and modeling of the thermal bleaching of the IR bands. The associated optical energies are determined by isochronal annealing at 0.95 and 0.78 eV, and the photoionization cross sections of holes are estimated. In the colored state the respective hole populations are in the ratio 1:3.5 for the two states. The large ratio between the optical and thermal energies indicates the occurrence of a strong electron–lattice coupling. Finally, besides original spectroscopic assignments, we demonstrate that optical measurements on the charge-transfer bands of Bi12SiO20:Al and related sillenite crystals provide information similar to that given by thermally stimulated conductivity or luminescence.

[Optical Society of America ]

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  1. B. Briat , H. J. Reyher , A. Hamri , N. G. Romanov , J. C. Launay , and F. Ramaz , Magnetic circular dichroism and the optical detection of magnetic resonance for the Bi antisite defect in Bi 12 GeO 20 , J. Phys.: Condens. Matter JCOMEL 7 , 6951 6959 ( 1995
  2. B. Briat , A. Hamri , F. Ramaz , and H. Bou Rjeily , Magnetooptical characterization of ligand field bands and charge transfer processes in sillenite oxydes , in Solid State Crystals: Growth and Characterization , J. Zmija, A. Majchrowski, J. Rutkowski, and J. Zielinski, eds. , Proc. SPIE PSISDG 3178 , 160 168 ( 1997
    [CrossRef]
  3. Yu. L. Kopylov , V. B. Kravchenko , and V. V. Kucha , Effect of doping on the electrooptic properties of Bi 12 SiO 20 single crystals , Pis ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 8 , 205 207 (1982) Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 8 , 88 89 ( 1982
  4. A. V. Ivanov , Yu. L. Kopylov , V. B. Kravchenko , V. V. Kucha , and R. Sh. Tukhatulin , Effects of doping of bismuth silicate crystals on the properties of an electron-beam spatial light modulator , Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54 , 2418 2419 (1984) Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. SPTPA3 29 , 1428 1429 ( 1984
  5. N. I. Katsaets , E. I. Leonov , V. M. Orlov , and E. B. Shadrin , Holographic recording in doped bismuth silicate and germanate crystals , Pis ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 9 424 427 (1983) Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 9 , 183 184 ( 1983
  6. N. I. Katsavets and E. I. Leonov , Transient electrooptic effects in Bi 12 SiO 20 single crystals doped with Al and Mn , Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 56 , 1993 1995 (1986) Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. SPTPA3 31 , 1191 1192 ( 1986
  7. L. Foldvari , L. E. Halliburton , G. J. Edvards , and L. Otsi , Photoinduced defects in pure and Al-doped BGO single crystals , Solid State Commun. SSCOA4 77 , 181 188 ( 1991
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. J. Martin , I. Foldvari , and C. A. Hunt , The low-temperature photochromic response of bismuth germanium oxide , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 70 , 7554 7559 ( 1991
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. S. McCullough , A. Harmon , J. J. Martin , M. T. Harris , and J. J. Larkin , Low-temperature photochromic response of phosphorous-doped bismuth silicon oxide , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 78 , 2010 2014 ( 1995
    [CrossRef]
  10. D. Bois and A. Chantre , Spectroscopies thermique et optique des niveaux profonds: application a l e tude de leur relaxation de re seau , Rev. Phys. Appl. RPHAAN 15 , 631 636 ( 1980
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. H. Henry and D. V. Lang , Nonradiative capture and recombination by multiphonon emission in GaAs and GaP , Phys. Rev. B PLRBAQ 15 , 989 1016 ( 1977
    [CrossRef]
  12. W. Rehwald , K. Frick , G. K. Lang , and E. Meier , Doping effects upon the ultrasonic attenuation of BSO , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 47 , 1292 1294 ( 1976
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. C. Grabmaier and R. Oberschmid , Properties of pure and doped Bi 12 GeO 20 and Bi 12 SiO 20 crystals , Phys. Status Solidi A PSSABA 96 , 199 210 ( 1986
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. Oberschmid , Absorption centers of Bi 12 GeO 20 and Bi 12 SiO 20 crystals , Phys. Status Solidi A PSSABA 89 , 263 270 ( 1985
    [CrossRef]
  15. I. J. Saunders , The thermally stimulated luminescence and conductivity of insulators , J. Phys. C JPSOAW 2 , 2181 2198 ( 1969
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. D. Bloom and S. W. S. McKeever , Trap level spectroscopy of undoped and Ga-doped Bi 12 GeO 20 using thermally stimulated conductivity , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 77 , 6521 6533 ( 1995
    [CrossRef]
  17. M. T. Borowiec , Equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes in sillenites , in Solid State Crystals: Growth and Characterization , J. Zmija, A. Majchrowski, J. Rutkowski, and J. Zielinski, eds. , Proc. SPIE PSISDG 3178 , 173 178 ( 1997
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. L. Hou , R. B. Lauer , and R. E. Aldrich , Transport processes of photoinduced carriers in BSO , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 44 , 2652 2658 ( 1973
    [CrossRef]
  19. U. Kaufmann and J. Windschief , Origin of the magnetic-circular-dichroism absorption of undoped as-grown GaAs , Phys. Rev. PHRVAO 38 , 10060 10063 ( 1988
    [CrossRef]
  20. B. K. Meyer , F. Lohse , J. M. Spaeth , and J. A. Weil , Optically detected magnetic resonance of the AlO 4 0 centre in crystalline quartz , J. Phys. C JPSOAW 17 , L31 L36 ( 1984
    [CrossRef]
  21. O. F. Schirmer and R. Schnadt , Bound small polaron optical absorption in tetrahedral symmetry , Solid State Commun. SSCOA4 18 , 1345 1348 ( 1976
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Y. Jeon , H. P. Gislason , and G. D. Watkins , Optical detection of magnetic resonance of the zinc vacancy in ZnSe via magnetic circular dichroism , Phys. Rev. B PRBMDO 48 , 7872 7883 ( 1993
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. J. Reyher , R. Schulz , and O. Thiemann , Investigation of the optical-absorption bands of Nb 4+ and Ti 3+ in lithium niobate using magnetic circular dichroism and optically detected magnetic-resonance techniques , Phys. Rev. B PRBMDO 50 , 3609 3619 ( 1994
    [CrossRef]
  24. J. P. Zielinger and M. Tapiero , Assessment of deep levels in photorefractive materials by transient photoelectric methods , J. Phys. (France) III JPAIEU 3 , 1327 1344 ( 1993
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. N. Keating , Thermally stimulated emission and conductivity peaks in the case of temperature dependent trapping cross sections , Proc. Phys. Soc. London PPSOAU 78 , 1408 1415 ( 1961
    [CrossRef]
  26. T. V. Panchenko and G. V. Snezhnoy , Thermal depolarization analysis of the polarization mechanisms in Bi 12 SiO 20 crystals doped with Al and Ga ions , Fiz. Tverd. Tela (St. Petersburg) 35 , 3248 3258 (1993) Sov. Phys. Solid State SPSSA7 35 , 1598 1603 ( 1993
  27. Sh. M. Efendiev , V. E. Bagiev , A. Kh. Zeinally , M. Grandolfo , and P. Vecchia , Deep localized centers in sillenite-type nonlinear crystals , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 43 , 217 221 ( 1982
    [CrossRef]
  28. R. B. Lauer , Electron effective mass and conduction-band effective density of states in Bi 12 SiO 20 , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 45 , 1794 1797 ( 1974
    [CrossRef]
  29. V. I. Berezkin , Optical and thermal transitions in bismuth silicate , Fiz. Tverd. Tela (St. Petersburg) 25 , 490 494 (1983) Sov. Phys. Solid State SPSSA7 25 , 276 279 ( 1983
  30. V. A. Gusev , V. A. Detinenko , and V. P. Sokolov , The photochromic effect and optical data recording in germanium, silicon and titanium sillenites , Avtometrija 34 44 (1983) Autom. Monitor. Meas. AUMMC2 35 46 ( 1983

Aldrich, R. E

S. L. Hou , R. B. Lauer , and R. E. Aldrich , Transport processes of photoinduced carriers in BSO , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 44 , 2652 2658 ( 1973
[CrossRef]

Bagiev, V. E

Sh. M. Efendiev , V. E. Bagiev , A. Kh. Zeinally , M. Grandolfo , and P. Vecchia , Deep localized centers in sillenite-type nonlinear crystals , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 43 , 217 221 ( 1982
[CrossRef]

Berezkin, V. I

V. I. Berezkin , Optical and thermal transitions in bismuth silicate , Fiz. Tverd. Tela (St. Petersburg) 25 , 490 494 (1983) Sov. Phys. Solid State SPSSA7 25 , 276 279 ( 1983

Bloom, H. D

H. D. Bloom and S. W. S. McKeever , Trap level spectroscopy of undoped and Ga-doped Bi 12 GeO 20 using thermally stimulated conductivity , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 77 , 6521 6533 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Bois, D

D. Bois and A. Chantre , Spectroscopies thermique et optique des niveaux profonds: application a l e tude de leur relaxation de re seau , Rev. Phys. Appl. RPHAAN 15 , 631 636 ( 1980
[CrossRef]

Borowiec, M. T

M. T. Borowiec , Equilibrium and non-equilibrium processes in sillenites , in Solid State Crystals: Growth and Characterization , J. Zmija, A. Majchrowski, J. Rutkowski, and J. Zielinski, eds. , Proc. SPIE PSISDG 3178 , 173 178 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

Bou Rjeily, H

B. Briat , A. Hamri , F. Ramaz , and H. Bou Rjeily , Magnetooptical characterization of ligand field bands and charge transfer processes in sillenite oxydes , in Solid State Crystals: Growth and Characterization , J. Zmija, A. Majchrowski, J. Rutkowski, and J. Zielinski, eds. , Proc. SPIE PSISDG 3178 , 160 168 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

Chantre, A

D. Bois and A. Chantre , Spectroscopies thermique et optique des niveaux profonds: application a l e tude de leur relaxation de re seau , Rev. Phys. Appl. RPHAAN 15 , 631 636 ( 1980
[CrossRef]

Detinenko, V. A

V. A. Gusev , V. A. Detinenko , and V. P. Sokolov , The photochromic effect and optical data recording in germanium, silicon and titanium sillenites , Avtometrija 34 44 (1983) Autom. Monitor. Meas. AUMMC2 35 46 ( 1983

Edvards, G. J

L. Foldvari , L. E. Halliburton , G. J. Edvards , and L. Otsi , Photoinduced defects in pure and Al-doped BGO single crystals , Solid State Commun. SSCOA4 77 , 181 188 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Efendiev, Sh. M

Sh. M. Efendiev , V. E. Bagiev , A. Kh. Zeinally , M. Grandolfo , and P. Vecchia , Deep localized centers in sillenite-type nonlinear crystals , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 43 , 217 221 ( 1982
[CrossRef]

Foldvari, I

J. J. Martin , I. Foldvari , and C. A. Hunt , The low-temperature photochromic response of bismuth germanium oxide , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 70 , 7554 7559 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Foldvari, L

L. Foldvari , L. E. Halliburton , G. J. Edvards , and L. Otsi , Photoinduced defects in pure and Al-doped BGO single crystals , Solid State Commun. SSCOA4 77 , 181 188 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Frick, K

W. Rehwald , K. Frick , G. K. Lang , and E. Meier , Doping effects upon the ultrasonic attenuation of BSO , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 47 , 1292 1294 ( 1976
[CrossRef]

Gislason, H. P

D. Y. Jeon , H. P. Gislason , and G. D. Watkins , Optical detection of magnetic resonance of the zinc vacancy in ZnSe via magnetic circular dichroism , Phys. Rev. B PRBMDO 48 , 7872 7883 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

Grabmaier, B. C

B. C. Grabmaier and R. Oberschmid , Properties of pure and doped Bi 12 GeO 20 and Bi 12 SiO 20 crystals , Phys. Status Solidi A PSSABA 96 , 199 210 ( 1986
[CrossRef]

Grandolfo, M

Sh. M. Efendiev , V. E. Bagiev , A. Kh. Zeinally , M. Grandolfo , and P. Vecchia , Deep localized centers in sillenite-type nonlinear crystals , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 43 , 217 221 ( 1982
[CrossRef]

Gusev, V. A

V. A. Gusev , V. A. Detinenko , and V. P. Sokolov , The photochromic effect and optical data recording in germanium, silicon and titanium sillenites , Avtometrija 34 44 (1983) Autom. Monitor. Meas. AUMMC2 35 46 ( 1983

Harmon, A

J. S. McCullough , A. Harmon , J. J. Martin , M. T. Harris , and J. J. Larkin , Low-temperature photochromic response of phosphorous-doped bismuth silicon oxide , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 78 , 2010 2014 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Hunt, C. A

J. J. Martin , I. Foldvari , and C. A. Hunt , The low-temperature photochromic response of bismuth germanium oxide , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 70 , 7554 7559 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Ivanov, A. V

A. V. Ivanov , Yu. L. Kopylov , V. B. Kravchenko , V. V. Kucha , and R. Sh. Tukhatulin , Effects of doping of bismuth silicate crystals on the properties of an electron-beam spatial light modulator , Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54 , 2418 2419 (1984) Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. SPTPA3 29 , 1428 1429 ( 1984

Jeon, D. Y

D. Y. Jeon , H. P. Gislason , and G. D. Watkins , Optical detection of magnetic resonance of the zinc vacancy in ZnSe via magnetic circular dichroism , Phys. Rev. B PRBMDO 48 , 7872 7883 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

Katsaets, N. I

N. I. Katsaets , E. I. Leonov , V. M. Orlov , and E. B. Shadrin , Holographic recording in doped bismuth silicate and germanate crystals , Pis ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 9 424 427 (1983) Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 9 , 183 184 ( 1983

Katsavets, N. I

N. I. Katsavets and E. I. Leonov , Transient electrooptic effects in Bi 12 SiO 20 single crystals doped with Al and Mn , Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 56 , 1993 1995 (1986) Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. SPTPA3 31 , 1191 1192 ( 1986

Kaufmann, U

U. Kaufmann and J. Windschief , Origin of the magnetic-circular-dichroism absorption of undoped as-grown GaAs , Phys. Rev. PHRVAO 38 , 10060 10063 ( 1988
[CrossRef]

Keating, P. N

P. N. Keating , Thermally stimulated emission and conductivity peaks in the case of temperature dependent trapping cross sections , Proc. Phys. Soc. London PPSOAU 78 , 1408 1415 ( 1961
[CrossRef]

Kopylov, Yu. L

Yu. L. Kopylov , V. B. Kravchenko , and V. V. Kucha , Effect of doping on the electrooptic properties of Bi 12 SiO 20 single crystals , Pis ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 8 , 205 207 (1982) Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 8 , 88 89 ( 1982

Kucha, V. V

Yu. L. Kopylov , V. B. Kravchenko , and V. V. Kucha , Effect of doping on the electrooptic properties of Bi 12 SiO 20 single crystals , Pis ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 8 , 205 207 (1982) Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 8 , 88 89 ( 1982

Lang, D. V

C. H. Henry and D. V. Lang , Nonradiative capture and recombination by multiphonon emission in GaAs and GaP , Phys. Rev. B PLRBAQ 15 , 989 1016 ( 1977
[CrossRef]

Leonov, E. I

N. I. Katsaets , E. I. Leonov , V. M. Orlov , and E. B. Shadrin , Holographic recording in doped bismuth silicate and germanate crystals , Pis ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 9 424 427 (1983) Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 9 , 183 184 ( 1983

Lohse, F

B. K. Meyer , F. Lohse , J. M. Spaeth , and J. A. Weil , Optically detected magnetic resonance of the AlO 4 0 centre in crystalline quartz , J. Phys. C JPSOAW 17 , L31 L36 ( 1984
[CrossRef]

Martin, J. J

J. J. Martin , I. Foldvari , and C. A. Hunt , The low-temperature photochromic response of bismuth germanium oxide , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 70 , 7554 7559 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

McCullough, J. S

J. S. McCullough , A. Harmon , J. J. Martin , M. T. Harris , and J. J. Larkin , Low-temperature photochromic response of phosphorous-doped bismuth silicon oxide , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 78 , 2010 2014 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

McKeever, S. W. S

H. D. Bloom and S. W. S. McKeever , Trap level spectroscopy of undoped and Ga-doped Bi 12 GeO 20 using thermally stimulated conductivity , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 77 , 6521 6533 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Meier, E

W. Rehwald , K. Frick , G. K. Lang , and E. Meier , Doping effects upon the ultrasonic attenuation of BSO , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 47 , 1292 1294 ( 1976
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B. K

B. K. Meyer , F. Lohse , J. M. Spaeth , and J. A. Weil , Optically detected magnetic resonance of the AlO 4 0 centre in crystalline quartz , J. Phys. C JPSOAW 17 , L31 L36 ( 1984
[CrossRef]

Oberschmid, R

B. C. Grabmaier and R. Oberschmid , Properties of pure and doped Bi 12 GeO 20 and Bi 12 SiO 20 crystals , Phys. Status Solidi A PSSABA 96 , 199 210 ( 1986
[CrossRef]

Orlov, V. M

N. I. Katsaets , E. I. Leonov , V. M. Orlov , and E. B. Shadrin , Holographic recording in doped bismuth silicate and germanate crystals , Pis ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 9 424 427 (1983) Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 9 , 183 184 ( 1983

Otsi, L

L. Foldvari , L. E. Halliburton , G. J. Edvards , and L. Otsi , Photoinduced defects in pure and Al-doped BGO single crystals , Solid State Commun. SSCOA4 77 , 181 188 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Panchenko, T. V

T. V. Panchenko and G. V. Snezhnoy , Thermal depolarization analysis of the polarization mechanisms in Bi 12 SiO 20 crystals doped with Al and Ga ions , Fiz. Tverd. Tela (St. Petersburg) 35 , 3248 3258 (1993) Sov. Phys. Solid State SPSSA7 35 , 1598 1603 ( 1993

Ramaz, F

B. Briat , H. J. Reyher , A. Hamri , N. G. Romanov , J. C. Launay , and F. Ramaz , Magnetic circular dichroism and the optical detection of magnetic resonance for the Bi antisite defect in Bi 12 GeO 20 , J. Phys.: Condens. Matter JCOMEL 7 , 6951 6959 ( 1995

Rehwald, W

W. Rehwald , K. Frick , G. K. Lang , and E. Meier , Doping effects upon the ultrasonic attenuation of BSO , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 47 , 1292 1294 ( 1976
[CrossRef]

Reyher, H. J

B. Briat , H. J. Reyher , A. Hamri , N. G. Romanov , J. C. Launay , and F. Ramaz , Magnetic circular dichroism and the optical detection of magnetic resonance for the Bi antisite defect in Bi 12 GeO 20 , J. Phys.: Condens. Matter JCOMEL 7 , 6951 6959 ( 1995

Romanov, N. G

B. Briat , H. J. Reyher , A. Hamri , N. G. Romanov , J. C. Launay , and F. Ramaz , Magnetic circular dichroism and the optical detection of magnetic resonance for the Bi antisite defect in Bi 12 GeO 20 , J. Phys.: Condens. Matter JCOMEL 7 , 6951 6959 ( 1995

Saunders, I. J

I. J. Saunders , The thermally stimulated luminescence and conductivity of insulators , J. Phys. C JPSOAW 2 , 2181 2198 ( 1969
[CrossRef]

Schnadt, R

O. F. Schirmer and R. Schnadt , Bound small polaron optical absorption in tetrahedral symmetry , Solid State Commun. SSCOA4 18 , 1345 1348 ( 1976
[CrossRef]

Shadrin, E. B

N. I. Katsaets , E. I. Leonov , V. M. Orlov , and E. B. Shadrin , Holographic recording in doped bismuth silicate and germanate crystals , Pis ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 9 424 427 (1983) Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 9 , 183 184 ( 1983

Snezhnoy, G. V

T. V. Panchenko and G. V. Snezhnoy , Thermal depolarization analysis of the polarization mechanisms in Bi 12 SiO 20 crystals doped with Al and Ga ions , Fiz. Tverd. Tela (St. Petersburg) 35 , 3248 3258 (1993) Sov. Phys. Solid State SPSSA7 35 , 1598 1603 ( 1993

Sokolov, V. P

V. A. Gusev , V. A. Detinenko , and V. P. Sokolov , The photochromic effect and optical data recording in germanium, silicon and titanium sillenites , Avtometrija 34 44 (1983) Autom. Monitor. Meas. AUMMC2 35 46 ( 1983

Spaeth, J. M

B. K. Meyer , F. Lohse , J. M. Spaeth , and J. A. Weil , Optically detected magnetic resonance of the AlO 4 0 centre in crystalline quartz , J. Phys. C JPSOAW 17 , L31 L36 ( 1984
[CrossRef]

Tapiero, M

J. P. Zielinger and M. Tapiero , Assessment of deep levels in photorefractive materials by transient photoelectric methods , J. Phys. (France) III JPAIEU 3 , 1327 1344 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

Tukhatulin, R. Sh

A. V. Ivanov , Yu. L. Kopylov , V. B. Kravchenko , V. V. Kucha , and R. Sh. Tukhatulin , Effects of doping of bismuth silicate crystals on the properties of an electron-beam spatial light modulator , Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54 , 2418 2419 (1984) Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. SPTPA3 29 , 1428 1429 ( 1984

Vecchia, P

Sh. M. Efendiev , V. E. Bagiev , A. Kh. Zeinally , M. Grandolfo , and P. Vecchia , Deep localized centers in sillenite-type nonlinear crystals , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 43 , 217 221 ( 1982
[CrossRef]

Watkins, G. D

D. Y. Jeon , H. P. Gislason , and G. D. Watkins , Optical detection of magnetic resonance of the zinc vacancy in ZnSe via magnetic circular dichroism , Phys. Rev. B PRBMDO 48 , 7872 7883 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

Weil, J. A

B. K. Meyer , F. Lohse , J. M. Spaeth , and J. A. Weil , Optically detected magnetic resonance of the AlO 4 0 centre in crystalline quartz , J. Phys. C JPSOAW 17 , L31 L36 ( 1984
[CrossRef]

Windschief, J

U. Kaufmann and J. Windschief , Origin of the magnetic-circular-dichroism absorption of undoped as-grown GaAs , Phys. Rev. PHRVAO 38 , 10060 10063 ( 1988
[CrossRef]

Zeinally, A. Kh

Sh. M. Efendiev , V. E. Bagiev , A. Kh. Zeinally , M. Grandolfo , and P. Vecchia , Deep localized centers in sillenite-type nonlinear crystals , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 43 , 217 221 ( 1982
[CrossRef]

Zielinger, J. P

J. P. Zielinger and M. Tapiero , Assessment of deep levels in photorefractive materials by transient photoelectric methods , J. Phys. (France) III JPAIEU 3 , 1327 1344 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

Other (30)

B. Briat , H. J. Reyher , A. Hamri , N. G. Romanov , J. C. Launay , and F. Ramaz , Magnetic circular dichroism and the optical detection of magnetic resonance for the Bi antisite defect in Bi 12 GeO 20 , J. Phys.: Condens. Matter JCOMEL 7 , 6951 6959 ( 1995

B. Briat , A. Hamri , F. Ramaz , and H. Bou Rjeily , Magnetooptical characterization of ligand field bands and charge transfer processes in sillenite oxydes , in Solid State Crystals: Growth and Characterization , J. Zmija, A. Majchrowski, J. Rutkowski, and J. Zielinski, eds. , Proc. SPIE PSISDG 3178 , 160 168 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

Yu. L. Kopylov , V. B. Kravchenko , and V. V. Kucha , Effect of doping on the electrooptic properties of Bi 12 SiO 20 single crystals , Pis ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 8 , 205 207 (1982) Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 8 , 88 89 ( 1982

A. V. Ivanov , Yu. L. Kopylov , V. B. Kravchenko , V. V. Kucha , and R. Sh. Tukhatulin , Effects of doping of bismuth silicate crystals on the properties of an electron-beam spatial light modulator , Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 54 , 2418 2419 (1984) Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. SPTPA3 29 , 1428 1429 ( 1984

N. I. Katsaets , E. I. Leonov , V. M. Orlov , and E. B. Shadrin , Holographic recording in doped bismuth silicate and germanate crystals , Pis ma Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 9 424 427 (1983) Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. STPLD2 9 , 183 184 ( 1983

N. I. Katsavets and E. I. Leonov , Transient electrooptic effects in Bi 12 SiO 20 single crystals doped with Al and Mn , Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 56 , 1993 1995 (1986) Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. SPTPA3 31 , 1191 1192 ( 1986

L. Foldvari , L. E. Halliburton , G. J. Edvards , and L. Otsi , Photoinduced defects in pure and Al-doped BGO single crystals , Solid State Commun. SSCOA4 77 , 181 188 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

J. J. Martin , I. Foldvari , and C. A. Hunt , The low-temperature photochromic response of bismuth germanium oxide , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 70 , 7554 7559 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

J. S. McCullough , A. Harmon , J. J. Martin , M. T. Harris , and J. J. Larkin , Low-temperature photochromic response of phosphorous-doped bismuth silicon oxide , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 78 , 2010 2014 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

D. Bois and A. Chantre , Spectroscopies thermique et optique des niveaux profonds: application a l e tude de leur relaxation de re seau , Rev. Phys. Appl. RPHAAN 15 , 631 636 ( 1980
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry and D. V. Lang , Nonradiative capture and recombination by multiphonon emission in GaAs and GaP , Phys. Rev. B PLRBAQ 15 , 989 1016 ( 1977
[CrossRef]

W. Rehwald , K. Frick , G. K. Lang , and E. Meier , Doping effects upon the ultrasonic attenuation of BSO , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 47 , 1292 1294 ( 1976
[CrossRef]

B. C. Grabmaier and R. Oberschmid , Properties of pure and doped Bi 12 GeO 20 and Bi 12 SiO 20 crystals , Phys. Status Solidi A PSSABA 96 , 199 210 ( 1986
[CrossRef]

R. Oberschmid , Absorption centers of Bi 12 GeO 20 and Bi 12 SiO 20 crystals , Phys. Status Solidi A PSSABA 89 , 263 270 ( 1985
[CrossRef]

I. J. Saunders , The thermally stimulated luminescence and conductivity of insulators , J. Phys. C JPSOAW 2 , 2181 2198 ( 1969
[CrossRef]

H. D. Bloom and S. W. S. McKeever , Trap level spectroscopy of undoped and Ga-doped Bi 12 GeO 20 using thermally stimulated conductivity , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 77 , 6521 6533 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorbance of a crystal of thickness 4.68 mm in the thermally bleached state (1) and after illumination with UV light (2). The spectra are corrected for reflectivity, and A=0.12 has been substracted somewhat arbitrarily to cancel the absorbance at 0.5 eV. The photoinduced spectrum (translated for clarity) is shown in curve 3, and curve 4 gives the transmission spectrum (right-ordinate scale) of the filter used for blue coloration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Temperature dependence of the maximum absorbance at 0.79 eV (1) and of its first derivative (2) versus temperature. The crystal thickness was 2.55 mm, and coloration was achieved with blue light. The heating rate was (a) 0.45 K s-1, and (b) 0.07 K s-1 in our two experiments, and the spectral bandwidth was set equal to 1 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Isochronal annealing of the photoinduced absorbance dA of a sample of thickness 3.56 mm. In (a) coloration 1 was achieved at 85 K with blue light after several thermal bleaching and coloring processes. Curves 2 and 3 show the partial bleaching of dA after heating to 125 and 190 K, respectively, and then freezing to 85 K. In (b) we show the residual photoinduced absorbance at 85 K after heating to 190, 258, and 286 K in the absence of additional illumination.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Near-IR MCD (1.4 K, 2.5 T) in the initial state (1) and after blue illumination (2). The feature marked with an asterisk (0.966 eV) is real and is reduced under illumination. The absorption curve at 85 K is also shown for comparison. (b) ODMR with microwaves at 36 GHz and the monochromator set at 0.82 eV (1) and 1.07 eV (2). The magnetic field was applied along a tetragonal axis. All units are arbitrary.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Configuration coordinate diagram for the Al-/0 (or Al3+/4+) aluminum acceptor level. Curve 1 represents the total (electronic+elastic) energy of the system with the level empty (we have Al0) and an electron in the valence band; curve 2 represents the system with an electron trapped on the level to form Al-. Ept (thermal energy) is the energy that is needed to transfer an electron from the top of the valence band to the Al0 center and to transfer the surrounding lattice to the new equilibrium configuration. EpO is the optical energy related to Ept via EpO=Ept+Sω, where S is the Huang–Rhys factor and ℏω is the frequency of the lattice phonon coupled to the electronic levels. Ebt is the thermal activation energy for the nonradiative release of an electron from Al-.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fits (solid curves) of the normalized [Y=dA(T)/dA(85)] temperature dependence of the photoinduced absorption dA at 0.79 eV for heating rates of (a) 0.07 K s-1, and (b) 0.45 K s-1.

Equations (9)

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dN/dt=-Nept,
ept=SptNvVt exp(-Ept/kT),
Spt=Sp0tT-0.5 exp(-Ebt/kT),
Y=δα(T)/δα(T0)=dA(T)/dA(85)=N(T)/N(85)=A1 exp(-Z1)+A2 exp(-Z2),
Z=B0β T0TTb exp-EtkTdT,
Z=B0β kTb+2Et 1-(b+2)kTEtexp-EtkT.
-dN/dt=dp/dt-p/τ,
Et1=0.16eV,B01=4×105s-1,
Et2=0.40eV,B02=4×109s-1.

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