Abstract

A phase-conjugate wave is generated when an ordinary (extraordinary) signal wave is mixed with two counterpropagating extraordinary (ordinary) waves in the plane normal to the BaTiO3 polar axis. The photorefractive grating that couples the ordinary and the extraordinary waves appears if the incident waves induce a noticeable conical parametric scattering; this grating is a difference grating of many noisy scattering gratings recorded by means of the usual diffusion-mediated charge transport. For comparable intensities of signal and pump waves this type of nonlinear wave mixing is much more efficient than that which is due to the circular bulk photovoltaic effect.

[Optical Society of America ]

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |

  1. R. W. Hellwarth , Generation of time-reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction , J. Opt. Soc. Am. JOSAAH 67 , 1 3 ( 1977
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. Yariv and D. Pepper , Amplified reflection, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four wave mixing , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 1 , 16 18 ( 1977
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Cronin-Golomb , B. Fischer , J. O. White , and A. Yariv , Theory and applications of four wave mixing in photorefractive media , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 QE-20 , 12 29 ( 1984
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Feinberg , Self-pumped continuous wave phase conjugator using internal reflections , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 8 , 569 571 ( 1983
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. A. Yariv , Phase conjugate optics and real time holography , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 QE-14 , 650 660 ( 1978
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Goul kov and S. Odoulov , Self-diffraction in anisotropic nonlinear media in configurations forbidden by symmetry considerations , Ukr. Fiz. Zh. UFIZAW 56 , 193 199 ( 1991
  7. B. I. Sturman , E. Kra tzig , and S. G. Odoulov , Coupling of orthogonally polarized eigenwaves in BaTiO 3 by light-induced parametric scattering , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 114 , 2295 2303 ( 1997
    [CrossRef]
  8. S. Odoulov , Vectorial interactions in photovoltaic media , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 91 , 213 221 ( 1987
    [CrossRef]
  9. P. Jullien , P. Mathey , P. Lompre , A. Novikov , and S. Odoulov , Polarization backward-wave four-wave mixing in BaTiO 3 :Fe using the photovoltaic effect , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 14 , 1735 1740 ( 1997
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. Holtmann , E. Kraetzig , and S. Odoulov , Coupling of orthogonally polarized waves in BaTiO 3 , Appl. Phys. B APPCDL 53 , 1 5 ( 1991
    [CrossRef]
  11. B. Sturman , S. Odoulov , and M. Goul kov , Phenomenological analysis of parametric scattering processes in photorefractive crystals , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 13 , 577 583 ( 1995
    [CrossRef]
  12. B. Sturman , S. Odoulov , and M Goul kov , Parametric four-wave processes in photorefractive crystals , Phys. Rep. PRPLCM 275 , 197 254 ( 1996
    [CrossRef]
  13. B. Sturman and S. Odoulov , Coupling of orthogonally polarized waves in barium titanate by parametric scattering , JETP JTPHES 82 , 1095 1101 ( 1996
  14. B. Sturman , S. Odoulov , A. Novikov , and P. Jullien , Energy transfer due to beam coupling from shifted photorefractive gratings in BaTiO 3 , Russ. J. Quantum Electron. ZZZZZZ 26 , 907 908 ( 1996
    [CrossRef]
  15. B. Sturman , S. Odoulov , L. Holtmann , and U. van Olfen , Dynamics of parametric scattering of orthogonally polarized waves in BaTiO 3 , Appl. Phys. A APSFDB 55 , 65 78 ( 1992
    [CrossRef]
  16. A. M. Glass , D. von der Linde , and T. J. Negran , High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO 3 , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 25 , 233 235 ( 1974
    [CrossRef]
  17. V. Belinicher , Space-oscillating photocurrents in crystals without symmetry centre , Phys. Lett. PYLBAJ 66A , 213 216 ( 1978
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. M. Pierce and R. S. Cudney , Photorefractive coupling between orthogonally polarized waves in barium titanate , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 17 , 784 786 ( 1992
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. N. Kukhtarev , G. Dovgalenko , J. Schulz , G. Duree , G. Salamo , M. Klein , and B. Wechsler , Manifestations of circular photogalvanic current by dynamic holography , Appl. Phys. A APSFDB 56 , 303 305 ( 1993
    [CrossRef]
  20. N. Kukhtarev , G. Dovgalenko , G. Duree , G. Salamo , E. Sharp , B. Wechsler , and M. Klein , Single beam polarization grating recording , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 71 , 4330 4333 ( 1993
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belinicher, V

V. Belinicher , Space-oscillating photocurrents in crystals without symmetry centre , Phys. Lett. PYLBAJ 66A , 213 216 ( 1978
[CrossRef]

Ne gran, T. J

A. M. Glass , D. von der Linde , and T. J. Negran , High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO 3 , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 25 , 233 235 ( 1974
[CrossRef]

Other

R. W. Hellwarth , Generation of time-reversed wave fronts by nonlinear refraction , J. Opt. Soc. Am. JOSAAH 67 , 1 3 ( 1977
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv and D. Pepper , Amplified reflection, phase conjugation, and oscillation in degenerate four wave mixing , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 1 , 16 18 ( 1977
[CrossRef]

M. Cronin-Golomb , B. Fischer , J. O. White , and A. Yariv , Theory and applications of four wave mixing in photorefractive media , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 QE-20 , 12 29 ( 1984
[CrossRef]

J. Feinberg , Self-pumped continuous wave phase conjugator using internal reflections , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 8 , 569 571 ( 1983
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Yariv , Phase conjugate optics and real time holography , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 QE-14 , 650 660 ( 1978
[CrossRef]

M. Goul kov and S. Odoulov , Self-diffraction in anisotropic nonlinear media in configurations forbidden by symmetry considerations , Ukr. Fiz. Zh. UFIZAW 56 , 193 199 ( 1991

B. I. Sturman , E. Kra tzig , and S. G. Odoulov , Coupling of orthogonally polarized eigenwaves in BaTiO 3 by light-induced parametric scattering , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 114 , 2295 2303 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

S. Odoulov , Vectorial interactions in photovoltaic media , Ferroelectrics FEROA8 91 , 213 221 ( 1987
[CrossRef]

P. Jullien , P. Mathey , P. Lompre , A. Novikov , and S. Odoulov , Polarization backward-wave four-wave mixing in BaTiO 3 :Fe using the photovoltaic effect , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 14 , 1735 1740 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

L. Holtmann , E. Kraetzig , and S. Odoulov , Coupling of orthogonally polarized waves in BaTiO 3 , Appl. Phys. B APPCDL 53 , 1 5 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman , S. Odoulov , and M. Goul kov , Phenomenological analysis of parametric scattering processes in photorefractive crystals , J. Opt. Soc. Am. B JOBPDE 13 , 577 583 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman , S. Odoulov , and M Goul kov , Parametric four-wave processes in photorefractive crystals , Phys. Rep. PRPLCM 275 , 197 254 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman and S. Odoulov , Coupling of orthogonally polarized waves in barium titanate by parametric scattering , JETP JTPHES 82 , 1095 1101 ( 1996

B. Sturman , S. Odoulov , A. Novikov , and P. Jullien , Energy transfer due to beam coupling from shifted photorefractive gratings in BaTiO 3 , Russ. J. Quantum Electron. ZZZZZZ 26 , 907 908 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

B. Sturman , S. Odoulov , L. Holtmann , and U. van Olfen , Dynamics of parametric scattering of orthogonally polarized waves in BaTiO 3 , Appl. Phys. A APSFDB 55 , 65 78 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass , D. von der Linde , and T. J. Negran , High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive process in LiNbO 3 , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 25 , 233 235 ( 1974
[CrossRef]

V. Belinicher , Space-oscillating photocurrents in crystals without symmetry centre , Phys. Lett. PYLBAJ 66A , 213 216 ( 1978
[CrossRef]

R. M. Pierce and R. S. Cudney , Photorefractive coupling between orthogonally polarized waves in barium titanate , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 17 , 784 786 ( 1992
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Kukhtarev , G. Dovgalenko , J. Schulz , G. Duree , G. Salamo , M. Klein , and B. Wechsler , Manifestations of circular photogalvanic current by dynamic holography , Appl. Phys. A APSFDB 56 , 303 305 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

N. Kukhtarev , G. Dovgalenko , G. Duree , G. Salamo , E. Sharp , B. Wechsler , and M. Klein , Single beam polarization grating recording , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 71 , 4330 4333 ( 1993
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of the experimental setup: M’s, mirrors; PRC, photorefractive crystal; other abbreviations are defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

A, Intensity distribution on the screen placed 20 cm behind the sample in the direction of the propagation of waves 1 and 3. Two bright dots mark the positions of the transmitted incident waves. B, Grating vector diagram to explain the parametric conical scattering. The tips of the wave vectors of the signal (3) and the pump (1) waves are labeled o and e; the tips of the wave vectors of the scattered waves are labeled s and i.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Far-field intensity distributions, A, for two pump waves and an initial signal wave; B, for a distorted signal wave; C, for a conjugate beam passing back through the distorter (lens). The divergence of the beam in B is 0.5°.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal development of A, the total intensity of the conical scattering, and of B, the phase-conjugate (PC) beam intensity. Two extraordinary pump waves permanently illuminate the sample while the signal wave is switched on at t=30 s.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Steady-state intensity of the phase-conjugate (PC) wave as a function of the overall intensity of copropagating waves 1 and 3. The power of the readout wave 2 is 0.5 mW.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

A, Phase conjugate (PC) wave intensity and B, scattered light intensity versus the intensity ratio of the signal wave to the copropagating pump wave. The intensity of the counterpropagating pump wave is 10 times smaller than that of the copropagating pump wave.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

k1e+k3o=kso+kio,
K=k1e-k3o=k4o-k2e.
ηs=(I3o/I1e)[IΣs(l)/2IΣ]2,
IΣs(l)exp(Γl),

Metrics