Abstract

Coherent collisions of (2+1)-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive media are studied. Phase-dependent switching of the spatial location of the output beams is demonstrated. The experimental results are in close agreement with a three-dimensional numerical calculation.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. T.-T. Shi and S. Chi, “Nonlinear photonic switching by using the spatial soliton collision,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1123–1125 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. F. Reynaud and A. Barthelemy, “Optically controlled interaction between two fundamental soliton beams,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 401–405 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Experimental observation of spatial soliton interactions,” Opt. Lett. 16, 15–17 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. J. Stentz, M. Kauranen, J. J. Maki, G. P. Agrawal, and R. W. Boyd, “Induced focusing and spatial wave breaking from cross-phase modulation in a self-defocusing medium,” Opt. Lett. 17, 19–21 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and A. B. Aceves, “Spatial soliton optical switches: a soliton-based equivalent particle approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1269–S1293 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. H. Enns, D. E. Edmundson, S. S. Rangnekar, and A. E. Kaplan, “Optical switching between bistable soliton states: a theoretical review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1295–S1314 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. B. Luther-Davies and X. Yang, “Steerable optical waveguides formed in self-defocusing media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1755–1757 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. E. Torres-Cisneros, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, and V. A. Vysloukh, “Asymmetric optical Y junctions and switching of weak beams by using bright spatial-soliton collisions,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1299–1301 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. McLeod, K. Wagner, and S. Blair, “(3+1)-dimensional optical soliton dragging logic,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3254–3278 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Márquez Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive media with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Self-focusing and soliton formation in media with anisotropic nonlocal material response,” Europhys. Lett. 36, 419–424 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. S. Garcı́a Quirino, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, V. A. Vysloukh, J. J. Sánchez Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, G. Lugo Martı́nez, and G. E. Torres Cisneros, “Observation of interaction forces between one-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 154–156 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. W. Królikowski and S. A. Holmstrom, “Fusion and birth of spatial solitons upon collision,” Opt. Lett. 22, 369–371 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, and M. Segev, “Coherent collisions of photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Lett. 22, 448–450 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. M.-F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Incoherent collisions between one-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151–4153 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. M.-F. Shih and M. Segev, “Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1538–1540 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. A. V. Mamaev, A. A. Zozulya, V. K. Mezentsev, D. Z. Anderson, and M. Saffman, “Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1110–R1113 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  19. V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Interaction between solitons in a stable medium,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64, 1627–1639 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823–828 (1973)].
  20. V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Yu. S. Kuz’minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, “Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2313–2318 (1980) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980)].
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. A. Esayan, A. A. Zozulya, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Self-curvature of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal,” Kratk. Soobshch. Fis. 5, 45–47 (1990) [Sov. Phys. Lebedev. Inst. Rep. 5, 62–65 (1990)].
  22. W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davies, and M. Cronin-Golomb, “Self-bending photorefractive solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 5761–5765 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  23. A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, “Propagation of an optical beam in a photorefractive medium in the presence of a photogalvanic nonlinearity or an externally applied electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520–1531 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, “Propagation of light beams in anisotropic nonlinear media: from symmetry breaking to spatial turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 870–879 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 522–534 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

1998 (1)

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 522–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

1996 (5)

M.-F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Incoherent collisions between one-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151–4153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M.-F. Shih and M. Segev, “Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1538–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, “Propagation of light beams in anisotropic nonlinear media: from symmetry breaking to spatial turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 870–879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Self-focusing and soliton formation in media with anisotropic nonlocal material response,” Europhys. Lett. 36, 419–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davies, and M. Cronin-Golomb, “Self-bending photorefractive solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 5761–5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, “Propagation of an optical beam in a photorefractive medium in the presence of a photogalvanic nonlinearity or an externally applied electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520–1531 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. McLeod, K. Wagner, and S. Blair, “(3+1)-dimensional optical soliton dragging logic,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3254–3278 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Márquez Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive media with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (4)

A. J. Stentz, M. Kauranen, J. J. Maki, G. P. Agrawal, and R. W. Boyd, “Induced focusing and spatial wave breaking from cross-phase modulation in a self-defocusing medium,” Opt. Lett. 17, 19–21 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and A. B. Aceves, “Spatial soliton optical switches: a soliton-based equivalent particle approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1269–S1293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Enns, D. E. Edmundson, S. S. Rangnekar, and A. E. Kaplan, “Optical switching between bistable soliton states: a theoretical review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1295–S1314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Luther-Davies and X. Yang, “Steerable optical waveguides formed in self-defocusing media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1755–1757 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

1990 (3)

T.-T. Shi and S. Chi, “Nonlinear photonic switching by using the spatial soliton collision,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1123–1125 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Reynaud and A. Barthelemy, “Optically controlled interaction between two fundamental soliton beams,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 401–405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Esayan, A. A. Zozulya, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Self-curvature of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal,” Kratk. Soobshch. Fis. 5, 45–47 (1990) [Sov. Phys. Lebedev. Inst. Rep. 5, 62–65 (1990)].

1980 (1)

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Yu. S. Kuz’minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, “Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2313–2318 (1980) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Interaction between solitons in a stable medium,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64, 1627–1639 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823–828 (1973)].

Aceves, A. B.

J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and A. B. Aceves, “Spatial soliton optical switches: a soliton-based equivalent particle approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1269–S1293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Aitchison, J. S.

Akhmediev, N.

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davies, and M. Cronin-Golomb, “Self-bending photorefractive solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 5761–5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D. Z.

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 522–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev, A. A. Zozulya, V. K. Mezentsev, D. Z. Anderson, and M. Saffman, “Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1110–R1113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Self-focusing and soliton formation in media with anisotropic nonlocal material response,” Europhys. Lett. 36, 419–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, “Propagation of light beams in anisotropic nonlinear media: from symmetry breaking to spatial turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 870–879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, “Propagation of an optical beam in a photorefractive medium in the presence of a photogalvanic nonlinearity or an externally applied electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520–1531 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barthelemy, A.

F. Reynaud and A. Barthelemy, “Optically controlled interaction between two fundamental soliton beams,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 401–405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Blair, S.

R. McLeod, K. Wagner, and S. Blair, “(3+1)-dimensional optical soliton dragging logic,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3254–3278 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boyd, R. W.

Chen, Z.

M.-F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Incoherent collisions between one-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151–4153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chi, S.

Christodoulides, D. N.

M.-F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Incoherent collisions between one-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151–4153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Coskun, T. H.

M.-F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Incoherent collisions between one-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151–4153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davies, and M. Cronin-Golomb, “Self-bending photorefractive solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 5761–5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crosignani, B.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive media with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

DiPorto, P.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive media with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dorosh, I. R.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Yu. S. Kuz’minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, “Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2313–2318 (1980) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

Edmundson, D. E.

R. H. Enns, D. E. Edmundson, S. S. Rangnekar, and A. E. Kaplan, “Optical switching between bistable soliton states: a theoretical review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1295–S1314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Enns, R. H.

R. H. Enns, D. E. Edmundson, S. S. Rangnekar, and A. E. Kaplan, “Optical switching between bistable soliton states: a theoretical review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1295–S1314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Esayan, A. A.

A. A. Esayan, A. A. Zozulya, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Self-curvature of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal,” Kratk. Soobshch. Fis. 5, 45–47 (1990) [Sov. Phys. Lebedev. Inst. Rep. 5, 62–65 (1990)].

Garci´a Quirino, G. S.

Holmstrom, S. A.

Iturbe-Castillo, M. D.

G. S. Garcı́a Quirino, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, V. A. Vysloukh, J. J. Sánchez Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, G. Lugo Martı́nez, and G. E. Torres Cisneros, “Observation of interaction forces between one-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 154–156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Márquez Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

Kaplan, A. E.

R. H. Enns, D. E. Edmundson, S. S. Rangnekar, and A. E. Kaplan, “Optical switching between bistable soliton states: a theoretical review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1295–S1314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kauranen, M.

Królikowski, W.

W. Królikowski and S. A. Holmstrom, “Fusion and birth of spatial solitons upon collision,” Opt. Lett. 22, 369–371 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davies, and M. Cronin-Golomb, “Self-bending photorefractive solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 5761–5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kuz’minov, Yu. S.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Yu. S. Kuz’minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, “Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2313–2318 (1980) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

Leaird, D. E.

Lugo Marti´nez, G.

Luther-Davies, B.

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davies, and M. Cronin-Golomb, “Self-bending photorefractive solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 5761–5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Luther-Davies and X. Yang, “Steerable optical waveguides formed in self-defocusing media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1755–1757 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maki, J. J.

Mamaev, A. V.

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 522–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev, A. A. Zozulya, V. K. Mezentsev, D. Z. Anderson, and M. Saffman, “Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1110–R1113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Self-focusing and soliton formation in media with anisotropic nonlocal material response,” Europhys. Lett. 36, 419–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, “Propagation of light beams in anisotropic nonlinear media: from symmetry breaking to spatial turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 870–879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Márquez Aguilar, P. A.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Márquez Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, R.

R. McLeod, K. Wagner, and S. Blair, “(3+1)-dimensional optical soliton dragging logic,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3254–3278 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meng, H.

Mezentsev, V. K.

A. V. Mamaev, A. A. Zozulya, V. K. Mezentsev, D. Z. Anderson, and M. Saffman, “Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1110–R1113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Moloney, J. V.

J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and A. B. Aceves, “Spatial soliton optical switches: a soliton-based equivalent particle approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1269–S1293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Newell, A. C.

J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and A. B. Aceves, “Spatial soliton optical switches: a soliton-based equivalent particle approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1269–S1293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Oliver, M. K.

Rangnekar, S. S.

R. H. Enns, D. E. Edmundson, S. S. Rangnekar, and A. E. Kaplan, “Optical switching between bistable soliton states: a theoretical review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1295–S1314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Reynaud, F.

F. Reynaud and A. Barthelemy, “Optically controlled interaction between two fundamental soliton beams,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 401–405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Saffman, M.

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 522–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev, A. A. Zozulya, V. K. Mezentsev, D. Z. Anderson, and M. Saffman, “Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1110–R1113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Self-focusing and soliton formation in media with anisotropic nonlocal material response,” Europhys. Lett. 36, 419–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, “Propagation of light beams in anisotropic nonlinear media: from symmetry breaking to spatial turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 870–879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salamo, G.

Sánchez Mondragón, J. J.

Sánchez-Mondragón, J. J.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Márquez Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Torres-Cisneros, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, and V. A. Vysloukh, “Asymmetric optical Y junctions and switching of weak beams by using bright spatial-soliton collisions,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1299–1301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Segev, M.

H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, and M. Segev, “Coherent collisions of photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Lett. 22, 448–450 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih and M. Segev, “Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1538–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Incoherent collisions between one-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151–4153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive media with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shabat, A. B.

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Interaction between solitons in a stable medium,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64, 1627–1639 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823–828 (1973)].

Shi, T.-T.

Shih, M.-F.

Silberberg, Y.

Smith, P. W. E.

Stentz, A. J.

Stepanov, S. I.

G. S. Garcı́a Quirino, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, V. A. Vysloukh, J. J. Sánchez Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, G. Lugo Martı́nez, and G. E. Torres Cisneros, “Observation of interaction forces between one-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 154–156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Márquez Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

A. A. Esayan, A. A. Zozulya, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Self-curvature of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal,” Kratk. Soobshch. Fis. 5, 45–47 (1990) [Sov. Phys. Lebedev. Inst. Rep. 5, 62–65 (1990)].

Tkachenko, N. V.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Yu. S. Kuz’minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, “Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2313–2318 (1980) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

Torres Cisneros, G. E.

Torres-Cisneros, G. E.

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive media with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Voronov, V. V.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Yu. S. Kuz’minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, “Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2313–2318 (1980) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V.

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Márquez Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V. A.

Wagner, K.

R. McLeod, K. Wagner, and S. Blair, “(3+1)-dimensional optical soliton dragging logic,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3254–3278 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiner, A. M.

Yang, X.

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive media with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zakharov, V. E.

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Interaction between solitons in a stable medium,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64, 1627–1639 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823–828 (1973)].

Zozulya, A. A.

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 522–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev, A. A. Zozulya, V. K. Mezentsev, D. Z. Anderson, and M. Saffman, “Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1110–R1113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Self-focusing and soliton formation in media with anisotropic nonlocal material response,” Europhys. Lett. 36, 419–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, “Propagation of light beams in anisotropic nonlinear media: from symmetry breaking to spatial turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 870–879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, “Propagation of an optical beam in a photorefractive medium in the presence of a photogalvanic nonlinearity or an externally applied electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520–1531 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Esayan, A. A. Zozulya, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Self-curvature of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal,” Kratk. Soobshch. Fis. 5, 45–47 (1990) [Sov. Phys. Lebedev. Inst. Rep. 5, 62–65 (1990)].

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, P. A. Márquez Aguilar, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, and V. Vysloukh, “Spatial solitons in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 with drift mechanism of nonlinearity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 408–410 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M.-F. Shih, Z. Chen, M. Segev, T. H. Coskun, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Incoherent collisions between one-dimensional steady-state photorefractive screening solitons,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 4151–4153 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Europhys. Lett. (2)

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Self-focusing and soliton formation in media with anisotropic nonlocal material response,” Europhys. Lett. 36, 419–424 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Reynaud and A. Barthelemy, “Optically controlled interaction between two fundamental soliton beams,” Europhys. Lett. 12, 401–405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kratk. Soobshch. Fis. (1)

A. A. Esayan, A. A. Zozulya, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, “Self-curvature of a light beam in a photorefractive crystal,” Kratk. Soobshch. Fis. 5, 45–47 (1990) [Sov. Phys. Lebedev. Inst. Rep. 5, 62–65 (1990)].

Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) (1)

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, Yu. S. Kuz’minov, and N. V. Tkachenko, “Photoinduced light scattering in cerium-doped barium strontium niobate crystals,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 7, 2313–2318 (1980) [Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980)].
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (9)

T.-T. Shi and S. Chi, “Nonlinear photonic switching by using the spatial soliton collision,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1123–1125 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Aitchison, A. M. Weiner, Y. Silberberg, D. E. Leaird, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Experimental observation of spatial soliton interactions,” Opt. Lett. 16, 15–17 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Stentz, M. Kauranen, J. J. Maki, G. P. Agrawal, and R. W. Boyd, “Induced focusing and spatial wave breaking from cross-phase modulation in a self-defocusing medium,” Opt. Lett. 17, 19–21 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Luther-Davies and X. Yang, “Steerable optical waveguides formed in self-defocusing media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1755–1757 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. E. Torres-Cisneros, J. J. Sánchez-Mondragón, and V. A. Vysloukh, “Asymmetric optical Y junctions and switching of weak beams by using bright spatial-soliton collisions,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1299–1301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Garcı́a Quirino, M. D. Iturbe-Castillo, V. A. Vysloukh, J. J. Sánchez Mondragón, S. I. Stepanov, G. Lugo Martı́nez, and G. E. Torres Cisneros, “Observation of interaction forces between one-dimensional spatial solitons in photorefractive crystals,” Opt. Lett. 22, 154–156 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. Królikowski and S. A. Holmstrom, “Fusion and birth of spatial solitons upon collision,” Opt. Lett. 22, 369–371 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Meng, G. Salamo, M.-F. Shih, and M. Segev, “Coherent collisions of photorefractive solitons,” Opt. Lett. 22, 448–450 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M.-F. Shih and M. Segev, “Incoherent collisions between two-dimensional bright steady-state photorefractive spatial screening solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1538–1540 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Quantum Electron. (2)

J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and A. B. Aceves, “Spatial soliton optical switches: a soliton-based equivalent particle approach,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1269–S1293 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Enns, D. E. Edmundson, S. S. Rangnekar, and A. E. Kaplan, “Optical switching between bistable soliton states: a theoretical review,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, S1295–S1314 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (5)

R. McLeod, K. Wagner, and S. Blair, “(3+1)-dimensional optical soliton dragging logic,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3254–3278 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Mamaev, A. A. Zozulya, V. K. Mezentsev, D. Z. Anderson, and M. Saffman, “Bound dipole solitary solutions in anisotropic nonlocal self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 56, R1110–R1113 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Zozulya and D. Z. Anderson, “Propagation of an optical beam in a photorefractive medium in the presence of a photogalvanic nonlinearity or an externally applied electric field,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 1520–1531 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Mamaev, M. Saffman, D. Z. Anderson, and A. A. Zozulya, “Propagation of light beams in anisotropic nonlinear media: from symmetry breaking to spatial turbulence,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 870–879 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. A. Zozulya, D. Z. Anderson, A. V. Mamaev, and M. Saffman, “Solitary attractors and low-order filamentation in anisotropic self-focusing media,” Phys. Rev. A 57, 522–534 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

W. Królikowski, N. Akhmediev, B. Luther-Davies, and M. Cronin-Golomb, “Self-bending photorefractive solitons,” Phys. Rev. E 54, 5761–5765 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Segev, G. C. Valley, B. Crosignani, P. DiPorto, and A. Yariv, “Steady-state spatial screening solitons in photorefractive media with external applied field,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3211–3214 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Interaction between solitons in a stable medium,” Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 64, 1627–1639 (1973) [Sov. Phys. JETP 37, 823–828 (1973)].

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Phase-dependent soliton collisions with internal crossing angle θ=6.4 mrad. The leftmost column shows the input beams. Succeeding columns show output beams at the indicated value of the external voltage. Each frame depicts a 235 μm×235 μm region, and the z axis is horizontal.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Intensity distributions along the y axis for A+B (solid curve) and A-B (dashed curve) interactions. The curves represent an integral over the z dependence of the intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Output beams for 0 (left-hand column) and 920 V (right-hand column), for internal crossing angle θ=5.7 mrad. Each frame depicts a 300 μm×300 μm region, and the z axis is horizontal.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Numerical results showing output intensity distributions for A+B and A-B interactions for an external field of 2000 V/cm and θ=6.4 mrad.

Equations (2)

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x-i2 2B(r)=i φz B(r),
2φ+ ln(1+|B|2)φ=z ln(1+|B|2),

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